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a problematics of the theory of language contacts

The phenomenon konyotakta cultures and contact of languages becomes the accompanying phenomenon of processes of migration. We have defined, that social and kulturyonye distinctions cause more difficult process lingvokulturnoj adapyotatsii at turetskojazychnyh immigrants, than at the Russian-speaking.

In the given chapter it is supposed to consider linguistic conditions lingvokulturnoj adapyotatsii from the point of view of a problematics of language contact.

During antique times people have noticed ability of languages to influence against each other, having paid attention on words-loans. Language contact as the factor which has affected formation of modern European languages, upomiyonalsja in works of the Italian humanists in XV-XVI the Subject scientific isyosledovanija a problem of language contacts becomes centuries in development of sravyonitelno-historical linguistics in the end of XVIII - the beginning of XIX centuries (raboyoty A.Shlejhera, G.Shuhardta, G.I.Askoli) [Bagana 2010: 7-9].

Such domestic scientists, as I.A.Boduen de Kurtene and L.V.ShCherba were engaged in questions of contact of languages. I.A.Boduen de Kurtene has noticed, that at language contact there is not only loan of certain elements, but also degree and force easing razlichaemosti, characteristic for separate parts of language, that is a system simplification in whole [Boduen de KurteYOne 1963: 366]. L.V.ShCherby's ideas about dvujazychii, in particular, differentiation of its two types - pure and mixed, are one of base positions teoyorii language contacts [SHCHerba 1958].

Representatives of the Prague linguistic circle N.S.Trubetsky and R.O.Yakobson have brought the big contribution to working out of such questions of the theory jazyyokovyh contacts, as the language unions and an interference [Blazhevich 2011: 11 - 12]. It is considered to be, that the theory of language contacts definitively oformiyolas as a separate direction of linguistics with issue in 1953 of two 42

Monographies: Language contacts U.Vajnrajha [Weinreich 1953, rus. The lane: Vajnrajh 1979] and the Norwegian language in America E.Haugena [Haugen 1953]. These two works have served as a starting point for occurrence big kolicheyostva works in the field of language contacts. As the additional factor of development of contact linguistics the general vector of linguistics in antropologiyocheskuju an orientation, designated in the late seventies has served. As marks Z.Bagana, in the centre of interests modern linguistic kontaktologii (contact linguistics) there is a multilingual individual: the device of its language competence, it sotsiolingvisticheskie characteristics and a language material which it generates [Bagana 2010: 13].

For our research following basic categories of contact linguistics are actual: language contact, bilingvizm (dvujazychie and diglossija), an interference and loan, formation pidzhina.

In the linguistic literature the set of attempts was undertaken to make definition of the term language contacts. Variants tolyokovanija language contact in narrow sense as were offered a contact situation, obuslovyolennoj dvujazychiem, and as mezhjazykovoj to communication in absence dvujazychija - in shiyorokom sense. An example of last variant interpretation is zaimstvoyovanie [Bagana 2006: 15].

Let's result some examples of definitions of "language contact.

V.S.Ivanov considers the given concept as interaction of two or more jazyyokov, influencing structure and the dictionary of one or many of them [Ivanov 1990: 237]; at N.B.Mechkovsky it extremely wide class jazykoyovyh the processes, caused a different sort interaction of languages [the Sword - kovskaja 2000: 178]; N.F.Alefirenko understands the difficult and diverse phenomenon which is carried out on a basis dvujazychija and soprovozhyodajushcheesja by an interference [Alefirenko 2004: 64] as this term.

For last twenty years the tendency was outlined in the literature peresmotyora the term language contacts as that [Bagana 2010: 15]. It is connected with 43

Development antropotsentricheskoj a scientific paradigm in linguistics. In sootyovetstvii with it in the conditions of intercultural communications are described kontakyoty not languages, and their carriers - representatives of various cultures. However suyoshchestvennyh this position has not caused changes in terminology of contact linguistics: the term language contacts continues to be used zarubezhyonymi and domestic researchers.

The phenomenon of language contact mentions areas of conducting various sciences - sociology, psychology, linguistics. N.B.Mechkovsky and Z.Bagana vydeljayojut three aspects of consideration of the phenomenon of language contact: linguistic, sotsiolingvistichesky and psycholinguistic [Bagana 2010; Mechkovsky 2000].

At linguistic level language contact can be considered as mixture, interosculation of two independent language systems. A.M.Molodkin notices, that thus the attention is given to following aspects: the changes occurring to contacting languages at phonologic, grammatical and lexical levels; the mechanism of loan of language structures and elements; the processes mentioning languages which are used simultaneously in bilingual collectives; possible variants of development konyotaktirujushchih languages or the modern languages which have appeared as a result of language contact [TSit. On Blazhevich 2011: 13]. Representatives of the given direction are Z.Bagana, U.Vajnrajh, J.A.Zhluktenko, V.J.Rozentsvejg, E.HauYogen, etc.

Language contact in sotsiolingvisticheskom the plan represents interaction of polyglot societies, that is certain language siyotuatsiju, representing set of languages and variants of languages, obyosluzhivajushchih some society in borders of certain region, politiyoko-territorial association or the state. Results such vzaimoyodejstvija depend on variety of external factors, such as prodolzhitelyonost and intensity of contacts between language collectives; types sotsiyo
alnyh, economic and political relations between them; functions, vyyopolnjaemye languages which serve as a communication medium [Bagana 2010: 16]. Within the limits of this approach V.A.Avrorina, V.D.Bon-'s researches daletova, J.D.Desherieva, A.Meje, A.D.Schweitzer are done, etc.

At psycholinguistic level language contact is considered as individual dvujazychie. The researchers who are engaged psiholingvistiyocheskoj in the party of language contact, how two languages how are carried out mental and menyotalnye processes at such individual function in soyoznanii a bilingual interests. From a position of this approach carried out E.M.Vereschagin, A.A.Zalevsky, I.A.winter's researches, etc.

Blazhevich J.S. adds to the given classification also the fourth uroyoven - lingvokulturologichesky. Within the limits of the given approach in the centre vnimayonija there is a question of national-cultural features language konyotakta and influences of cultural stereotypes of carriers of one language on development of another [Blazhevich 2011: 13-14]. Representatives of this approach are Z.Bagana, A.M.Molodkin, E.F.Tarasov, P.V.Timachev, etc.

In our research attempt to consider language contact in actually linguistic and sotsiolingvisticheskom the plan is undertaken.

2.2.

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A source: SHAHOVA Marina Andreevna. LINGUOCULTURAL ADAPTATION AS A FACTOR OF ACCULTURATION (discursive practices in modern Germany). Thesis for the degree of candidate of philological sciences. Tver - 2018. 2018

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