the Analysis of use of information technologies in management

Executed to authors anzhiz practice of works on introduction inyoformatsionnyh technologies at the enterprises Russian promyshlenyonosti , that attempts partially to automate separate operations, naptimer automation of works ka ^ n ^^ rii or with (^^ s^a^zhiie accounting otteta for the purpose of them uskovenija, lead neratsio - nalsnomu rathodovaniju means.

It is connected with that, 1 chiefs still not poduchajut kachoktvennoj information in complete obeyome, about the serving duplicate vtod and processing same inforyomatsii about the isolated information systems.

The computerisation upranlenija assumes organizational revolution , kachostvennuju lereelrojku technologies of management [100, with. 1181]. It is known, that obmek data takes dt 95 % of time of chiefs and to 53 % - etetsiazhgov [46]. Research ispolzoyovanija working hours [99, with. 1.82, with. 185]-kn_zas ^^^ ast, that 25 % of working hours supervise - tvl spends on ratoty dlit ^^^^ jugo planiro - vknija, 35 % for the decision flowing revuljarnyh questions and to 40 % on ntretuljarnye exclusive works . In the budget of working hours of the chief of conversation and sousshchapija can take to 70 % of working hours, at spepitlistok not less than 30 % vrtm?ni tratatsja on sharing in
Meetings And meetings. The chief is capable to perceive in teyochenie day the documentary information, which volume but prevyshayoet 25-30 sheets of the typewritten text . Researches g [99] show areas of acceptance of administrative decisions, that the reasons igvypolienija decisions javlsjutsja: discrepancy of the formulation we will set ( 30 %), fault of the executor (30 %), unforeseen circumstances ( 30 %). In machine-tool construction of conducting world powers in sradnem for nja - TIL=TNY PertOD proizvodit=lnost the MANUFACTURED equipment raises in 15-1,6 ra.'tek on 20 % reduce specific metaldoem - ^0 ^ on 12-15 % - specific power consumption [4]. For last stoleyotie proieooditelnost work in material proizgodstve has increased more than in 15 ra: ^ in io time in management sphere proievoditel - nost work voorosla only g two times [131]. Of the aforesaid spedsalisty in the field of management do vygo, t that entering inyoformatsionnoj systems ypae, poevolit podajat proizvodiyotelnost trada.

Known uchanyj J.Shumpeter [164] in 1940th years ukzdy - vap, that complexes of radical innovations, are motive power sosremennogo economic development. Such innovation for the torn moment javlsjutsja information control systems. They 6 to raise efficiency raioty not only systems


Managements, but also all enterprise in palom. Authoritative spetsialiyosty in the field of information technologies notice, that ... Viut - rifirmennye appropriations for needs IT grow oeperezhajushchimi temyopami in comparison with other expenses of the enterprise [97].

The important role of information technologies in management ^^ ka - et from predstadaeny about an essence sosremennogo economic development.

With a dog-howl of half XVII century nachslas till now fast samopoddarzhiv^oshchajasja evolution of technologies transformatsionnyh processes, ispolazuemyh in ekonamike also proceeds. An essence eoo - ljutsii - transfer transformatsionnyh functions from the person - tehniyoke [16, with.

13]. In works [16, 17, 37, 38] it is formulated, that sovreyomennyj economic growth obusaovlen change tehnoaogncheekih ukyoladov. Time borders of technological ways opredsljajutsja with ispolazovaniem complexes tehovlogicheskih innovations. posleyodovatelno arose and extended: 1) cars for transforyomatsii vastsestva; 2) cars for energy transformation; 3) cars for information transformation; 4) attomaty for processing veshchestyova; 5) automatic machines for processing enerpsh; 6) automatic machines for information processing. Stjchas in Russia the enterprises of 3rd, 4th and 5 eo ways act. This assertion will be co-ordinated with thought stated. Century Maevsky [74], that usually in economy is combined a little tehyonologicheskih ways. Thus to domestic economy nabljuyodaetsja origin of 6th way which assumes ippolazovanie information control systems. In sosremechjum the world nabljudayoetsja ihmspenie values rer'ursov so after Great Depression of 1930th years growth of a reality human kaptala and new tehnjlogy [98] is observed. According to J.V.Jakovtsa [170] in nasjutny the moment is observed the deepest technological revolution, kotoyoraja will last about half a century, pooyshaetsja a role sradnego, small and individumnogo the production based on essentially noyovom najanom and information level.

In soaremennyh submissions [3] predprshtgie it is considered as stable, difficult formativnaja social strushchra, sostojayo
shchaja from set interconnected elemontov, receiving retursy from environment and processing them in projects of the doja - telnosti. Set of elements of the organisation renlizuet iroizvodst - vennye and administrative functions. Before the real enterprise as before sotsitlno-economic system it is delivered, as pso^i - lo, not one, and bore kolko the purposes. Management arises from neobhodimoyosti tsvlenapravdennogo voe actions on the enterprise, sbe> eensyivasitse - go cec objects in view and creation of conditions for them is nevija, it is intended hundred maintenance co-ordinated vzaimoyodejstvija between various parts of system. Management separate about separate function on which fulfilment some elements of the enterprise specialise.

Within the limits of the enterprise oy I have put jut as ukszano above, upravyoljaemyj process (object of management) and an operating part (controls), their set forms system upranlenija [2, 39]. The operating part consists from operating and executive oryoganov. Mutual effect of object and body upranlenija osushchestvyoljaetsja in vdde transfers infonmatsii. The operating part sopovtavpja - et actual o0e operated process for the purpose of management, that is upras^emyj process has possibility voedejstvovat on the managing director chaat. Hence, in sssteme managements g ^ - (It^s^tct - vuet closed information koshchf, constructed with ispolzovayoniem a feedback principle. In cybernetics distinguish systems avyotomaticheskogo upranlenija with the opened and closed contour reyogulirovanija. ? ^ (: the system ispotzuet a principle rgvulirova - nija on indignation also is not capable to operate long time neusyotojchivoj system. The closed system ispotzuet a feedback, on
Which posazhaet the information on a current condition uprasvljaemoj subsystems. In management economic protsesami systems with a feedback [172] prevail.

Information system of the organisation forms informatsionyonyj a contour together with tax means, psrsrtt ^^^ , processings and hrzhe - nija information, and as with peraonalom, osushchesvvljajushchim these dejstyovija with the information [39, with. 10]. Naznvchenis information systems - maintenance of the organisation with the information necessary for effektivyonogo of management by all its resources, creation information sreyody managements oraanizatsiej.

The term the information vosvodit to Latin informatio" - obyojasnenie, position. In philosophical understanding the information is reflexion of the real world [2]. It is used watching opredeleyonie information is sselenija about the world around, reducing available s'gpsggen uncertainty, incompleteness of knowledge, otchuzhyodennye from their founder, vorproizvodimye, transmitted by means of messages (that is definitely keshiruemye in a kind znayokov) [2, 39, 53, 54]. Terms "data" and "information" differ. Data - data about sosamnii any object, predst^ennye in formalozovannom a kind for processing or already processed [128, the Information is sense of data, the facts or concepts, predyo

stavlennye danvymi [128, .52].

The information subdivide on initial, resultativnuju and intermediate [159]. The Eaopomichesky information reflects proyotsessy productions, raspradelenija, an exchange and potrablepija materiyoalnyh the blessings and services [2, with. 19]. At the present stage the role informayotsii raises, acquire significance questions of availability and a cart -
mozhi osti commercial ispolazovanija, possession of the information. Information in bienese use the newest appa - raanye and preogromnye means of which it is formed sotremen - naja automated! Information system (APS) [159]. FOXES consists from technical and technological (including ppaaatnyh, pogogs ^ ^^^^ ) srsdstv, economic-mathematical methods and modeyolej, experts.

Role and information place g production on predyoprijatii reaulirujutsja federal laws About the information, information and information protection [144] and About a right protection profamm for the COMPUTER and bases danshlh [145]. Information questions have strategic significance for goeudarstva in this connection, it is published ug^az the President of the Russian Federation oi on January, 20th, 1994 About oanovah gosudarstyovennoj politicians in information sphere [138, 139]. Under informayotizatsiej organizational, sotsiolno-economic and scientific and technical process rzzrabotki and revtgnzatsii conditions izdayonija, 'Ѳ, processings, accumulation, storages, search and raeprostra - nenija infonmatsii [167,] is understood.

Information technology - set of methods and with; ambassadors of the tax, transfer, accumulation, processing, storage, submission and ispolazovanija information [133, 144]. From opredjalenija it is possible sdalat a conclusion, that the term information technology concerns to vjaja - to whom to transformation infonmatsii, including containing in doyokumentah on the paper carrier. Information tehoologija halak - tertsuetsja that, as by a subject and a work product javlsjutsja inforyomatsija, and for those preobr^ovanija uses means vychislitelyonoj technicians and communications. The purpose of information technology on predpri -

jatii - creation of the information project allowing formiroyovat operating voadejstvie on production [2].

Under soaremennoi information technology it is meant te.ono. ^ o processings of the information by means of ispolazovanija komyopjuterov and telesommunikatsionnyh srsdstv. To dostoanstvam kompjuyoternyh tehnvlogy information processings should be carried: vozmozhyonost compactly to store great volumes of the information, possibility fast psomka necessary 1 the information gathers continuously, on tactical uro - van the information generalised, with nebllshoj detailed elaboration, on strategic level perelaetsja the information through the big time intervals is transmitted, generalised, usually it is the information about otyoklonenijah reached oi pgshotyh levels of indicators.

naoljulajushchijsja g last time growth of a stream and (oformatsii pe - redaoaemoj in the industrial purposes it is caused oobostrepiem a game -

kurentnoj struggle, poeysheniem requirements For EFFICIENCY, dosto - vertosti information at different levels of management, complication proizoodstva and uvnlicheniem its volume. The information system as one of means upranlenija, solves problems of the tax primary inyoformatsii, it hrtnenie, processing, distribution between estn) azhuryonymi controls divisions, maintenance of straight lines and obyoratnyh communications about its circulation [48]. In Russia economic questions of complex information of systems upranlenija the enterprises for a long time [4, 5, 27, 44, 58, 59, 122, 140]. Actively ispolzoyovalis the MANAGEMENT information system the enterprise (ASUP). ASUP - system upranlenija ppoievodetvenno-xozjajctvennoj activity of the enterprise,

Associations in which modern automatic means of data processing [128 are used, with. 10].

' Systems svtomatizatsni and information of structures of management predprietijami has abroad started to be developed in the late sixties but - dov the XX-th centuries. The basic attention at system engineering was given pl and a novation potrsbnosti in materials. The concept plani ^^ shija potrsbnosti about materials (, Material Resource Planning - MRP) [175] became result of working out in the field of automation of industrial systems. Use of this concept decides proyoblemu sklgdekih premises of raw materials, accessories and ready proyoduktsii. Methodology IU1M realises principles supply precisely in in ^ ˳ (Just in Time) and proizoodstvo is exact to defined vremeyoni (KapVap) [83]. Information system upranlenija before] [fsh_ti - I eat, constructed with concept use ֲ, consists from see - blowing funeltionalnyh modules:

1. The description of a condition of materials. defines the complete

The information on all kinds of raw materials, matertalov and accessories, their site and pradnaznachenii.

2. proramma productions. The module defines the schedule proizyovodstva finished goods consignments.

3. The list of components of an end-product. The module soderyozhit the complete information on sequence of manufacturing and sboryoki items.

4. The plan of orders. The module defines quantity of materials, koyotoroe should is ordered in each concrete interval of time.

5. Changes to the plan zakgtv. The module contains the information on the compelled changes to the planned orders.

In 1970 - 1980 there was system PIM perfection. Howled vlldeno planning of requirement for materials on the closed cycle (in the western terminology - Closed Loop Material Requirement Planning) with working out of the production program and the subsequent konarolem at shop level [32]. Iopolzovanie the closed cycle assumes introduction of the additional functions which are carrying out a feedback in system, 1 raises ate gibyokost in relation to revolting factors. As on predyoprijatii the quantity of the automated systems constantly uvelichiyovaetsja, io appears necessity for communication loih systems and an exchange in fo-mania between them, that is occurs infzvrmatsionnoe obyoedinenie technological divisions.

Eoaoajutsija systems GSHM with the closed cycle has led ate moyodernizatsii g 1990 g system for effective planning of all s-e^s^u^zov predprgatija which named planning proyomyshlennyh resources (GSHR, Manufacturing Resource Planning - MRPII)

[32, 175]. The plan of works of systems 1 P is presented in drawing 5. The Control system, ispozujushchaja concept ز, should carry out sasdujushchie ([ [178: 1]) working out and updating bianes - the plan; 2) planning of industrial activity;

3) pts^nr ^ nie realisations; 4) planning of acquisition of raw materials and mg ^^ - ^ a seam; 5) planning of capacities;

6) the control of fulfilment of the plan of capacities;

7) the console of fulfilment of the plan iepolezovanija raw materials and continents;

8) a feedback.


isslgdova -

Estimation ksosa on Inquiries from
nija the market ' pasllagaemyj kotech - Branches
nyj a product in uelo - 1 ____________ /
vajah the market
IS m dc ^ ^iesja ------ h------- Pl-gnozy
Orders ---------- ----------- sisosa
Definition nsebho - < >

dimyh materials, a clod plastujushchih

Changes to ptrsnchnomu to the plan

"' 3*7

Ivreichnyj it is volume - kslendarnyj the plan poespvodstva

Ismenenija to ptrvichnomu to the plan



Planning poyotrebnosti in mateyorialah (MRP)

Psanirovanne p-p -

> izvodstvennyh capacities (CRP)

The accepted it is volume - kslendarnyj the plan pt-juon^adstva

The plan rktpsssg ^^^ znija proisvodstvennyh capacities

The plan of orders on mateyorialy

Drawing 5 - system Structure 1ULP [32, 178]

The systems using concept PPR, orientirovanny on upranlenie the enterprise by means of modelling onuirennej activity. 1I szja components of all vysheukazanyonyh systems (fig. see). Them feature is that input of any unique data h system is made (it is uniform rzaz. The second distinctive feature consists that polzovayoteljami this system jaejaljajutsja workers of all departments and levels of management of the enterprise. Drawing 10 shows, ' on the resulted information systems duplicate a function part one another.

Except systems entered into the above-stated classes, there are still systems; training, including situational gtrojartmmy for chiefs, for spetsshshistov; the communication; sensible sloyovari and directories; translators. Communication systems obesyopechivajut dialogue as introduce, and out of the enterprise. To such sisteyomam it is possible it is taken away in pertuju turn the complex centres of dialogue, u^vjazt ^^^ shchie in itself phone, a fax, e-mail, and sisteyomy, their components including only.

From the above-stated classification by opinion of the author follows, that sinergetichesky the effect is reached only at use of systems of the sixth class - the integrated administrative systems. These systems grow out of long-term purposeful perfection of process of automation of management promyshlenyonym predprijatpem. The separate Russian enterprises try introduce the best western systems which actively move ahead on Russian rotok. Unfortunately, many of these enterprises not
Reach zhglaemogo effect. Approximately 50 % of attempts of introduction zayopadnyh corporate systems are not possible to noshcha, and g the others of 50 % of cases Oja result is introduction at least neyoskolkih modules [182]. For reception of a positive effect from introduction of modern information technologies of operation of business it is necessary, before veogo, critically to revise existing schemes of management.

IzV=ST About, that on registration functions 10 % of costs of the enterprise, 20 % - on intellgktualpye and about 70 % - on proizvodyostvennye [57] are necessary. Now in Russia at the enterprises avtomayotizirujut registration halls for what acquire accounting in - formetsionnye type systems 1C, "Sail", "BEST", Info - the accountant and other. Only after their introduction of the enterprise priyostupajut to automation of production functions on which the basic share of costs of the enterprise is necessary. Follows o'chest, that at the decision of problems of complex automation administrative proyotsessov it will be difficult vshtegrirovat existing design and accounting systems, to transmit from them the accumulated data. At the same time economic feasibility dictates necessity inteyogratsii these systems which would allow to increase reliability and efficiency of the information. Sogdanie complex information system increases.z Expenses for each of subsystems, but grows spoyosobnost them to intechratsii. Ng to a basis vatsheizlozhennogo follows vyYovod/that the modern information system should form^ovat - sja g conformity with the theory and praotikoj management sciences.

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A source: Mahrin Vasily Vikgorovich. Improving the management of industrial enterprise, taking into account modern information technologies. Thesis for the degree of candidate of economic sciences. Orel - 2002. 2002

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