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THE BASIC MAINTENANCE OF WORK

In Introduction the dissertation urgency is proved, the purposes and research problems are put, its subject and object is defined, work, its practical and theoretical value are marked novelty, data on a material on which research is based are presented, the structure of the dissertation is described and the positions which are taken out on protection are formulated.

In chapter 1 źthe Basic theoretical problems of communications and gender linguistics╗ are stated the basic problems of researches in the field of interpersonal dialogue, nonverbal communications, nonverbal semiotics, speech genres and a gender.

Because communications are provided not only verbal, but also not verbal codes, from the XX-th century middle the research attention is involved in a problem of nonverbal communications. Researchers have come to conclusion, that a nonverbal way of message transfer are dominating over verbal. Studying of behaviour of the person probably only taking into account interaction of the verbal and nonverbal parties of dialogue. Special importance for linguists is represented by the art text in which the information on nonverbal signals is fixed.

Many attempts to classify kinds of nonverbal components initially were based on a basic role of gesture. Standard
Classifications consider kinetic kinds NVK, mimic, miremicheskie and paralinguistic. In work such kinds NVK, as any and specific nonverbal actions are considered. Such component, as environment is separately considered.

Communications problems are connected with problems of effective dialogue and speech influence. By researchers speech influence as verbal or not verbal influence on the addressee therefore there is a change of its consciousness is understood. Speech influence is connected with concept of tactics and strategy. Communicative strategy are compared to structure of speech activity of the person. In their basis planning, motive, requirement and achievement of the certain communicative purpose lays. Verbal and nonverbal means are used for achievement of the certain communicative purpose. On a level with speech influence the concept manipuljativnogo speech influence which considers manipulations by means of speech, paralinguistic and symbolical means is defined.

Realisation of communicative tactics and receptions is made within the limits of a speech genre. Taking into account verbal and nonverbal components, it is represented lawful to consider it as a communicative genre.

Flirtation is defined as the communicative genre assuming the form of interaction of people which concerns to not planned / planned communications of indirect communications, is faticheskoj the form of dialogue and assumes a set of certain formulas, has character of language game and differs teatralizovannostju, domination of not verbal forms over verbal, and also is characterised by the purposes which achievement occurs indirectly.

Flirtation situations assume interaction of men and women in this connection their dialogue is defined by gender distinctions. The gender is considered in a foreshortening biological, sociological, psychological philosophical approaches. Within the limits of gender linguistics
The special role in researches is played by concept of the gender stereotype connected with cultural and socially caused representations about norms of behaviour of floors and reflexion of these norms in language.

Recently in gender linguistics there is a change of marks towards studying of language units which are used by men and women for self-identification. Distinctions in behaviour depend not only on a sex, but also from age, a national identity of the person. It is represented expedient to speak about man's and female styles of communicative behaviour, instead of about distinctions of man's and female behaviour. The most representative form of interaction of people in which typically female both man's speech and nonverbal means participate is flirtation. The gender aspect is shown in nonverbal behaviour of the person.

In the second chapter źSpecificity of the language description of communicative behaviour of the person in a situation"FLIRTATION"is offered the comparative analysis of communicative behaviour of the person in flirtation situations.

The verbal behaviour of men is presented by expression of emotions of a positive vector that is characterised by the use of indirect nominations and emotionally-estimated adjectives. Are most typical: nominations of attractive external data KZH; nominations KZH connected with display of care. The use of adjectives in a superlative degree takes place. In KM speech the general, special and exclamatory offers which reflect intentsii the KM connected with display of interest, the initiative and admiration prevail.

Special questions in the situations of flirtation set by the man - kommunikantom, have usually for an object to fasten conversation and to find out its interesting information. Also are characteristic polite peresprosy. Exclamatory offers transfer admiration, delight.

For women in flirtation situations the emotionally-estimated lexicon, attributive word-combinations is characteristic. Emotionally-estimated
Adjectives in speech KZH eksplitsirujut a delight condition. In flirtation situations the language autonomination which is connected with self-presentation of women takes place. Use of adjectives with diminutive value “poor” and “harmless” marks intention KZH to accompany the man, leaning on an expected gender stereotype about female weakness and defencelessness. Emotionality KZH expressed in exclamatory offers, corresponds positive intentsionalnoj to the flirtation nature. Special questions allow to keep up the conversation and express aggressive tactics KZH which is shown in an explication of affected interest in KM affairs. The game basis of a genre is shown in imperative offers KZH, allowing them in a playful manner to show the power over KM.

Other component of a communicative genre flirtation is the nonverbal behaviour which description in the art text allows to interpret a situation more precisely.

The nonverbal behaviour of men and women variously and in flirtation situations is presented fonatsionnymi, respiratory, miremicheskimi, mimic, proksemnymi, tactile nonverbal components (NVK). The language nominations describing fonatsionnyj NVK of the man are presented: verbs of saying: to say, to ask, to whisper, to murmur, to reply; glagolno-adverbialnye combinations: to speak softly, to speak simply, to speak casually, to ask gently; predicative combinations: voice still soft; glagolno-adektivnye combinations: old voice, caressing voice, teasing voice, lovely voice, familiar voice.

The language nominations describing given kind NVK are used for expression and the image of movements of eyes, eyelashes, sight descriptions, they are presented by verbs with semantics of direct contact of eyes, the verbs modified by adverbs, adektivno-nominal word-combinations with noun EYES: verbs with semantics of direct contact of eyes: to look, to stare, to gaze; glagolno-adverbialnye combinations: to look admiringly,

to stare hard; the predicative phrases describing expression of an eye and movement of an eye: eyes clouded and intense, his eyes were warm, his eyes followed her. The language nominations describing mimic NVK kommunikantov cover a smile, movement of eyebrows: verbs to smile, to smile down, to smile at; a noun with a basic component smile.

The mimic behaviour of men is reflected in the text by means of following nominations: verbs and the verbal combinations describing a smile: to smile, to smile down, to smile at; verbal-nominal somatizmami, describing movements of eyebrows: to scrunch one’s eyebrow.

The language nominations used for the description of tactile kind NVK, reflect various contacts which are characteristic for KM in the text: to put, to hold, to touch, to take. Tactile NVK in nonverbal behaviour of men often precede proksemnye NVK, described by verbs of motion which express moving to space. The KM reduces a distance, and then carries out tactile action: “He moved nearer and rested his hand on her hip”. Language nominations tactile kind NVK: verbal word-combinations with nouns hand, arm: took my hand, slipped his arm, petted her hand, gave her hand a pressure, he took her by her arm, he tugs my hand, he has his arms around me; verbal word-combinations which structure includes body-adeptery parts: he slipped his arm about her waist, he rested his hand on her hip, put his hand under her chin.

Uncontrollable nonverbal behaviour (psychophysiological reactions - PFR) KM are presented by verbs with semantics of change of a complexion: to blush; the verbs describing starts: to shudder in astonishment, to shudder with delight, to shudder with excitement.

The special place in nonverbal behaviour of the person is occupied with the so-called specific nonverbal actions having great value. Nonverbal actions of KM are presented to flirtation situations by verbs with value of change of a body in space, changes of position of a body concerning another kommunikanta, verbs of motion, 13

The modified adverbs. It is necessary to notice, that kinetic class NVK is involved in nonverbal actions of the man in a flirtation situation. Tactile actions are most typical For men specific proksemnye.

Language nominations of nonverbal behaviour of women reflect its variety. Controllable nonverbal behaviour KZH is presented fonatsionnymi, miremicheskimi, mimic, respiratory kinds NVK. The language nominations describing fonatsionnyj NVK KZH are presented: verbs of saying, the verbs describing laughter: to say, to exclaim, to muse, to laugh; verbal word-combinations: to say softly, to say kindly, purred into his ear.

Miremichesky NVK it is presented by verbs with semantics of contact of an eye (verbs with semantics of direct contact of eyes: to look at, to gaze, to stare); adektivno-nominal word-combinations with a noun look, the verbal-nominal word-combinations describing eyelashes; the verbal word-combinations describing movements of an eye: she narrowed and widened her eyes; the verbal word-combinations describing duration or a direction of a sight: she dropped her eyes, gazed for a little, she looked into his eyes, she was staring straight at me, she looked straight in the eye, she shot a glance up to me, she looked up; nominal word-combinations: a momentary return glance, a profound look, a velvet look.

Mimic NVK are presented in the text adektivno - and adverbialnoyoimennymi by word-combinations with a noun smile, the verbal word-combinations describing a smile and lips: the verbs describing crying, tears: to sob, to cry, to burst into tears; adverbialno-verbal word-combinations: helplessly sobbing.

Tactile NVK find reflexion in the text by means of nominal word-combinations, verbal-nominal word-combinations with a basic component hand.

The uncontrollable nonverbal behaviour of women is presented first of all by the psychophysiological reactions describing changes of a complexion. The language nominations describing PFR changes of a complexion are presented by verbs with semantics of change of a complexion: to blush, to go pale.

Specificity of nonverbal actions of the woman is presented pantomimic NVK for the purpose of attraction of attention of the man: walked gracefully, and also NVK environment which are connected with actions over various artefacts: smelt the flowers, looked over her fan.

The flirtation result can be successful or unsuccessful. The fragments of the text fixing situations of flirtation, allow to analyse behaviour of the man and the woman from the point of view of dynamics of development of communications.

Three basic stages of expansion of flirtation are allocated: 1) the initial stage, 2) a rapprochement stage, 3) the closing stage which sets a vector of the future relations.

At the initial stage of flirtation for the man the considerable quantity of the general and special questions is characteristic. The given communicative course is determined by installation of the initiator of flirtation to receive the information on the addressee: “Do you like it here?","Have you worked here long?","What’s your profession?","What’s your specialty?”. Besides, for this stage also are characteristic invitivy: “ Then see me tonight for dinner "," I would like to take you to dinner sometime ”. The nonverbal behaviour of men at the given stage differs a number of features. Prevailing are miremichesky and mimic kinds. The Miremichesky nonverbal component of communications (NVK) is presented by language nominations in which basis verbs with semantics of a direct sight (to stare lay; to gaze) and glagolnoyoadverbialnye the word-combinations describing dynamics of a sight (to watch slowly). Mimic NVK in behaviour of men-initiators of flirtation at the initial stage of development of flirtation demonstrate display of liking which is tested by the man in relation to the woman. Illokutivnaja force
The statement/act at the flirtation initial stage it is connected with display of emotional reaction of liking which is tested by the man, and eksplitsiruet its intention to cause reciprocal emotional reaction of the addressee. At the flirtation initial stage perlokutivnyj the effect in reacting behaviour of the addressee is shown in psychophysiological reactions (PFR), reflecting an emotional condition of the addressee: more often excitements and confusions. The description of the given emotional reactions is presented by two groups of language nominations. To the first (to blush, to flush), the verbs describing change of a complexion concern the second - the word-combinations describing activity of vegetative system of the person (my heart's pounding, my heart's beating). The following stage of a situation of flirtation - rapprochement - is characterised by more various verbal means in behaviour of the man-initiator of flirtation. Realising new communicative installation - rapprochement, the man influences the addressee via compliments. Both at the flirtation initial stage, and at a rapprochement stage, the important place is occupied with the self-presentation which purpose in flirtation situations consists in creation of positive image, on purpose to make on kommunikanta an opposite sex due impression. In man's self-presentation certificates of a positive self-estimation, giperbrolizatsija own merits prevail. The nonverbal behaviour of the man - of the initiator of flirtation at a rapprochement stage is caused intentsiej to express the arrangement by means of various semiotics means. Use proksemnyh NVK, connected with change of position of a body in the space which language nominations are presented glagolnoyoadverbialnymi by word-combinations (to come closer, to come nearer) is typical; verbs of motion (to walk, to approach). The nonverbal behaviour of the man-initiator of flirtation at a rapprochement stage is characterised by the tactile actions describing touches (stroke her fingers).

Successful realisation communicative intentsy men is expressed in perlokutivnom effect of a positive vector (the addressee - the woman). On
The given stage communicative acts of the initiator of flirtation cause the liking and excitement responses connected with a condition of pleasure/happiness. At the closing stage of flirtation the man-initiator realises communicative intentsii, developments of relations defining the further vector. In cases of "successful flirtation╗ communicative influence of the man on the woman promotes achievement perlokutivnogo effect of a positive vector. In situations of "unsuccessful flirtation╗ KM actions eksplitsirujut increase of emotional intensity. The speech certificate of the request of the man begins a solving element in development of a situation of flirtation to tell to it about feelings which are tested by the woman: “Tell me, Grace”. The explication of circumstances (“I’m married”), determines flirtation breakage. Emotional reaction of affliction which tests KM is shown in perlokutivnom effect which is presented fonatsionnym NVK silence: “he said nothing”.

At the initial stage of expansion of flirtation the woman-initiator of flirtation addresses to so-called źto game on increase╗, doing compliments to the man. The reacting behaviour of the addressee is presented positive perlokutivnym by effect. Expression of mutual liking is presented miremicheskimi, proksemnymi by kinds NVK. Unlike men, women do not tell about the successes, and on the contrary, are inclined to game on fall - to underestimation of the intellectual qualities for creation of impression of defencelessness and nesmyshlenosti. Prevailing kinds of nonverbal behaviour kommunikanta the woman at the given stage are miremicheskie, pantomimic and proksemnye. Besides miremicheskih, for feminnogo behaviour at the flirtation closing stage pantomimic actions with which help the woman shows external data are characteristic.

Flirtation breakage occurs in the event that the man does not test reciprocal liking or guesses, that the flirtation purpose was manipuljativnoe influence. The situations fixing unsuccessful flirtation, are accompanied by the description of emotional reactions of excitement or grief,
eksplitsiruemyh via PFR. KZH can test in flirtation situations the unpleasant emotions connected with verbal or nonverbal behaviour of KM. KZH break flirtation verbally, and it is connected with the explanatory of causes of a failure or unwillingness to co-operate with KM. Maskulinnoe and feminnoe the behaviour is presented in default by similar lines. Distinctive feature maskulinnogo behaviour is fonatsionnyj NVK, expressing silence. Feminnoe the behaviour in situations of refusal of flirtation continuation is characterised by politeness display at not verbal level - via mimic NVK (smiled). Emotions of hostility are expressed in fonatsionnyh NVK, presented by a verb to look which are modified by adverbs with semantic value of coldness (coolly, coldly). Maskulinnoe and feminnoe the behaviour in situations of breakage of flirtation is accompanied proksemnymi NVK with language nominations jerked away, stepped away, etc.

In situations when KZH is the initiator of breakage of flirtation, the KM tests disappointment or anger. Maskulinnoe the behaviour can be characterised by aggression display.

In flirtation situations some actions kommunikantov have character manipuljativnogo influences. At verbal level compliments, speech expressions of care (promise) concern such actions. Manipuljativnoe value has delivery of gifts, colours, the invitation and offers to spend time together. One of the most widespread manipuljativnyh receptions in flirtation situations, is the compliment. In situations of flirtation of the man aspire to prove to be in favourable light, "exaggeration" of the merits, attention to material and personal successes is observed. Such verbal behaviour has manipuljativnyj character, as it is focused on making impression upon the liked woman. In man's self-presentation certificates of a positive self-estimation, giperbrolizatsija own merits prevail. To
Nonverbal manipuljativnym to KM actions contacts, a sight, and also delivery of gifts and donation of colours concern.

The analysis manipuljativnogo has shown influences of women, that at verbal level the behaviour of women is presented by expression of the exaggerated feelings in relation to kommunikantu, to underestimation of the qualities, pretence, compliments. Often women for achievement of objects in view encourage the man verbal remarks. To involve the man, women make a considerable quantity of nonverbal actions. Smiles concern the most widespread, laughter, change of a timbre of a voice, pantomimic nonverbal actions, an establishment of visual contact, use of objects of environment.

In the final chapter the comparative analysis is resulted

maskulinnogo and feminnogo behaviour.

In the Conclusion the basic results of research are reflected, researches are summed up, the basic conclusions are formulated and prospects of the further work are outlined.

The basic results of dissertational research are reflected in following publications:

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A source: Knyazeva Anastasia Andreevna. SPECIFICITY of COMMUNICATIVE BEHAVIOUR of the PERSON In FLIRTATION SITUATIONS: GENDER ASPECT. The dissertation AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Tver - 2018. 2018

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