5.8. Moving system during the second chronological period (V-VIII centuries AD).

As already it has been shown above, from the end of IV century AD there is fast enough moving on the Kislovodsk hollow of carriers katakombnogo a ceremony of the burial connected by the majority of scientists with alanskim by ethnos.

The first authentically fixed alanskie podkurgannye catacombs appear in first half IV centuries on a burial ground Levopodkumsky 1, that is established by our recent excavation spent together with V.J.Malashevym (boxes, etc., 2014. With. 132-133). Approximately same time concern investigated additionally by E.P.Alekseevoj in 1961 podkurgannye catacombs in area Uchkekena and Tereze (Alekseeva, 1966. With. 158-167, 176-177). Already with the second

Half IV century on a burial ground the Wedge-jar 3 there are the first soil catacombs connected with alanskim by the population (Malashev, 2008. With. 273. A Fig. 6). Subsequently during a life of one-two generations the given ceremony widely extends on a hollow - T-shaped catacombs of V century are fixed on burial grounds the Dignity. It. Ordzhonikidze, the Georgievsky Plateau 1, the Dignity.

narkomtjazhprom, the Sediment bowl and the Latch (Kislovodsk Lake 1 and 2), Zamkovyj 1, the Wet Beam 1, the Lermontovsky Rock 1 and 2, Sharp Cape 1, the Wedge-jar 3, Berezovsky 2 and Hloratornyj (Zelenogorsky 1) (fig. 165). All these monuments accompany the strengthened settlements with elements of stone fortification - so-called stone fortresses. Further this combination - the stone architecture located on rocky ostantsah and capes, accompanied by soil katakombnyh burial grounds - will be the basic type poselencheskih and funeral monuments in the Kislovodsk hollow in the early Middle Ages (V-VIII centuries).

On the basis of features of a topographical arrangement it is possible to carry to the given period of 110 strengthened and 13 not strengthened settlements, more or less in regular intervals located on all territory of the Kislovodsk hollow (fig. 227). These are six strengthenings on ostantsah and 99 on rocky capes, and also six settlements on the rocky capes, three - on a plateau and four - on slopes. In the previous section existence centuries some strengthenings II-IV during later period on the basis of the materials received during field researches (strengthening on capes with eskarpirovannymi slopes Borgustansky 2, Podkumsky 6), or presumably bolshee conformity of their spatial placing to second half I thousand monuments AD (strengthenings on hills Echkivashsky, Verhneolhovsky 1, High-mountainous 1) was proved. All these monuments also have been included in the analysis of system of moving V-VIII the centuries considered in given section.

Looking at a card of density of settlements of the considered period, it is necessary to note priurochennost monuments to valleys of basic inflows podkumka and their rather low density - 1-2 settlements on 1 sq. km and less (fig.

228). The highest value - to 5 monuments on 1 sq. km - the density reaches on the average a current of river Teplushki - right inflow Eshkakona where agglomeration from two strengthened and three not strengthened settlements is concentrated. High enough density of monuments (3-4 on 1 sq. km) is observed in lower reaches of right inflows Alikonovki (Wet, Katyhinsky and Konhutorsky Beams), on the average a current Birch (Cape Mosejkin) and in upper courses of the Kabardian.

Strengthened settlements V-VIII are found out centuries in all seven microzones allocated for the analysis (fig.

229): 17 from them one concerns a microzone 1, - to a microzone 2, nine - to a microzone 3, 36 - to a microzone 4, 20 - to a microzone 5, 11 - to a microzone 6 and 29 - to a microzone 7 (the Diagram 15). It is available essential changes in hollow settling - if during the first chronological period more than half of monuments (52 %) it was necessary on the first microzone, the largest, more than 62 which % of territory could be used in the economic purposes during the second period to this territory 14 % of monuments which, however, use an order of 52 % of the area (the Diagram 16) concern only. Displacement poselencheskoj is obvious and economic activity deep into hollow territories - to microzones 3-6 concerns from 7 to 29 % of monuments V-VIII centuries whereas during the previous period here settled down from 3 to 15 % of monuments. Percent of modelled use of territory of these microzones in II-IV centuries Fluctuates between 30 and 61 %, in V-VIII centuries - from 41 to 78 %. (The microzone 7) concerns east part of a hollow of 11 % of settlements of the first and 24 % of settlements of the second stage, the percent of development of this territory decreases with 83 to 79 % (the Diagram 16) a little.

The calculations resulted above not bad illustrate process of moving of settlements from northern boundary territory in internal spaces of the Kislovodsk hollow that is connected with its development alanskim the population. We will address now to features of moving in each of seven microzones in more details (fig. 230).

In the given territory 15 strengthenings and two settlements with total economic territory about 230 sq. km are revealed. The area of modelled grounds seriously enough differs at different monuments - its value fluctuates from 139,0 hectares (the Tare Warehouse) to 3655,4 hectares (Dzhaginsky). As already it has been shown above, the greatest values of the area by results of construction of ranges Tissena it is marked at the settlements located on periphery of investigated territory (fig. 231-235). As a whole approximately in half of cases the area of economic territory of settlements of this group fluctuates between 1000 and 2000 hectares or than 1000 hectares (Table 25) make less.

The same it is possible to tell and about potential arable and pastbishchnosenokosnyh grounds. The size minimum pashennyh grounds by results of modelling fluctuates between 8,9 hectares (Karsunka 1) and 125,3 hectares (Dzhaginsky), maximum - from 47,6 hectares (Podkumsky 7) to 179,2 hectares (Sharp Cape). Pasturable grounds during modelling are defined from 54,3-56,8 hectares (the Tare Warehouse) to 3481,0-3530,1 hectares (Dzhaginsky). The parity of arable and pasturable grounds basically makes less one tenth to nine tenth. Only in five cases arable grounds made from 11 to 61 % of modelled potential economic territory (strengthening the Tare Warehouse, the Alansky Fortress, the Ring-mountain, Podkumsky 7 and 9). Pastbishchno-haying grounds of these strengthenings, accordingly, occupied from 39 to 89 % of territory (Table 25; Diagrams 17, 18).

Thus, proceeding from results of the spent modelling, it is possible to calculate approximate quantity of the population and quantity of the large horned livestock, capable to live with the given grounds. The disorder of potential quantity of inhabitants is obvious to monuments of the first microzone from one family at modelling of the minimum arable grounds round strengthening Karsunka 1 (the maximum area of the earths convenient for cultivation in the given territory is capable to support 11 families) to 30 domohozjajstv (strengthenings Sharp Cape and Podkumsky 8). On the average calculated quantity of families of potential inhabitants of settlements of the given microzone fluctuates between 10 and 20. Thus, prevalence of small collectives in the sizes in 50-120 persons (Table 26) is available.

It is interesting to compare modelled arable grounds with results of the soil-archaeological researches spent in the Kislovodsk hollow together with A.V.Borisovym. The put in pawn series of soil cuts in a zone of potential agriculture round strengthenings Podkumsky 3 and 7 (fig. 189) the significant amount of ceramics of I thousand AD, testifying to data processing of grounds and regular application of fertilizers (has given Borisov, Boxes, 2013. With. 156-161). Gradual reduction of quantity of ceramic fragments in process of removal from settlements is thus observed. So, in cuts Б-344 and Б-345, put in pawn directly near strengthening Podkumsky 3, it has been found from 50 to 100 f ceramics of I thousand AD, in cuts Б-346 - Б-350, 200-400 m removed on distance from settlement - from 15 to 55 f, and in cut Б-353 arranged on distance of 1200 m - only six fragments (fig. 236). It is curious, that these data well correspond with values of an indicator ureaznoj activity of the arable horizons, also decreasing in process of removal from settlements from 160 mkg NH4 +/g to 8 mkg NH4 + the Given indicator testifies to additional receipt of urea in soils at regular entering of organic fertilizers (Tchernyshev, etc., 2014в. With. 252253). The similar picture was observed in a potential zone of arable grounds near strengthening Podkumsky 7 - in a cut near strengthening Б-357, and also in territory of modelled grounds (cuts Б-354 and Б-356) it was revealed from 35 to 45 fragments rannesrednevekovoj ceramics, whereas out of this zone in cuts Б-355 and Б-358 - only 2-3 fragments (fig. 237). The analysis ureaznoj activity of soils also has completely confirmed the assumption of application of fertilizers on the convenient equal sites of district directly adjoining to settlement (Tchernyshev, etc., 2014в. With. 252).

In other territory of economic grounds of settlements of the first microzone could all-the-year-round vypasatsja from 300 to 880 goals of large horned livestock. On strengthenings the Tare Warehouse, the Krymushkinsky Beam 1, the Alansky Fortress, the Ring-mountain, Podkumsky 7 and 9 where the parity of the arable and pasturable earths from 10-60 % to 40-90 % (the Diagram 17 is fixed and 18) the potential quantity of cattle sharply decreases, making from 14 to 95 goals. At calculation of quantity of large horned livestock on a family or on one inhabitant the majority of strengthenings is shown by average indexes (from 10 to 30 goals on a family or from 1 to 5 goals on the person). The exception makes strengthening Karsunka 1 where the maximum quantity of goals of large horned livestock on one family reaches 330 that (Table 27) is represented obviously overestimated indicator.

How much there correspond the carried out calculations of the information on inhabited constructions on settlements of an analyzed microzone? If to address to data on presence on settlements of ruins of towers and the constructions which have been found out as a result of visual survey of monuments only in few cases the number of these ruins coincides with a minimum quantity of the families, capable to live from the given territory. These are strengthenings Borgustansky 2 and 4 where the quantity of families calculated on the minimum model makes 3, and on a surface ruins of two-three bashenoobraznyh constructions are traced; strengthening Podkumsky 7 - four families which could live in three towers and one construction; strengthening Karsunka 1 where one family could occupy a unique tower of strengthening (Table 14, 26). In other cases the calculated quantity of families which could contain at the expense of use of resources on the minimum and maximum removal from settlement considerably exceeds quantity of constructions observed on settlements. This contrast when it is a question of the single towers which have been tracked, for example, on strengthenings Podkumsky 8 or Karsunka 3, potential which arable grounds is especially striking are capable to support from 11 to 30 families (Table 14, 26). It is obvious, that carried out calculation of potential quantity of inhabitants of a hollow in this case will far defend from their real quantity. However, as it was already marked in Chapter 4, it is far not all stone constructions remain on a surface - cases of detection of constructions in shurfah, put in pawn on equal platforms without visible traces of residing are known (the wall of the construction found on the bottom platform of strengthening Podkumsky 7), for example, concerns the first microzone. Besides, degree of a level of scrutiny poselencheskih region monuments still leaves much to be desired. So, on settlement Borgustansky 2 a number of stone disorders of the constructions occupied modern lesoposadkami that complicates visual supervision on a monument is traced. As a result reconstructed sizes of the given settlement families can be quite adequate at 18-27 to the size of this settlement that demands field check in the future. As a whole it is necessary to recognise zavyshennost calculations of quantity of the population even at use of modelling of the minimum potential arable zone round settlement.

<< | >>
A source: Korobov Dmitry Sergeevich. SYSTEM of MOVING ALAN of the CENTRAL Ciscaucasia In I THOUSAND AD (LANDSCAPE ARCHEOLOGY of the KISLOVODSK HOLLOW). VOLUME 1. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the doctor of historical sciences. Moscow -. 2014

More on topic 5.8. Moving system during the second chronological period (V-VIII centuries AD).:

  1. 5.7. Moving system during the first chronological period (II-IV centuries AD).
  2. 6.2. Features of moving alan the Kislovodsk hollow in V-VIII centuries
  3. 6.4. Moving during an epoch of the developed Middle Ages (X-XII centuries).
  4. 6.1. Features of moving alan the Kislovodsk hollow in II-IV centuries
  5. 6.3. Hierarchy of settlements Kislovodskojkotloviny V-VIII centuries and a problem of allocation of the centres of the power.
  6. Chapter 2 Franksky kingdom in pozdnemerovingsky the period (VII - the middle of VIII century) on materials of hagiographical compositions
  7. Table 37. Frequency characteristics of details of a funeral ceremony katakombnyh burial grounds of second half V - first half VIII centuries
  8. Table 38. Results of erroneous classification katakombnyh burial grounds of second half V - first half VIII centuries a method of the discriminant analysis
  9. 2. Occurrence of consensual contracts during the period between III and I centuries BC
  11. 4.2. Chronological frameworks of research and a problem of synchronism of considered monuments.
  12. chronological and territorial frameworks of research