fitonimy as a part of Russian and Vietnamese proverbs and sayings

In the organisation of a national language picture of the world the important role is played by proverbs and sayings. Already in the middle of XIX century V.I.Dal has made of them definition: «the Proverb is the short parable, a sentence, judgement, lecture which is stated obinjakom and is started up in a turn under chekanom nationalities».

V.I.Dal's saying names «roundabout expression, portable speech, obinjak, a simple allegory, a way of expression in which there is no parable, judgement, the conclusion. It, as a rule, first half of proverb» [Mokienko 1989: 9].

Paremii raise interest to foreign language studying, develop language intuition. Analyzing proverbs and sayings of the different countries, it is possible to learn, what character traits of the people have served as the reason of their creation. It is possible to see that is unique or it is close in other culture, to expand with that representations about the difficult and diverse device of life, about similarities and distinctions of a human estimation external and private world.

In mankind history all knowledge, events, feelings and emotions are reflected in language of the concrete people. Some of opening, mankind knowledge were so deciding and important, that were strongly fixed in language, began to be used more often also have remained till today in language in the form of proverbs and sayings.

Traditionally within the limits of all lingvokultur images of plants are a metaphor of those or other human properties and qualities, means of an estimation of events and the facts of a human life. Thus in different cultures of the same property and quality are often expressed in images of plants
endemichnyh. For the Vietnamese culture such plants are the bamboo, a lotus, for Russian - a birch or flax. And in some cases, in the presence of a close cultural contact with other areas, fitonimy can come to this or that lingvokulturu from abroad - as a rule, near; so occurs to Russian FE, many of which are closely connected with cultures of the European and Asian countries, including the ancient.

As the basic sources of examples following dictionaries have served: the Phraseological dictionary of Russian of A.I.Molotkova [Hammers 1967], the Dictionary «Proverb of Russian people» of V.I.Dalja [the Distance 2003], the Big explanatory dictionary of Russian [Smiths 1998], the Dictionary of Russian phraseology. The Istoriko-etymological directory [Birih, Mokienko, Stepanova 1997], the Big phraseological dictionary [Telija 2009], the Vietnamese phraseological units and proverbs [V ũ Ngọc Phan 2010], the Dictionary of the Vietnamese sayings [Nguyễn Nh ư Y, Viện ngôn ng ữ học 1994], the Russian - Vietnamese dictionary of phraseological units [V ũ Tất Tiến 1983], the Educational thematic dictionary Russian and Vietnamese komparativnyh phraseological units [E.A.Pljaskova, Dong Thi Than There 2014].

Owing to that phraseological units are an effective remedy of the characteristic of the person, and also the vital situations connected with the person, they are allocated estimated konnotatsijami. The Aksiologichesky potential fitonima, a part phraseological unit, is connected with its semantics, depending on which character konnotatsii (values) can be or positive (meliorative, on L.F.Putsilevoj), either negative (pejorativnymi), or neutral.

Thus owing to asymmetry of languages and a set of cultural realities the Vietnamese and Russian phraseological units with fitonimami not always are identical structurally and semanticheski. At the same time, both in Russian, and in Vietnamese languages is practically full and sootnosimyj a set of base phraseological units which review to standard situations of human life, to those or other scenarios of a human life.

In ukazanyh above sources we have allocated some groups FE with fitonimom in their structure. First group FE with fitonimom with meliorative value included 9 Russian units and 10 Vietnamese units.

Let's consider value of these units.

To love to the birch - means to love to the death. It is a question of very strong feeling, about infinite fidelity, about love to a grave, after all, as is known, birches in Russia usually put at tombs. A broadcast merit - fidelity.

semanticheski similar phraseological units the birch does not appear in the Vietnamese repertoire, but in cultural luggage of the people is similar kontsept and, accordingly, semanticheski an identical phraseological unit: «yęu đế n chết / letters.: to love to death».

The goat is full also cabbage is whole - in any difficult situation there is a possibility of reconciliation and satisfaction of interests and aspirations of different people or irreconcilable groupings. The given proverb is based on a known problem: one person in three steps should transport from one coast on another a goat, a wolf and cabbage, and to make it it is necessary so that the wolf has not eaten a goat, and a goat - cabbage. The broadcast merit - diplomacy, ability to find the compromise and to agree.

To look to (look) in a root - to be able to penetrate into an essence something, to pay attention to the most important thing essential in any business, circumstance, the phenomenon, etc. the Proverb occurs from an armour. respice finem - consider result («look in the end»). A broadcast merit - mind, insight.

Not a life, and a raspberry - a free, happy and carefree life. In Russian folklore the guelder-rose symbolises deceptive beauty, a bitter share, and the raspberry is a symbol of sweet carefree life. Here it is possible
To carry the plentiful meal, convenient dwelling. A broadcast merit - freedom, a free life.

Superiority - palm tree the uttermost superiority, absolute advantage in something, an in the lead position concerning others as consequence of the superiority over all the others in something. The proverb originates from the custom existing in ancient Greece: the winner in competitions awarded a palm branch or a wreath. A broadcast merit - leadership.

And one in the field the soldier - even one person is available possibility to become successful, win. The turn has arisen as result of reconsideration of ancient expression "one man is no man". There is a version, that originally expression sounded as «one in the field not rataj», turned in «one in the field not ratnik». Some time of a word "ratnik" and "soldier" were synonyms. Further one of them has superseded another. A broadcast merit - bravery, courage.

To separate wheat from plevel - to separate harmful from useful, bad from the good. Expression finds an explanation in the Gospel: the person has sowed a field wheat, the enemy at night has come. Then the person has sown among it and weeds. When wheat has ascended, have appeared plevely, slaves have offered them and to pull out. But the owner, having understood their plan that together with weeds they have not pulled out also wheat, ordered to leave all till a harvest, and during a harvest at first to pull out plevely and to burn them, and then to clean wheat. A broadcast merit - persistence, diligence.

To hold in hlopochkah - very tender, careful, love reference with someone. In XIX century along with the given expression the turn was used: to hold in claps someone - «to raise someone, strenuously preserving it from difficulties, cares». Claps - plural from a noun a clap, from it also has been formed a word hlopochki. Initially to hold expression in hlopochkah - «to shroud someone in soft, fluffy scraps of a tow, to envelop someone soft
Fibre to save from collisions, bruises, blows ». A broadcast merit - care.

To get / to get to the] apple - correctly, precisely to guess, speak something, etc. History of occurrence of this expression it is that: in 1307 the Austrian deputy in Switzerland Gessler, wishing to shake feeling of national advantage of the Swiss people, has given the order to do honour to the hat which has been strengthened in the centre of the city area. One of townsmen, Wilhelm Tell, has not obeyed the order. In punishment for such disobedience Gessler has ordered Tellju to bring down from a head of the son an apple a shot from onions. Tell it has got to the middle of an apple, and the following arrow has let out in heart Gesslera. According to a legend, this case has served as an occasion to the beginning of revolt of the Swiss peasants for clearing of the country of strangers. A broadcast merit - accuracy.

If in Russian there are proverbs the positive value, characterising such qualities, as fidelity, mind, bravery, care in the Vietnamese phraseology also exist FE, expressing positive character traits of the person. To group FE with positive value which reflect the general mirovidenie the people, concern such Vietnamese, as:

ăn qu ả nh ớ k ẻ trồng cây (eat fruits - remember the gardener) - it is said that it is necessary to answer with good good: qu the /fruit and a cây/tree associate with action and result [Nguen Basts 2005];

gạo trắng n ướ c trong (that rice was white, pure water is necessary) - signs of favorable conditions of a life [Nguen Lan 2014];

chuột sa chĩnh gạo (letters. The mouse gets to a rice jug) - the successful person casually appears in a good place;

be hạt tięu (letters. Small, as perchinka) - small, but very clever;

cây cao bong c ả (letters. A high tree - the big shade) - careful people who have the right and can protect other people;

ngọt nh ư mia lůi (letters. Sweet as sugar cane) - able convincingly to speak;

tre non d ễ uốn (letters. It is easy to bend down a young bamboo) - training of children at early age easier;

trồng cây co ngŕy ăn qu ả ~ a doctrine root gorek, and fruits are sweet;

hoa thơm c ỏ ngọt (letters. Fragrant flowers - sweet grasses) - it is good and happy [Zien Hyong 2004];

t ươ i nh ư hoa (letters. Fresh as flowers) - to have a cheerful appearance;

hiền nh ư c ủ khoai (letters. Kind, as a tuber batata) - very kind.

At a generality of cumulative semantics of phraseological units with meliorative konnotatsijami in Russian and Vietnamese repertoire FE are observed caused by national traditions and distinction way in semantics of lexemes making a phraseological unit. So, mind, the insight expressed in Russian paremijah by means of a lexeme "root" (to look in a root) semanticheski, at level makropropozitsii, identical Vietnamese FE be hạt tięu where instead of "root" at level mikropropozitsii we have "perchinku". Care, desire to protect favourite and relatives from a grief and troubles as makropropozitsija Russian FE to hold in hlopochkah where on mikropropozitsionalnom level we face a plant "clap", are expressed, but already with other mikropropozitsionalnym filling, Vietnamese FE cây cao bong c ả.

Thus degree of motivation of cumulative semantics FE semantics of lexical units making it can be different, and in repertoire of the phraseological units analysed by us free enough word-combinations have been found out both idioms, and. It opens the big and interesting field of researches, and, others in the semantic relation phraseological units can become its material not only FE with fitonimami, but also.

Second group FE with fitonimom with pejorativnym value is made by 32 Russian units and 10 Vietnamese units.

Let's consider value of these units.

To eat akridami [and wild honey] - to live half-starving, to undereat, not to have food enough. Expression was known still in staroslavjanskom language, and it ascends to an evangelical legend about John Krestitele who conducted a hermit's life in desert and «ate akridy and wild honey». Akridy from the Greek language - «an edible locust» or «bush leaves». Broadcast negative quality - poverty.

As aksinja (pig) in oranges - about the person ignorant, at all, at all, absolutely not not understanding, not understanding, not understanding. Expression is formed on productive obshcheslavjanskoj models «the nobility (to understand, understand) + as + an animal (as a rule, typical for a Central Russian strip) exotic or spicy plants (fruits). Broadcast negative quality - nonsense, ignorance.

To feed with the birch - punishment for offence. During old times in Russia from naked birch branches did birches and beat them children for mischief and hooliganism. It was a parental kind of punishment, was applied mainly in country families, sometimes and at schools. "Porridge" birch birches were called that in a bunch there were many branches, and that such punishment always caused heat in a body.

In some places used expression «birch noodles». Broadcast negative quality - cruelty.

To cut under the Karelian birch - about someone's ruthless, a rough handling over someone; about the heavy physical injuries put to someone. Broadcast negative quality - cruelty, a rage.

Peas on [whose] back to thresh - to strike frequent blows which remind molotbu. This expression has an analogue in Latin, from Terentsija: «At enim istaec in me iu dentur fota cort"-"but after all your peas (bean)
It will be threshed on me », that in a figurative sense it is possible to explain so:« for your enterprise I should pay spinoju ». Broadcast negative quality - cruelty.

Stren-bren with peas - absolutely anything is not present or in very small quantity (about property). In V.I.Dalja's dictionary stren-bren the stuff, any rags, insignificant belongings »is treated as«. The turn under a word brenet is located in the dictionary, designating "to sound, jingle, ring". From such interpretation it is possible to draw a conclusion on a phraseological unit underlying cause.

To eat a mushroom - to deceive itself in calculations, not to achieve something, not to receive the expected. For the first time expression has been used in the document «business about the room grandma of tsarina Natalia Kirillovny M.Timofeevoj», wished to steal from imperial kitchen a mushroom, to bake and eat it. However it has failed, as it have suspected of sorcery, have subjected to tortures and have planted in prison. Broadcast negative quality - short-sightedness, neudachlivost.

Crowned / to crown round a fur-tree [and around devils sang] - so speak about nevenchannoj to a couple. Expression speaks wedding pagan rite. To a young pair for marriage consecration followed bypass round a fur-tree or rakitovogo a bush. Expression goes back to wedding pagan rite.

To drag to (get) chestnuts from fire - to carry out for another a tough job, most not using its results. Is a tracing-paper from the French language from Z.Lafontena's fable «the Monkey and the Cat». In it the Cat gets fried chestnuts from fire, and the monkey eats them. Broadcast negative quality - cunning, desire to use others.

Has stretched (it was poured, it is drunk) as kljukovka - about very drunk, got drunk person. Expression is perifrasticheskim verb expansion kljuknut - to "drink", nakljukatsja - to "get drunk". Broadcast negative quality - drunkenness.

Branchy cranberry - an ignorant invention which stands out for a reality. Absurd of an image of a branchy or majestic cranberry
Attribute A.Duma-father who describes after the travel a life in Russia. In the XX-th century beginning the parody play in which the heroine indulges in memoirs as it sat with favourite under branchy branches of a centenary cranberry (the parody to descriptions foreigners of Russian life) has been put. Broadcast negative quality - propensity to a deceit, inventions.

Laurels to sleep (rest) do not give; laurels Miltiada (another's laurels) do not allow to sleep (rest) - so speak, when it is a question someone's envy to successes of another. Expression is a tracing-paper of words of Ancient Greek commander Femistokla which after shattering victory Miltiada over an army of Persians has told: «Laurels Miltiada do not allow to me to sleep». Broadcast negative quality - envy.

Behind trees not to see wood - taking a great interest in trifles, not to notice the main thing. Expression is a tracing-paper of English language cannot see the wood for the trees.Транслируемое negative quality - short-sightedness, narrowness of an outlook.

Inharmoniously - in disorder, dissonantly. So speak about not co-ordinated, not harmonious actions, for example, about singing, game on musical instruments. «Good fellows have started singing: inharmoniously. And at whom that forces became. In ears at the visitor has cracked, And the head» (I.A.Krylov) has begun to spin. Broadcast negative quality - inconsistency, edinolichnost.

The bear in wood, and it sells a skin - while any business is not finished, it is impossible to bring in advance positive results as to kill a bear difficultly, therefore and to boast in advance - empty business. Broadcast negative quality - empty boasting.

Grief, a bast podpojasannoe - 1. The bitter share is always connected with poverty, poverty; 2. About very poor, living in misery or unlucky person. Expression is connected with way of manufacturing of household country subjects from a bast and their associations with poverty and simple
Origin. Broadcast negative quality - poverty, poverty.

To put to (put) a raspberry in a mitten - the person uses cunning, dodges. This expression was used in products of some writers of the last century. Broadcast negative quality - cunning, slyness.

The nutlet is strong, yes is green - someone or something has is deceptive an attractive kind, but actually is bad, poor-quality, etc. the Saying has arisen from Peter I exclamation during a siege of a fortress the Nutlet in a source of Neva: «the Nutlet is strong very much». Broadcast negative quality - deceptive impression, puskanie a dust in eyes.

To undress / to cut under a nut - strongly to abuse. Occurs from speech of joiners, originally expression meant «giving of a surface of a joiner's product of drawing of wood of a nut tree for what corresponding processing» was required. Broadcast negative quality - cruelty.

As the aspen sheet [shivers (has begun to tremble, shivers, has begun to shake)] - very strongly to shiver, shiver, as a rule, for excitement, fear, etc. Such comparison is connected with the legend what exactly on an aspen Judas - the traitor has made hanging, since then the tree profaned by Judas can shiver eternally. Broadcast negative quality - cowardice.

To dig the money in the field of miracles - the person hopes to grow rich, not putting to it of any efforts. The saying has arisen on the basis of A.Tolstogo's fairy tale «the Gold key, or Adventures Buratino». Broadcast negative quality - laziness, desire of fast enrichment.

On the Mars field ceilings to paint - to be the unemployed, to sit without work. The proverb was generated by kontaminatsii three «sense overtones»: the Mars field, ceilings to paint - a speciality which is not bringing worthy earnings, ceilings Marsova of a field - the sky. In a city ceilings
Never painted, and bleached, and on parade ground Marsova of a field there are no ceilings. Broadcast negative quality - idleness.

Worse a bitter radish - very strongly to bother. In Russia the radish, as well as turnip, were one of daily foods. Often a radish ate during long posts and then it is rare especially bothered. Broadcast negative quality - nadoedlivost.

On a back not turnip to sow - so speak about blows by birches on a back. Expression is formed from a seminar saying: not turnip sow, and sekut only. It is used in product «Sketches bursy» N. G.Pomjalovskogo. Broadcast negative quality - cruelty.

On a butt a rye to thresh - to be enriched dishonest by, to do everything, to grow rich. Broadcast negative quality - avarice.

To lose the way in three pines - not to be capable to understand any simple, simple business. Expression goes back to an ancient national joke about poshehontsah-sleporodah, gone to travel, but lost the way, hardly having reached three pines. Broadcast negative quality - nonsense, ignorance.

To affect / (on) to tell a sparrow (crane) on a pine - to tell something improbable, absolutely improbable. Expression is fixed in XVIII century and formed as an oxymoron connecting the unjoinable facts in a reality: sparrows never sit down on a pine. Broadcast negative quality - lie, idle talk.

It was drank up to a floor-mat that is not present either breads, or to tobacco - about drunk up to extreme degree of intoxication the person. A floor-mat in the given saying not a designation of not standard lexicon, and a wattled doormat on which the drunk often lay. Broadcast negative quality - drunkenness.

Though the grass not to grow - full indifference, indifference to something. Possibly, the proverb has primordially Russian origin, is derivative from «on me (after me) though the grass not to grow","to whom though a grass
Not to grow ». Broadcast negative quality - indifference, indifference.

To blossom terry colour - about something negative: to be shown extremely, to reach the highest development. Expression has occurred by merge of two values of an adjective the terry: 1. About a flower: with a considerable quantity of petals; 2. peren. Strongly pronounced from any negative quality. Broadcast negative quality - impudence, impudence, irresponsibility.

To break pleasure - flowers to spend time in infinite pleasures, pleasure and pleasures; to use carelessly pleasures of a life, not reflecting about a debt to people. Expression is words Hlestakova, the hero of comedy N. V.Gogol "Auditor": «After all on that and a life to break pleasure flowers». Broadcast negative quality - carelessness.

To sell (sja) / to sell (sja) for a lentil soup - to betray whom-l. For scanty material compensation. Sources of value of a saying can be found in the Bible: hungry Isav, having returned from hunting, has asked a lentil soup for the younger brother - twin Iakova. Iakov has agreed, but for it Isav should concede it the right of a primogeniture. Hungry Isav has promised to it it and by that has conceded Iakovu a seniority and the big share of the inheritance. Broadcast negative quality - a low estimation of and the actions.

In the Vietnamese phraseology also there are proverbs the negative value, characterising such character traits, mental faculties or a financial position, as indifference, poverty, nonsense, cruelty, short-sightedness, etc. However Vietnamese FE with fitonimom in their structure with negative value much less Russian.

To this group «FE with negative value» otnostjatsja such Vietnamese FE, as:

nghčo rớt můng tơi (letters. Poor as spinach) - very poor person [Twists CHyong 2010];

ăn một bat chao chạy ba quăng đồ ng (letters. To eat only one pialu porridges, and to run all over three fields) - the person spends many forces for achievement of modest result [Ngueng Than Ha 2005];

ăn hồng c ả hột (letters. Is a persimmon with stones) - about the greedy, greedy person [Hoang Fe 2010];

b ỡ ng ỡ nh ư chim chich lạc vŕo rừng (letters. As slavka in wood) - someone has become puzzled in neprivichnoj to conditions, among strangers (slavka is the bird living only about the house. Wood not its residence) [Hoang Van Han 2002];

gừng cay muối mặn (letters. Sharp ginger, salty salt) - unfortunate, unsuccessful;

rau nŕo sâu ây (letters. What vegetables, such and their caterpillars) - what apple-tree, are that also apples;

coi ng ườ i nh ư rơm (letters. To concern another as to straw) - not to respect whom-l., to be indifferent to cares of another;

chan nh ư cơm nếp nat (letters. To bother, as perevarnyj sticky rice) - very strongly to bother;

khô nh ư củi

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A source: Khong THU HIEN. RUSSIAN and VIETNAMESE PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS C NAMES of PLANTS In LINGVOKULTUROLOGICHESKY ASPECT. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Voronezh - 2019. 2019

More on topic fitonimy as a part of Russian and Vietnamese proverbs and sayings:

  1. 3.3. Proverbs, sayings, popular expressions with an element "so"
  2. the Appendix 16Пример uses of proverbs and sayings for the characteristic of weak places in the developed organizational culture
  3. Russian phraseological units with names of plants in Russian teaching by the Vietnamese pupil
  4. Floronim a camomile / hoacuc in Russian and Vietnamese languages
  5. images of an aspen, a linden, a poplar, a pine, a raspberry and an apple in Russian and Vietnamese cultures
  6. images of a birch and a bamboo in Russian and Vietnamese cultures
  7. an image of plants and it reprezentatsija in Russian and Vietnamese phraseological units: the general in various
  8. images ate also a peach tree in Russian and Vietnamese cultures
  9. Floronim a lotus / hoa sen in Russian and Vietnamese languages
  10. classification of phraseological units with names of plants on rate of the use in Russian and Vietnamese discourse
  11. thematic classification of the phraseological units containing the names of plants, in Russian and Vietnamese linguistics
  12. images of an oak and a tree yes in Russian and Vietnamese cultures
  13. Russian and Vietnamese FE with names of plants in the art text
  14. Floronim a rose / hoa hồng in Russian and Vietnamese languages
  15. transformation Russian and Vietnamese FE with names of plants in speech
  16. phraseological units with names of plants as a subject of linguistic research in Russian and Vietnamese linguistics
  17. Floronimy in Russian and Vietnamese language pictures of the world: various in general