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images of a birch and a bamboo in Russian and Vietnamese cultures

In Russian culture the birch is the most typical, national tree which symbolises the Native land, Russia. The birch takes the important place in language consciousness of Russian people. A birch as if osenjaet all life of the Russian person.

It shined dwelling (luchina); warmed (birch fire wood); soaps (venichek with which went to a bath); treated (birch sap isstari it was appreciated both as a delicacy, and as a salutary drink). A birch put also at tombs, from here the figurative basis of expression to love to the birch - razg. To love to the death. In olden time Russian spoke: to give, set the birch, i.e. to punish birches; to flog; to cut, that
Can be to not clearly modern Russian person though quite often there is this expression in products of the Russian literature. For the carrier of the Vietnamese language these values are not actual, as birches do not grow in Vietnam. It is necessary to make comments on such phraseological units especially at training. The Vietnamese students should know and understand, that in Russian culture the birch is the most typical and national tree which symbolises the Native land, Russia, that in East slavic mythology a birch - a sacred tree. It was esteemed as a female symbol during spring holiday semika when in settlement brought the dismissed tree and girls put on a head wreaths from greens. Russian perceive a birch as a primordial image of Russian folklore, quite often compare to the girl, with its cleanliness, beauty and symmetry. For example: birches are women of the earth, as the woman is similar to a birch which aspires a crone to the sun, vesnoju braids greens in a plait...

On an explanatory dictionary of Russian a birch - a deciduous tree with white (is more rare dark) a bark and with heart-shaped leaves. Such words, as a birch forest, a birch, berezonka, a birch mushroom, birch, berestjanoj, etc. Are related. The birch is most extended in Russian phraseological units.

In modern phraseological dictionaries the phraseological units including a lexeme a birch are fixed: to cut under the Karelian birch (about whose-l. To severe, ruthless punishment of whom-l., heavy physical injuries coma-l.) to like (to love to the birch to death), the birch (the corporal punishments which application is forbidden by the law), a stub birch (about the silly, slow person) [Sergeeva 2012].

Especially often lexeme a birch meets in art, poetic products. The image of a birch takes a special place in the Russian
Poetry. To the Russian person since school years lines of the poems of S.A.Yesenin learnt by heart are known:

White birch under my window prinakrylas snow, it is exact silver...

These images form unity of representations about real space of a life of the people and at the same time create its general spiritual reference points, give rise to the general associations, supporting unity of a language picture of the world.

In Vietnam the trees named us do not grow in such quantity and consequently in the Vietnamese language there are no phraseological units with equivalent bạch duơng (birch). At the same time at the heart of Russian and Vietnamese units there are similar images. In the Vietnamese language the same place occupies a bamboo (tre) which symbolises the Native land. The bamboo is closely connected with a life of Vietnameses. It is a symbol of courage, firmness, longevity and a symbol of the Vietnamese village. With the straight lines, equal branches and leaves not falling down by winter it means will and honesty, symbolises the perfect and noble person. This word causes in Vietnameses also the additional emotions not peculiar to Russian. First of all, we will notice, that the bamboo symbolises the native land, its firmness, inflexibility, memory of native places. It is sung by poets:

Thn gầy guộc, la mong manh

M sao nn lũy nn thnh tre ơi?

Ở đu tre cũng xanh t ươ i

Cho d đấ t sỏi đấ t vi bạc mu

In the Vietnamese art picture of the world rate of a lexeme a bamboo is highest. In the Vietnamese language there are many word-combinations, the phraseological units including a lexeme a bamboo: tre gi măng mọc (young generation), tre gi kho uốn (an old bamboo as the old person), một cnh tre, năm bảy cnh tre / đẹ p duyn th lấy ch ớ nghe h ọ hng (to guess the love of a bamboo), cầu tre (the bamboo bridge), tho but tre (the amusing
Verses), etc.

Both a birch in Russian poetry, and the bamboo for Vietnameses is connected with image of the woman: chn đi guốc mộc, đầ u độ i non tre (the woman with a bamboo cap), toc r tre (healthy hair, as a bamboo).

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A source: Khong THU HIEN. RUSSIAN and VIETNAMESE PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS C NAMES of PLANTS In LINGVOKULTUROLOGICHESKY ASPECT. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Voronezh - 2019. 2019

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