phraseological units with names of plants as a subject of linguistic research in Russian and Vietnamese linguistics

«Language is the major way of formation and existence of knowledge of the person about the world. Reflecting in the course of activity the objective world, the person fixes results of knowledge in a word.

Set of this knowledge embodied in the language form, represents a language picture of the world» [Maslov 2004: 64-55].

The language picture of the world «forms the relation of the person to vegetative, to an animal to the worlds and to itself, and the person gives names to known world around. Mutual relations of the person with the nature play the important role in lingvokulturologicheskom aspect, reflecting culture of the people and world culture as a whole» [Goncharov 2012: 396]. We understand As definition of a language picture of the world «historically developed in ordinary consciousness of the given language collective and the set of representations reflected in language about the world, a certain way kontseptualizatsii the validity (a sight at the world). Specific feature of perception of the world the person is reflexion not only
Objects of the validity, but also position of the reflecting subject, its relation to these objects »[Verenich 2012: 51]. Thus we can assume: than more various under the cultural-historical characteristics are language persons belonging to these or those culture - as in a case with the Vietnamese and Russian cultures, - that distinction of language pictures of the world, realised, including, and in phraseology will be more striking and more interesting.

V.N.Telija notices, that «the language picture of the world is set of knowledge of the world which exist in lexicon, phraseology, grammar. Phraseological units take a certain place in creation of a language picture of the world, they frequently possess figurativeness, expressiveness, help to reflect brightly and laconically features of a national language picture of the world» [Telija 1981: 67-68].

«The history of studying of phraseology of Russian begins when phraseological units began to join in dictionaries and to get interpretation in them» [Hammers 1977: 7]. Since second half XIX century begins the development the doctrine about word-combinations then there are first preconditions of the theory of phraseology. Russian scientists the first develop a question on word-combinations and suggest to consider phraseological units as unusual word-combinations.

Rather significant period for phraseology as linguistic discipline are 40th years of the XX-th century. V.V. Vinogradova's works in which some questions of the general character have been solved, allowed to put in pawn a basis of studying of steady combinations of words of a modern Russian literary language have the big value. V.V.Vinogradov has created for the first time synchronous classification of set phrases of Russian from the point of view of their semantic unity, and also has planned ways and aspects of the further development of phraseology.

The scientist has suggested to divide all phraseological structure of language into three types of turns: 1) phraseological srashchenija, actually, represent

Itself of an idiom in narrow sense of this word; 2) the phraseological unities which are also semanticheski indivisible and too representing expression of uniform, complete value; however in them «complete value is motivirovannym, it represents the product arising from merge of values of lexical components»; 3) phraseological combinations, obrazuemye by realisation of not free word meanings where the word with not free value supposes a synonymic support and replacement, identification [Vinogradov 1977].

Later phraseological units start to study from the point of view of their structure, grammatical properties and an origin. In this aspect of special attention works deserve: A.I.Efimova who for the first time has generated the purposes and problems of "the phraseological analysis of the art text» [Yefimov 1954]; B.A.Larina investigating phraseological units from the point of view diahronicheskogo of studying of phraseological system of Russian [Larin 1977]; O.S.Ahmanovoj who has described character of a lexicological and phraseological variation of Russian word, and also has given the detailed lexico-semantic description of nominal and verbal phraseological units [Ahmanova 2004]; S.I.Ozhegova who has defined structure of phraseological dictionaries [Ozhegov 1991].

It is necessary to note also multidimensional works of A.M.Babkina, I.I.Sreznevskogo, V.I.Zimina, A.A.Shahmatova, Z.D.Popovoj,

M.M.Kopylenko, K.N.Dubrovinoj, L.V.Kovalevoj, D.O.Dobrovolskogo, A.N.Baranova, A.V.Kunina, V.M.Savitsky, I.M.Snegireva, V.M.Mokienko, etc.

Recently studying of phraseological structure of language became especially intensive and raznonapravlennym. In the researches the phraseology starts to co-operate with other linguistic disciplines: morphology, syntax, etymology, etc.

«A phraseological unit - unit semantic. Therefore it is not obviously possible to distract from the semantic analysis 32 at all

Phraseological unit ». At underlining of a semantic role of a phraseological unit it is necessary to consider its formal expression [Birih 1996: 4]. Among set phrases allocate two types of value of a set phrase: 1)« phraseological units raznoznachnye represent group of set phrases which raznoznachny by a word or a word-combination, possess value which in every respect to similarly lexical word meaning »[Shansky 1969: 47]; 2) phraseological units equivalent act as semantic equivalents of words and word-combinations.

Phraseological units - a fertile material for studying of popular wisdom, national traditions, customs. In them originality of national thinking, feature of a psychological warehouse of the people is shown.

In the work «Phraseology of modern Russian» N. M.Shansky makes such definition of a phraseological unit: «...eto the language unit reproduced in a ready kind consisting of two or more shock components slovnogo of character, fixed on the value, structure and structure» [Шанский1985: 6].

Under the art remark Of this year Rubbed-minasovoj, «in language idiomatics, that is in that layer which, by definition, is national specific, the system of values, public morals, the relation to the world, to people, to other people is stored. Phraseological units, proverbs, most visually illustrate sayings both a way of life, and a geographical position, both history, and traditions of this or that generality, incorporated one culture» [Rubbed-minasova 2000: 80].

As criteria of definition of a phraseological unit in Russian name in various combinations stability, the integrity of value which is not deduced from the sum of values of words making it, razdelnooformlennost, possibility of structural variants or new growths, reproducibility, equivalence to a word, neperevodimost on other languages. As a whole the phraseological unit is characterised
As «a combination of words to a figurative sense», as «a steady phrase», as «a steady verbal complex». In a phraseological unit find metaphoricalness, figurativeness, ekspressivno-emotional colouring etc.

The phraseological unit arises when, at least, two words (more often significant), participating in its formation, appear semanticheski transformed in such measure, that in full or in part lose own lexical value. «Told, at the same time, means, that between phraseological units and nefrazeologizmami transitive, intermediate formations» [Zhukov 2006: 5] are possible.

According to V.P.Felitsynoj, «the phraseological unit is understood as a not free word-combination of the words which general meaning is not deduced from independent values of each word» [Felitsyna 1990: 5]. Words in a phraseological combination do not put the senses, do not add their one to another, and make original, unpredictable, even freakish general sense of all word-combination. This property of a phraseological unit is called idiomatichnostju. The phraseological unit is an idiomatic word-combination.

On the basis many frazeologi, along with phraseological srashchenijami, unities and combinations, allocate phraseological expressions which «not only are semanticheski chlenimymi, but also consist entirely of words with free values» [Shansky 1969: 84]. The phraseological unit is allocated by variety of essential, defining signs: stability, reproducibility, semantic

Integrity of value, raschlenennostju the structure (razdelnooformlennym a structure), a closure failure (openness) of structure.

Phraseological units in language system closely adjoin to words and word-combinations, but between these language units essential distinction is observed.

Unlike words phraseological units have razdelnooformlennoe a structure. «Value of a phraseological unit is created by semantic interaction of all components» whereas the lexical word meaning is generated by semantic interaction of the morphemes which share of participation in word meaning formation neodinakova: the basic semantic loading always belongs to a root morpheme, and other morphemes form word-formation and grammatical value [Nikolenko 2005: 14-15].

It is necessary to notice, that Russian has the richest phraseology. Phraseological units with names of plants are numerous also. As is known, there are many works which are devoted the analysis of such lexical groups. It, for example, F.T.Atamurodovoj, A.V.Berestnevoj's works, N.IKonovalovoj, N.S.Kotovoj, S.S.Shumbasovoj.

M.A.Bobunova underlines a considerable role of names of plants in formation «steady language designs, being the centre of poetic phraseology of folklore» (for example, a guelder-rose-raspberry, a grass - flowers, a bush-sheet), i.e. Stability of a leksiko-lexical set "flora" is important for language system of national lyrics [Bobunova 1990].

Have brought the contribution to working out of theory FE and the Vietnamese scientists: JAn Chew, Pak Dream Gu, Tub Thi Nau, Din Thi Thu Huen, etc.

Studying of phraseological units with names of plants in Vietnam - a new direction in national linguistics, a science which while passes initial stages of formation and owing to the certain reasons has no such rich traditions, as in the European countries. Complexity of research of the declared problem has arisen and at a stage of gathering of the material concerning the Vietnamese culture and the Vietnamese language: the use of phraseological units is peculiar in bolshej to a measure to people of the senior generation and inhabitants of village that is an obstacle to realisation of wide field researches. Nevertheless, work is conducted, and researchers speak about
Successes of the Vietnamese scientists. So, A.G.ShChitov notices, that in Vietnam «with 1975 on 2006 has been published eight collections of proverbs» [Boards 2015: 213].

So, the Vietnamese scientists-linguists have generated the general scientific representation about phraseology - as as a whole, and Vietnamese. In their opinion, phraseological units with components-names of plants express a natural code of culture of language. Within the limits of this code there is a cultural judgement of objects of the nature - trees, bushes, a grass, woods, mountains, fields, etc. «Plants in language embody national images. Each tree has the unique shape in consciousness of the people» [Nguen Hui Kyong 2011: 13].

According to Nguen Suan Hoa, at research lingvokulturnoj specificity of phraseological units c names of plants important the question is represented what to consider as a national-cultural originality of phraseological units. In naive language consciousness an originality usually understand as set of certain features. Means, the originality is a set of the features characterising one object, in its difference from other objects, its originality [Nguen Suan Hoa 1996]. It is characteristic not only for naive language consciousness, but also for a science.


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A source: Khong THU HIEN. RUSSIAN and VIETNAMESE PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS C NAMES of PLANTS In LINGVOKULTUROLOGICHESKY ASPECT. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Voronezh - 2019. 2019

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