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Officially-business writing XVI-XVII of centuries and its role in formation of Russian-English language contacts

For an adequate estimation of Russian-English language contacts it is necessary to consider, in addition, and existing lingvokulturologicheskie distinctions between Russia and England, found the reflexion in the most authentic monuments, namely, written monuments of these countries.

Studying of Russian writing is integral from studying of sources on Russian history. Historical certificates of foreigners on Russian concern them among the other also. N.N.Durnovo considers, that certificates of foreigners have already ceased to be only certificates on Russian XVI-XVII of centuries, and Durnovo, 1969 are among the first scientific researches on Russian, written by foreigners [with. 227].

According to S.S.Volkova, at linguistic classification of texts of business writing it is necessary to consider and the social importance of this or that document, that is to take into consideration not only public influence and the social status of the person from which name the certain written certificate is made out, but also the nobility to whom it is addressed as not in the last instance these factors define strukturnoyosemanticheskie features of language of such text [Wolves, 1974, with. 8].

From this point of view business writing XVI-XVII of centuries can be divided on two groups: officially-business (nation-wide, governmentally-administrative); private (private-business and
Epistolary).

Officially-business certificates concern both interests of all society, and mutual relations of separate social groups in a society, mutual relations of the Supreme power and ruling groupings with various social strata of the population and their separate members, interstate relations, etc.

Private-business writing regulates relations between separate members of a society: the feudal lord-land owner both its salesmen and peasants, the businessman and the salesman, between the persons, to concerning to one and different social groups, between members of their families [Wolves, 1974, with. 8].

Sphere of scientific interests of our research - the documents concerning the first group of business writing XVI-XVII of centuries. They mention interstate relations of Russia and England, the relation between separate representatives of ruling classes of two countries.

Studying of assembly texts, for example, such as speeches of ambassadors, a various sort of memory - detailed instructions at negotiating, diplomatic correspondence - is rather important factor of formation of Old Russian writing first of all language of these documents actively participated in process of formation of norms of Russian literary language, is especially bright in terminology sphere what time and again it was mentioned in the works devoted to the given problem [Vinogradov, 1978, with. 42; Kozhin, 1987, with. 117­122].

In XVI century business writing appears at us as the developed and difficult system of business documents, various under the form and a special-purpose designation. Being allocated among other written monuments of that period, she demands the source study analysis which would reveal specificity and subjects of this genre of business writing.

Important value in research of business writing has
Technique of the source study analysis of each concrete document, defined by features of one text, its chronological, genre, local characteristics, communication with other sources.

Naturally, at research of monuments of diplomatic sphere there is a necessity of studying of that process of office-work to which the given text belongs. Insufficient representation about what purpose pursued occurrence of this or that document who participated in its creation what were document functions as it is connected with other documents, - it does not give possibility to the full to estimate all not only type of the document, its place among other documents of this sphere, but also, the main thing to define its linguistic importance.

In our research those documents of business writing XVI-XVII of centuries which intended for the office purposes in office-work of the Ambassadorial order are mainly considered. From the linguistic point of view they are interesting to that play considerable enough role in the course of formation of Russian national literary language.

The purpose of such research consists in revealings of semantic conformity of Russian and English diplomatic terminological lexicon in sphere of the international dialogue. Questions of Russian diplomatic terminology of that time are mentioned in F.P.Sergeeva's works in which the linguist distributes an analyzed dictionary material on lexical sets, and semantics of assorted words is established by careful studying of the context containing this or that word, are besides, taken into consideration and indications of historical dictionaries [Sergeys, 1973, 1978].

Business writing always came into contact to those or other literary genres, "freshened" their language, entered new themes and turns of speech, finally helping literature and validity rapprochement. Especially considerably it was felt in XVI-XVII centuries, when in
Literary genres there was a rapprochement of elements of a real life and fiction.

Close connections of business writing and the secular literature have arisen from the very beginning their existence. XVI-XVII centuries - time when in publicism under the influence of rising sluzhilogo estates develop the new themes caused by requirements of the life. For this reason the publicism enters close mutual relations with business writing that explains penetration into the literary environment of various forms and genres of business character: petitions, reports of Russian and foreign ambassadors, private letters, diplomatic messages, etc.

In publicism of XVI century owing to its novelty it is difficult to define with sufficient confidence where business writing and where the publicism as this time of interosculation of genres, absence in them accurate gradation begins actually comes to an end: artistry elements get into business writing, and habitual forms of business writing are used in fiction. It can be observed on an example of diplomatic correspondence of Ivan Groznogo with queen Elizabeth and other representatives of an English royal court yard where in one text elements of publicistic character elements of purely official (business) writing are brightly shown that. Besides, it is necessary to tell especially that in the end of XVI-XVII centuries the Ambassadorial order becomes the original literary centre [the Eye of all great Russia, 1989].

To studying of documents of the Ambassadorial order, in our case of written reports of ambassadors about the commissions executed by them, huge value always indulged in the description of diplomatic negotiations. However the majority of researches is devoted historical aspect of formation and development of diplomatic relations between the states [Lure, 1961; Nikitin, 1976; Rogozhin, 1994, 2003; the Sokolov, 1992].

Meanwhile, considering these written documents from the linguistic and literary point of view, it is possible to observe accurately enough initial process of formation of the certain language and literary phenomena.

So, in ambassadorial reports of that time two tendencies are traced. On the one hand, these reports come nearer to fiction, become more realistic and detailed. On the other hand, ambassadors aspire to make the reports as more as possible "business", short and convenient for office using. So-called statejnye lists - the reports of Russian ambassadors made in the form of a diary on performance of diplomatic and trading commissions - only by the end of XVI century get form of the vast stories covering all events of corresponding embassies, all conversations which were conducted by ambassadors etc. During this period statejnye lists are made on certain structure: they invariably begin with the story about travel of the ambassador to that state where it has been directed, further its stay abroad day after day is described, and the text statejnogo the list usually comes to the end with the story about a return way.

The Lingvokulturologichesky component of such written monuments is shown in use by Russian diplomats of the lexical units describing English realities of XVII century, in features and an order angloyorusskogo vzaimoobshchenija in sphere of diplomatic contacts of two countries. Diplomatic correspondence and ambassadorial reports show, in what measure traditional representations about diplomatic etiquette corresponded with ambassadorial practice of Russia and England as this parity in process of development cultural varied and, that for us is especially important, language contacts in XVI-XVII centuries.

Statejnye lists as a source of business writing XVI-XVII of centuries are full of diplomatic, military and political lexicon. The Russian-English mutual relations which have begun in the middle of XVI century find the reflexion first of all in statejnyh lists of Russian ambassadors (F.A.

Pisemsky, G.I.Mikulin) in England, and Russian officially-business writing XVI-XVII of centuries can serve not only for studying of features of formation of Russian national language, but also for research of the initial stages of formation of language contacts to other countries, in particular, with England.

2.2.

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A source: Ostapenko Oksana Grigorevna. the Rather-comparative analysis of diplomatic and administrative terminological lexicon (on the basis of documents of diplomatic contacts of Russia and England XVI-XVII of centuries). The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Moscow - 2015. 2015

More on topic Officially-business writing XVI-XVII of centuries and its role in formation of Russian-English language contacts:

  1. reading and writing of Russian imperial and English royal court yard as a source of diplomatic and administrative terminological lexicon XVI-XVII of centuries
  2. the Appendix the Russian-English historical dictionary of diplomatic and administrative terminological lexicon XVI-XVII of centuries
  3. Appendix A the English-Russian historical dictionary of diplomatic and administrative terminological lexicon XVI-XVII of centuries
  4. loan XVI-XVII of centuries as lingvokulturologicheskaja a transfer problem in Russian and English languages
  5. names of Russian state ranks and titles XVI-XVII of centuries and feature of their translation into English
  6. Chapter 2. Features of transfer of Russian and English diplomatic and administrative terminological lexicon XVI-XVII of centuries (on the basis of Russian and English diplomatic documents)
  7. Chapter 1. Russian both English diplomatic and administrative terminological lexicon XVI-XVII of centuries as object of transfer
  8. features of a translation into English of names of persons of the ambassadorial order in Russia XVI-XVII of centuries
  9. certificates of English diplomats and travellers on Russia XVI-XVII of centuries as reflexion of diplomatic and administrative terminological lexicon of that time
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  11. Ostapenko Oksana Grigorevna. the Rather-comparative analysis of diplomatic and administrative terminological lexicon (on the basis of documents of diplomatic contacts of Russia and England XVI-XVII of centuries). The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Moscow - 2015, 2015
  12. OSTAPENKO Oksana Grigorevna. the RATHER-COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS of DIPLOMATIC And ADMINISTRATIVE TERMINOLOGICAL LEXICON (on the basis of documents of diplomatic contacts of Russia and England XVI-XVII of centuries). The dissertation AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Tver - 2015, 2015
  13. the review of certificates of Englishmen about Russia XVI-XVII of centuries
  14. THE GENERAL CHARACTERISTIC OF THE LEGAL STATUS OF ELECTIVE REPRESENTATION IN THE RUSSIAN STATE IN THE SECOND TO HALF XVI - THE END OF XVII CENTURIES