Russian phraseological units with names of plants in Russian teaching by the Vietnamese pupil

Studying FE with names of plants actually, and students to this theme show special interest. Ignorance of Russian phraseology considerably complicates perception of sense read or heard, for this reason it is necessary to expand a circle of the studied steady combinations constantly.

Comparison of Russian and Vietnamese steady combinations helps to organise correctly a material which can be claimed at foreign language teaching. For example, it is possible to group certain groups of phraseological units of both languages on degree of their affinity.

At work with Russian phraseological units in the Vietnamese audience it is possible to notice at once, that very many from this, that is clear and clear all Russian, is absolutely not clear to our students, especially when in these phraseological units alien realities, customs, conditions of a life, work are reflected. Therefore training of Vietnameses of Russian phraseology always demands the especial approach [Vu Than There 2016].

Comparing phraseological units of such different languages as Russian and Vietnamese, it is expedient to consider their following signs: semantics, figurativeness (the internal form) and stylistic colouring. Especially it is necessary to pay attention to the turns containing national realities, connected with certain events of domestic history, traditions and crafts of Russian people, etc. Similar FE, certainly, require in lingvostranovedcheskom and lingvokulturologicheskom comments. It is expedient to allocate them in special groups. If the Russian phraseological units containing a national-cultural component, have in compared with
It language partial equivalents, i.e. turns with the same value and stylistic colouring it is necessary to specify their distinctions. It will allow students to see more clearly a national originality of phraseological units of Russian and native languages.

The given paragraph of work is based on the materials taken from following dictionaries: Vetnamsko-Russian the dictionary [Oshanin I.M., Vu Dang At 1961], the Russian-Vietnamese dictionary [Alikanov K.M., Ivanov V.V. 2002], Russian Dictionary: 70000 words [Ozhegov S.I. 1991], the Phraseological dictionary of Russian [Fedosov I.V., A.N.Lapitsky 2003], the Leksikoyofrazeologichesky dictionary of Russian [Zhukov 2003], the Big encyclopaedic dictionary [Prokhorov 2002], Russian phraseological units: the Lingvostranovedchesky dictionary [Felitsyna V. P, Mokienko Century of M. 1990], Russian phraseology. The Dictionary-directory [JArantsev 1997], T ừ điển giải thich thnh ng ữ tiếng việt - the Phraseological dictionary of the Vietnamese language [Nguyễn Nh ư Y 1998], Ca dao tục ng ữ Việt Nam - the Vietnamese phraseological units and proverbs [V ũ Ngọc Phan 2010], Ca dao tục ng ữ trong tiếng việt - Phraseological units and proverbs in the Vietnamese language [Nguyễn Hong Ph ươ ng 2009], the Russian-Vietnamese dictionary. Scientific style of speech [Vasilishina, Leonov, CHjung Hong Hieu 2005].

At comparison of Russian and Vietnamese phraseological units following groups on degree of their similarity are allocated:

1 group - full equivalents, i.e. turns with the identical value, identical stylistic colouring and the identical internal form, or image.

It is easy to notice among phraseological units of Russian and Vietnamese languages of pair completely identical units which not only are based on the same image, but also often have equivalent lexical structure.
Russian FE Vietnamese FE
To hide in bushes Trốn tiệt vo bụi rậm

Forbidden fruit Trai cấm
Heart has acquired mohom Trai tim ru phong
Fire wood in wood to carry Ch ở củi v ề rừng
To grow as mushrooms Mọc ln nh ư nấm
Squeezed orange Trai chanh vắt kiệt
Behind trees not to see wood Thấy cy m khng thấy rừng
Where flowers, there butterflies Ở đu co hoa ở đấ y co b ướ m
Bend a tree while it is young, the child learn, while he has not grown Uốn cy t ừ th ưở cn non, dạy con t ừ thu ở con chưa biết g
Tree look in fruits, and the person in


Nhn qu ả biết cy nhn việc lm biết ng ườ i
For once tree not to cut down Chặt 1 nhat sao phạt đổ cy
Wood on a tree does not cry C ả rừng khng khoc tiếc 1 cy
What root, is that also a fruit R ễ no qu ả ấy
You will pull a liana - you will excite all


Rut dy độ ng c ả rừng
There is no rose without thorns Hồng no hồng chẳng co gai

Such unlike languages as Russian and Vietnamese, with the contacts limited in the past and communications between the people-carriers, apparently, should not have completely equivalent FE, but supervision over the similar phenomena of the validity have formed a basis for occurrence of identical turns in both languages. Besides, this group is filled up with the phraseological units borrowed from one source. The steady combinations entering into the first group, are most easier acquired by foreign pupils, with them expediently to begin acquaintance of foreign students to Russian phraseology.

II group includes partial equivalents which have identical value and stylistic colouring, but differ with the internal
The form, i.e. using other image. Distinctions in image and, hence, as a part of lexical components can be not so big, therefore some steams of Russian and Vietnamese phraseological units settle down as though on border I and II, for example:

Russian FE Vietnamese FE
G adat on beans Boi bằng hoa (to guess on tsvetkam)
G tin the fur-tree Đầ u oc b đậ u (a bean head)
Tea yes sugar Tr thuốc (tea and cigarettes)
Branchy cranberry Trai bi to b ằng đnh lng (a pumpkin big, as a pagoda)

Let's notice, that for expression of the same value in Russian and Vietnamese languages absolutely different images are used. And the basic part of II group is made FE, by having essential distinctions in images and, hence, as a part of lexical components:

Russian FE Vietnamese FE
Wolves to be afraid - not to go to wood Khng vo hang h ổ sao b ắt đượ c h ổ (not to go to wood not to catch a tiger)
You will not grow up vegetables - you will not weld also a Russian cabbage soup. Co cấy co trồng, co trồng co ăn (where it is planted and grows, there is rice)
It is red, as a beet Đỏ nh ư c chua (red, as a tomato)
The horse-radish of a radish is not more sweet Chanh chua th kh ế cũng chua (not only a lemon, but also khe too sour)
It still florets, and berries ahead Sinh hoa kho một kết trai kho m ườ i (fructification is more difficult than flowering in 10 times)

To shiver, as aspen sheet Im nh ư thoc (to be silent as rice)
Yellow, as a lemon Vng nh ư ngh ệ (yellow, as kurkuma)
Not a life, and a raspberry Nơi hoa thơm c ỏ ngọt (a place, where fragrant flowers, sweet grasses)
Not a tree the bird a tree searches for a bird, and Cọc đi tm tru (piles in search of buffalo s)
Thin (bad, weed) a grass from a field. A thin (bad) grass from a field Ruộng sinh c ỏ dại th phải tr ừ ngay (podkashivat a grass follows at once)
The apple from an apple-tree nearby falls Cy no qu ả ấy (what tree, it is that also its fruit)

The Russian and Vietnamese phraseological units having identical value, can differ not only the internal form, but also stylistic colouring. Such turns carry to III group. The stylistic distinctions of Russian and Vietnamese phraseological units established by us concern, basically, colloquial or colloquial colouring:

Russian FE Vietnamese FE
Children - life flowers (knizhn., posl.) Tr ẻ con l hoa của đấ t (obshcheupotr.) - children - earth natural flowers
As a pig in oranges (razg.) N ướ c đổ la khoai (it is simple.) - as water to pour on leaves taro
Grief onions (it is simple. shutl.) Giẫm phải gai mng tơi (razg.) - spinach thorns
Fresh, as a cucumber (razg. ekspres.) T ươ i nh ư hoa (it is simple.) - fresh, as a flower)
Grass a grass, as a grass (razg.) nh ư nhai rơm (it is simple.) - fresh, insipid, as straw

Having insignificant shades concern group IV for sense owing to an inevitable difference in their lexical and grammatical device Russian and Vietnamese FE, coinciding or very close on the value and, hence, on an image, but. For example:

Russian FE Vietnamese FE
As a bitter radish - about whom about what.

Very bothered, opposite

Nh ư cải đắ ng (as very bitter cabbage) - it is not so pleasant
As an oaklet - the healthy, strong man Cy đa cy đề (as an oak and yes) - the skilled person
To give to pepper (about what. Witty and venomous) Ăn ớt (to eat pepper) - to be angry, scold someone.

So, FE in III, and especially in IV groups demand to itself especial attention studying Russian as foreign because of an interference about which students and do not suspect.

Are difficult for perception and mastering by foreign students and FE V groups containing various regional geographic and lingvokulturologicheskuju the information, out-of-date forms, etc.

Commenting of such turns not only expands lingvokulturologicheskie knowledge of foreign pupils, but also clears up internal form FE, helps to perceive them emotsionalnoyoekspressivnuju colouring as a basis of realisation of their is figurative-stylistic function, at last, promotes their best storing. FE this group can have in other language certain conformity. We will result some examples:

Russian FE Vietnamese FE
In the field wheat will be born year, and the kind person always is useful Lua m mọc ở ngoi đồ ng ng ườ i m tốt bụng th khng co thừa - in the field

A lot of wheat grows, and it is a little kind people
To love to the birch Yu đế n chết - to love to death
To give an oak (sobstv. russk. Compare zadubet

- To die)

V ề trời - to leave in the sky
Dark wood (it is connected with huge wood territory in Russia and knowledge of features of wood of Russian people) Mit đặ c, khng biết m t g - a full ambiguity
To leave on beans (it is primordial russk.: a bean as the cheapest product) Tay trắng vẫn hon tay trắng - with empty hands
To dig the money in the field of miracles (a popular expression from A.Tolstogo's fairy tale Gold key). Ha miệng ch ờ sung - to wait, when the fruit will ripen also itself will fall
Easier parenoj turnips (connected with a country life. Parenaja turnip was the most frequent "fast" meal) D ễ nh ư ch ở bn tay - it is simple, as hand turn
Worse a bitter radish (In Russia often ate a radish in long posts and then it is rare bothered) Chan nh ư cơm nếp nat - (as) sticky rice

Acquaintance to phraseological units of this group helps to expand knowledge of foreign students about lingvokulturologii and the regional geography, connected with national Russian tradition.

At last, VI group is formed by the Russian phraseological units which equivalents are absent in the Vietnamese language (bezekvivalentnye FE). Examples:

Water-melon to bring to (give) to whom (narodn., iron.). To give up to the groom at courtship. 1. Expression - the refusal formula at courtship, where rus. dial.
Water-melon not ‘ a water-melon ’, and the same that ukr. Garbuz'tykva ’. 2. Russian expression - loan from ukr. Дістати garbuzas variety of derivatives and variants: dati garbuza, pokushtuvati garbuzai etc. 3. At semiotics level a turn to bring a water-melon it is interpreted as a concrete definition more the general negatively comprehended ethnocultural symbol of "emptiness".

The birch (ustar.). Birches.

To give the birch. To punish birches; to flog; to cut.

Here so a cranberry (it is simple.). Surprise exclamation at unpleasant unexpectedness.

antik with a carnation (lips.). A charm, delight. Playful expression of a praise, the higher degree and admiration someone or something.

To eat a mushroom. (ustar., it is simple., iron. Or shutl.). Not to achieve wished, to be deceived in calculations, expectations.

All a tryn-grass. All at all has no value; in any way does not touch, does not excite.

Fur-trees-sticks. (It is simple.). Disappointment expression, admiration, bewilderment, etc.

To drag chestnuts from fire for whom, to whom (iron.). To perform very difficult or dangerous work which results another uses.

Laurels to sleep do not give whom, whose to a clod. Someone feels sharp envy to someone's success

Not a potato (shutl.). Not a trifle, not comic business.

To lose the way in three pines. Not to manage to find a way out of the most simple difficulty.

To break pleasure flowers. Carelessly to indulge in pleasures of a life.

Fur-trees green (it is simple., it is frequent shutl.). Surprise or disappointment exclamation. Expression exclusively Russian. It is connected by that before revolution on kabatskih signboards fur-tree branches were represented.

Crowned round a fur-tree; to Crown round a fur-tree (rakitovogo a bush) (narodn., shutl., iron.). About nevenchanoj to a couple. Expression goes back to pagan rite
Weddings. The young pair should bypass round a fur-tree or rakitovogo a bush for marriage consecration by pagan deities. With acceptance of Christianity the ceremony has started to be perceived sceptically and has undergone to derision.

Hop vyshiblo at whom someone "has absolutely sobered". About sudden sobering up.

Earthen (devil's) apple (narodn. Or. publ.). A potato. The potato has been delivered to Europe from southern America in the middle of XVI century In Russia it began to be cultivated since XVIII Century In its people has nicknamed a devil's apple as its fur-trees pervonachalo in a crude kind and consequently were ill.

Northern apple (narodn.). Turnip. In national severnorusskih dialects an apple name turnip. [Lutovinova 1997: 238].

Sodomsky (devil's) apple (narodn., neodobr.). A potato. The name given to a potato by peasants, not recognising an overseas root crop. Enc. Sodomsky - from the name of a bible city the Row which has got bad popularity by sinfulness of the inhabitants [Lutovinova 1997: 240].

Apple of discord between whom-something, (knizh.). An occasion, the reason of quarrel, disputes in serious disagreements.

Such FE it is possible to carry to a category bezekvivalentnyh. To bezekvivalentnym to phraseological units turns with an ethnocultural originality and metaphorical reconsideration of realities from a traditional life, a life of Russian people which owing to it have no analogues in other culture concern, first of all.

The comparative analysis Russian and Vietnamese FE shows, that prevail bezekvivalentnye phraseological units (30 %) that speaks ethnocultural feature of a life of the people. In the course of teaching of Russian such phraseological units require in detailed lingvokulturologicheskom comments, which should concern semantics as phraseological unit components (in our case - fitonima), and its cumulative semantics.


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A source: Khong THU HIEN. RUSSIAN and VIETNAMESE PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS C NAMES of PLANTS In LINGVOKULTUROLOGICHESKY ASPECT. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Voronezh - 2019. 2019

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