a technique of the analysis of conceptual structures

The structure kontsepta is a set of the generalised signs and groups of the signs necessary and sufficient for identification of a subject or the phenomenon as a fragment of a picture of the world [Pimenova 2009: 17].

The structure kontsepta in scientific concepts is various. So, in structure kontsepta, on Z.D.popovoj and I.A.Sternina's classification, the basic components are the sensual image, the information maintenance and interpretatsionnoe a field. Presence in kontsepte a figurative component is defined nejrolingvisticheskim by character of a universal subject code: the sensual image codes kontsept, forming unit of a universal subject code. Authors allocate in a sensual image pertseptivnuju and kognitivnuju components. Pertseptivnyj the image is formed in consciousness of the native speaker as a result of reflexion of the surrounding validity by it by means of sense organs (tactile, flavouring, sound, olfactory images). Kognitivnyj the image is formed by metaphorical judgement of a corresponding subject or the phenomenon. In spite of the fact that kognitivnye images, as a rule, more numerous, both components equally reflect figurative characteristics kontseptualiziruemogo a subject or the phenomenon. The information maintenance kontsepta is similar to a dictionary definition of a keyword kontsepta, into it enter only differentiating denotat kontsepta signs and are excluded casual, unessential, estimated. Interpretatsionnoe the field includes kognitivnye signs which interpret, estimate kontsept and represent some vyvodnoe knowledge. Authors allocate in structure interpretatsionnogo weeding following zones: an estimated zone, an encyclopaedic zone, a utilitarian zone, reguljativnaja a zone, a welfare zone, paremiologicheskaja a zone [popova, Sternin 2007: 12, 57-60].

Other structure offers Of this year Vorkachev. It allocates in structure lingvokulturnogo kontsepta three components: conceptual, reflecting it
priznakovuju and definitsionnuju structure, figurative, fixing kognitivnye the metaphors supporting kontsept in language consciousness, and znachimostnuju, defined by a place which occupies a name kontsepta in leksikoyogrammaticheskoj to system of concrete language where its etymological and associative characteristics [Vorkachev 2002: 80] will enter also.

Methodologically important reasonings on structure kontsepta are considered as J.S.Stepanova. Kontsept, in its opinion, includes such components, as «1) the basic, actual sign; 2) additional or some the additional, passive signs which are not so actual, and historical; 3) the internal form which usually not so is not realised, embodied in the external verbal form». The first component - the basic, actual sign kontsepta - is significant, known"to all carriers of this or that language, this or that culture. Expressed verbally, it - a communication medium of representatives of a certain ethnic generality, the nation, the people, a nationality. Unlike it the second component - the additional, passive sign kontsepta - finds out the urgency far not for all ethnos; it is accessible to representatives of certain social group, for concrete microsociety. The third component - an etymological sign or the internal form - is the least actual for jazyko - and kontseptonositelej any culture as experts of concrete sciences [Stepans 1997 are engaged in history of a life of a word mainly: 44­45].

V.I.Karasik sees in structure kontsepta three basic components: figurative (visual, acoustical, tactile, flavouring characteristics of subjects perceived by sense of smell, the phenomena, the events reflected in our memory); conceptual (language fixing kontsepta, its designation, the description, priznakovaja structure, a definition, comparative characteristics of data kontsepta in relation to this or that number kontseptov which never exist separately); valuable components kontsepta (importance of this mental formation both for an individual, and for collective.

«The valuable party kontsepta is defining that kontsept it was possible to allocate») [Karasik 2002: 107].

For today there is a set of methods of research kontseptov: the conceptual analysis, the istoriko-comparative analysis,

definitsionnaja interpretation, the componental analysis, stylistic interpretation, a technique contextual and text analysis, kognitivnaja interpretation of results of the description of semantics of language means, verification received kognitivnogo descriptions at native speakers and others. Co-operating among themselves and supplementing each other, the given methods allow to investigate kontsept as object of interaction of language, thinking and culture.

While descriptive, comparative and sravnitelnoyoistorichesky methods are applied in linguistic researches already for a long time and do not demand detailed explanations the conceptual analysis is rather new method of research, and approaches to its target and objective-subject maintenance are various.

From the point of view of N.D.Arutjunovoj, «the problem of the researcher consists in modelling kontsepta and an establishment of its communications with others kontseptami» [Arutyunov 1999: 184], V.N.Telija believes, that «the conceptual analysis are researches for which kontsept is object», and a subject - structure and the maintenance kontsepta, its senses [Telija 1996:97]; N.N.Boldyrev considers, that «structure and the maintenance various kontseptov (conceptual characteristics) come to light through value of language units, reprezentirujushchih data kontsept, their dictionary interpretation, speech contexts». The Object of research are ways kontseptualizatsii (judgements) of the world the person on the basis of correlation of language values with concrete kontseptami [Boldyrev 2001: 31].

According to E.S.Kubrjakovoj, the conceptual analysis «urged to find out that conceptual structure which was obektivirovana in a word and motivated requirement for its verbalisation» [Kubrjakova 2012: 174]. In this case object of the analysis are knowledge structures, and an object of research
Make the senses transferred by these structures.

Close examination of the points of view on essence of the conceptual analysis allows to see that unites them, namely, a sight at language consciousness as on a source of the information on a conceptual picture of the world target lingvokulturnogo communities.

The research technique kontsepta V.I.Karasika includes following stages: 1) definirovanie; 2) the contextual analysis;

3) the etymological analysis; 4) paremiologichesky the analysis; 5) questioning, interviewing [Karasik 2002:92].

M.V.Pimenovoj has been developed a technique of revealing of structure kontsepta, including the analysis not metaphorical, kategorialnyh and metaphorical signs. The author offers a technique of research which consists in interpretation of values of designs, obektivirujushchih these groups of signs kontsepta:

- Nemetaforichesky signs:

1) the motivating sign is a sign which forms the basis for imenovanija a certain fragment of the world, is the internal form of a word. Kontsept can have some motivating signs. It depends directly on occurrence time kontsepta in language. The the ancient word, the it possesses a considerable quantity of motivating signs.

2) conceptual signs are the signs staticized in dictionary definitions of the corresponding lexeme kontsepta in the form of semantic components (these), and also synonyms.

- Kategorialnye signs:

1) functional signs - functions which are fixed to the corresponding reviewer in consciousness of native speakers;

2) tsennostno-estimated signs - unite estimation signs, and also figurative signs of value;

3) spatial, temporalnye, kolorativnye and dimensionalnye signs.

- Metaphorical signs:

1) figurative signs kontsepta are the signs allocated through sochetaemostnye property of a word-reprezentanta kontsepta, being in a basis of conceptual metaphors;

2) symbolical signs - the signs expressing difficult mythological, religious and other cultural concepts, fixed to a word-reprezentantom kontsepta.

The scenario is the event developed in time and-or space, assuming presence of the subject, object, the purpose, conditions of occurrence, time and a scene of action [Pimenova 2011а: 114-120].

Research kontseptov by M.V.Pimenovoj's technique occurs stage by stage. At the first stage the internal form of words-reprezentantov kontsepta is analyzed, their general and specific signs, at the second stage there is a research of conceptual metaphors, on the third - the analysis of functional signs kontsepta. The fourth stage assumes the analysis of conceptual signs through the analysis of a lexical word meaning, revealing of a synonymic number of a lexeme-reprezentanta kontsepta. The given stage includes revealing of the general properties and special signs of synonyms. At this stage the analysis of antonyms is possible. At the fifth stage are studied kategorialnye signs (dimensionalnye, kolorativnye and tsennostno-estimated, spatial and temporalnye) in structure studied kontsepta. The sixth stage is directed on the analysis of symbolical signs [Pimenova 2007б: 17].


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A source: Zaharova Tatyana Vadimovna. Folk-symbolic mental formations in the Russian and German languages ​​(using the words ‘moon’ and ‘Mond’ as an example). Thesis for the degree of candidate of philological sciences. Novokuznetsk - 2016. 2016

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