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2.2.1. Substantive provisions antropotsentricheskogo directions in studying of lexicon of bank sphere in English and Russian languages

Realisation of an anthropological principle in researches of a lexical stock allows to look in a new fashion at the device and the maintenance of language units of a sublanguage of financial sphere, many of which have the direct relation to the person.

In language, undoubtedly, there are whole layers antropotsentricheski noted lexicon, for example, aнтропонимы is «own names of people: names personal, patrimonial names, pseudonyms, kriptonimy (hidden names)» [ERJA, the Electronic resource]. As marks V.I.Suprun, antroponimy form a kernel onomasticheskogo Russian fields [Suprun, 2000, with. 6]. A variety antroponimov is presented in modern publicism of bank sphere. For example:

1) Americans are going to be a lot more tight-fisted with their tax refunds this year, with more people planning to save the cash they get back from
Uncle Sam instead of spending it [Dickler, 2012, the Electronic resource] / this year more and more Americans is going not to spend, and to save the state returnable means from surtax (our Transfer. - A.F.).

In this case under lexical unit Uncle Samподразумевают the American government, the state.

2) Acted: vice-premier Chechetkin, Minister of Finance Pripudrin, the minister economic nedorazvitija the Signature stamp, the minister of social decline Zukradov, minister CHS SHajnigugu, representative CHJA (a black box) Pirouettes, deputy Gosbezdumja of Satraps, etc. [Zasimova, 2005, the Electronic resource].

The resulted example specifies in the maintenance metonimicheskogo carrying over of names of heads of the ministries and other establishments, defining development of the representations which motive are the associations caused ekstralingvalnymi by conditions.

Thanking antroponimam, to the text, first, it is given

Expressiveness and ekspressivnost, and secondly, we can track the certain periods of historical development of these or those people.

It is necessary to note other kind antropotsentricheski noted lexicon, namely lexical metaphors as the second means of a nomination. One of the first who has specified on antropomorfnost metaphors, were J. Lakoff and M.Johnson (G. Lakoff, M. Johnson), presented new understanding of a metaphor as basic mechanism of human reason. According to authors, the person can unconsciously "allow" to change to metaphors its perception of world around and actions. J. Lakoff and M.Johnson write: “The most important claim we have made so far is that metaphor is not just a matter of language, that is, of mere words. We shall argue that, on the contrary, human thought processes are largely metaphorical. This is
what we mean when we say that the human conceptual system is metaphorically structured and defined. Metaphors as linguistic expressions are possible precisely because there are metaphors in a person's conceptual system ”[Lakoff, Johnsen, 2003, with. 7] / the Most important conclusion which we have made, consists that the metaphor is shown not only in language, i.e. in simple words. We assert, that opposite, thought processes of the person in the big degree are metaphoric. We mean it, when we say that our conceptual system is metaphorically defined and structured. Metaphors as linguistic means of expression become possible only thanks to that they are included in conceptual system of the person (our Transfer.

- A.F.).

Thus, authors conclude, that the metaphor has got into all our daily life and besides language is shown in thinking and actions. It is reflected in conceptual system in which frameworks we think. It gets metaphoric character.

Occurrence of metaphors is kognitivnym the process reflecting the validity. The metaphor can arise owing to hints and associations. As writes S.Balli, «we assimilate abstract concepts to subjects of the sensual world for for us it is a unique way to learn them and to acquaint with them others. Such is a metaphor origin; the metaphor is not that other, as comparison in which the reason under the influence of the tendency to pull together abstract concept and a concrete subject combines them in one word» [Balli, 1961, with. 221]. Realisation of the creative approach of thinking to world around pdchyorkivaet I.G.Zhirova for whom metaphoricalness is «a natural way of creative thinking within the limits of mentally-lingvalnogo complex of the language person» [ZHirova, 2012, with. 23]. Thus, a metaphor, being strong stylistic reception, passing old value through knowledge and representations of the person, it
Cultural-national values and features, creates new semantic concepts, terms.

However the metaphor role in scientific knowledge is regarded ambiguously. One researchers consider a metaphor as a universal remedy of scientific knowledge thanking its hypothetical nature, and metaphorical tropeicheskoe thinking Plisetskaya, 2003 is considered «the integral component of scientific thinking and a scientific discourse» [the Electronic resource]. Other authors warn against excessive exaggeration of a role of a metaphor in process terminoobrazovanija: «it is not necessary to go into extremes, taking away it (metaphor) crucial importance in terminoobrazovanii as other linguistic mechanisms participate in this process» [Ivina also, 2003, with. 66]. Nevertheless metaphor terms - continue to be born and function in financial ddokurse, adding paints in process of communications and enriching dry language of money.

Dynamic progress of financial and economic essence of a banking leads to activization in speech and the letter of a financial metaphor. As an example can serve naked intervention/"naked" intervention - operations of the central bank in the currency market without influence neutralisation on monetary weight and long-term influence on rates of exchange, price ceiling/a ceiling of the prices, serial rescheduling/"serial" revision of conditions of the delayed debts - periodic consolidation of a debt, baby bond/to the bond with low face value, cannibalization/replacement of one bank product by another - the brutal certificate of eating similar assimilates to market absorption, etc. the Given language metaphors use words of common character and designate objects of the validity in spheres of investment, the market of sales, crediting. metaforizatsija colours, for example: White elephant/a white elephant -
The transaction at which realisation expenses obviously exceed potential profit, black money / the dirty, illegally earned money, red balance / negative balance, blue stocks / highly remunerative actions, blue button / the employee employed for work in an operational hall, white collars / white collars. Important that the language form of terms - of metaphors plays the big role in the course of influence on emotional sphere of the addressee and formation of the certain relation to events [ZHirova, 2012, with. 25].

In domestic linguistics the approach to a metaphor from the point of view of anthropocentrism is full enough displayed in V.N.Telija's works. antropotsetrichnost metaphors as the author confirms, it is expressed that the choice of the basis for a metaphor is connected with ability of the person to commensurate all new to it (including really not commensurable) in his own image [Telija, 1996, with. 136].

Besides metaphors, according to V.N.Telija, for anthropological researches special importance is represented by phraseological units. It speaks a number of the reasons: first, in them kontseptualizirovany knowledge of actually human, naive picture of the world; secondly, many types of relations of the subject to world around are presented; thirdly, standards and stereotypes of national culture [Telija, 1996 are programmed, with. 9]. Examples of phraseological units can be found in advertising of bank services. First two examples: advertising to a finasovo-economic crisis of 2008; the third and fourth examples - in a finasovo-economic crisis of 2008:

1) Don, t Crack Over Your Money. Now you really CAN put all your eggs in one basket [Greater Community Bank, the Electronic resource] / Will suffice to wither over gold. Now you can really put up all money in one bank (our Transfer. - A.F.).

In a slogan English saying Do not put all your eggs in one basket which advises to us is used not to rely on something one, not to put all on one card. From a position of bank activity authors warn against undesirable capital investments in one enterprise that can increase risk of the further ruin.

2) Money may not magically grow on trees, but it can grow with Youth Services... [United Consumers Credit Union: newsletter, 2012, the Electronic resource] / Money cannot grow on magic on trees, but they can appear with service «the Youth credit card». (Our Transfer. - A.F.).

3) Safe, sound and growing [Radobank, the Electronic resource] / Reliable, stable, developing (our Transfer. - A.F.).

4). we offer our Clarity Commitment document - a simple one-page loan summary written in plain language... [Bank of America, the Electronic resource]/. We offer the Obligation on maintenance of an information transparency of business processes - the simple conclusion under the credit, made on one page a simple language (our Transfer. - A.F.).

Analyzing the given examples, it is possible to distinguish that image of bank which try to create by means of advertising. The bank is presented to the pre-crisis period as establishment which can make you happy and safe. The bank associates with game on money. During the crisis period for bank it is necessary pdchyorkivat reliability and indestructibility. Such strategy is based on a transparency and clearness of bank operations. The bank also can refer to long history of work that is expressed in the debugged mechanisms of risk-management, qualified personnel, reliable partners, financial reserves Etc. obviously, that advertising, and in particular advertising of a bank package deal, is aimed on zavlechenie new clients. With that end in view experts, creating advertising, operate with acquaintances for potential clients graphic and
In the language images, symbols. They use a number of tools and means (including language) for object in view achievement.

Besides terms-metaphors and phraseological units the bank sphere is presented lexico-semantic strukturamislov which probably to consider from a position antropotsentricheski noted lexicon. In this case the word meaning is concretised as the image of the world presented through perception and development by its person [Omelchenko, 2007, with. 68]. The analysis of psychology of perception shows, that among properties of subjects the observer chooses one or more quantity of properties which is better bear information character. For example:

1) The banking industry strongly supports this work (the rules..., would require big banks to hold much more money against losses. - A.F.), which is a really important step in ending ' too big to fail ' and ensuring that never again will taxpayers have to step in to bail out banks [BBC News,] / the Bank industry in every possible way supports the Electronic resource this initiative (rules according to which large banks should keep much more money for a covering of expenses), which is really important step to, that large banks various changes of the market without assistance attraction (overcame our Transfer. - A.F.).

2) But, what has become evident is that global markets are more interconnected than ever, and that means that what happens in one part of the world economy affects others. When an US bank went bust, it had widespread repercussions in Europe, for instance [BBC News, the Electronic resource] / It became obvious, that today as never earlier, the world markets so closely co-operate with each other, that if something happens in one part of the world, it is given by an echo to another. For example, bankruptcy of the American bank had serious consequences in Europe (our Transfer. - A.F.).

From the resulted examples it is visible, that the picture of world around of an individual gets new forms, shades. The individual develops
Own mechanisms of perception of the information, processing "condition" of environment on kognitivnom level. Besides it, in the first example inversion (again will taxpayers have), that once again pdchyorkivaet is subjective-emotional character of the statement is used. By means of inversion new, logically and positionally allocated information finds special sense.

According to N.A.Iljuhinoj, in the light of the anthropological approach the semantic structure of a word represents result diverse (including psychological, associative) development vnejazykovoj the realities, embodied in the form of difficult logiko-empirical konstrukta [Ilyukhin, 1995, with. 60]. The empirical complex by the nature is multiplane. The considerable place in it is occupied with the generalised impressions of actually psychological character measured in concepts of typical sensations, conditions, attitudes etc. With the logic and empirical parts representing in aggregate a basis of a word meaning, is system the complex of diverse associations on which base are formed additional, secondary on the character, the senses also entering into semantic structure of a word is connected.

As a whole the anthropological approach to the term helps not only to expand contours of its semantic structure, but also to describe the term in its diverse system communications: on the one hand, within the limits of a language lexicon, with another - in a context of concrete culture [Ilyukhin, 1995, with. 60].

The human factor also is reflected and in a language grammatical system. Categories of each grammatical subtotal reflect the human factor in the formal or semantic structure. antropotsentrichny such grammatical categories, as predicativity, number, a sort of nouns / adjectives, time, intensity degree, a modality, a definiteness and uncertainty category
In English language, a part of speech, for example: to devalue / to depreciate, to be drained of smth / to settle to (spend) means, scanty / poor, insufficient, limited, for example: scanty demand / small demand, scanty means / the limited means. In other words, the opinion (estimation) of the speaking is included in semantics of parts of speech. Functioning of many grammatical forms occurs as a result of sociohistorical experience and cultural-national features, besides influence of these factors can have casual character.

The anthropological factor is visually shown in the field of word-formation where language admits the continuous certificate slovotvorchestva the person in whom the human factor initiates creation new word-formation kontsepta. According to E.A.Zemsky «the hero of modern word-formation - the person» [Zemsky, 1996, with. 103]. As a word-formation example the lexeme can serve in English language omnishambles - «full ruin, confusion», become by the term in 2012, according to composers “Oxford English Dictionary” [OED, the Electronic resource]. The Latin prefix omnis, meaning «everyone, everyone, every possible», joins a noun shambles - «ruin, chaos, the disorder, confusion» [OEB, the Electronic resource]. For the first time the term has appeared in political comedy serial The Thick of Itв one 2009 Later E.Milibend (E Miliband), the contender of the prime minister of the Great Britain, acting in parliament, has declared: " Over the last month we have seen the charitytax shambles, the churches tax shambles, the caravan tax shambles and the pasty tax shambles. We are all keen to hear the prime minister's view as to why, four weeks on from the Budget, even people within Downing Street are calling it an omnishambles Budget "[Miliband, 2012, the Electronic resource] / Throughout last month we observed mess in systems of the taxation and charity, church, mobile houses on wheels, in fast food sphere. So, the Mr. the Speaker, we with impatience
We wish to hear opinion of the prime minister of what even people from a Downing street name full confusion in budgeting system, despite the fact that what the budget has been confirmed four weeks ago (our Transfer. - A.F.).

The term omnishamblesв the core use for criticism of the state, the state decisions in the field of economy and the finance.

The analysis of an illustrated situation specifies in use terminoedinitsy, expressing author's estimation of the validity. The term gets emotivnye lines, transferring author's otsenochnost. Thus the emotionality does not change the validity. The individual uses the estimated essence put in pawn in a language sign to correct emotional development of thought.

All above-stated allows to ascertain, that it is impossible to consider modern research of special lexicon high-grade without the account of the human factor. Being language units which practically do not keep is sensual-evident, empirical images, terms of bank sphere nevertheless give to concepts emotsionalnoyootsenochnyj sense, and also transfer national character, reflect the personal comprehension of the validity expressed in word-formation character, metaphorical expansion, phraseological structures which represent or independent phraseological units, or making elements of a phraseological context. Emotionally-estimated semantic criteria of special lexicon - are subjective, as as a result of personal growth such criteria get individual lines. By consideration terminosistemy through an anthropocentrism prism there is a possibility to track negative and positive changes in psycholinguistic consciousness of the person-expert. It is important to understand, that information capacity of the term inseparably linked with language norms

And the rules generated by a historical and cultural and national heritage, with thought process of transformation of knowledge of the surrounding validity and realities in the system of representations expressed in concept «professional picture of the world».

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A source: Fedorova Anna Valerevna. ENGLISH And RUSSIAN TERMINOLOGICAL SYSTEMS of BANK SPHERE. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Moscow - 2015. 2015

More on topic 2.2.1. Substantive provisions antropotsentricheskogo directions in studying of lexicon of bank sphere in English and Russian languages:

  1. Chapter 2. The BASIC DIRECTIONS of STUDYING of ENGLISH And RUSSIAN TERMINOLOGICAL SYSTEMS BANK SPHERES
  2. 3.2. World financial crisis as one of sources of development bank terminosistem English and Russian of languages
  3. Chapter 3. INFLUENCE of EX-TRALINGVITSTICHESKY FACTORS ON DEVELOPMENT BANK TERMINOSISTEM ENGLISH And RUSSIAN of LANGUAGES
  4. 2.1.2. The Rather-comparative analysis of English and Russian terminological systems of bank sphere
  5. 3.1. The concept of national safety of the Russian Federation — a basis of formation of substantive provisions criminal politikiv to taxation sphere.
  6. RYZHKOV Denis Igorevich. SEMANTIC DEVELOPMENT of CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS LEXICON (on a material of Latin, French, Italian, English and Russian languages). The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Tver - 2017, 2017
  7. RYZHKOV Denis Igorevich. SEMANTIC DEVELOPMENT of CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS LEXICON (on a material of Latin, French, Italian, English and Russian languages). The dissertation AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Tver - 2017, 2017
  8. Chapter 2. Features of transfer of Russian and English diplomatic and administrative terminological lexicon XVI-XVII of centuries (on the basis of Russian and English diplomatic documents)
  9. Functional national specificity naimenovanijjavlenythe nature in Russian and English languages
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  11. § 3. popjativ and the basic directions of the control and supervision in sphere of bank activity