In Introduction the object, a subject, the purposes and research problems are defined, research methods are described, the practical and theoretical importance of work is designated, the positions which are taken out on protection are resulted, ways of approbation of work are specified.

In Chapter 1 «Theoretical aspects of research kontseptov» are considered theoretical questions modern kognitivnoj linguistics, theoretical bases of conceptual researches, definitions of the basic concepts kognitivnoj the linguistics, used in research. The separate section is devoted the term "kontsept". In the given work in frameworks lingvokulturologicheskogo the approach we address to concept "kontsept" as to mental formation. The type folklorno-symbolical kontseptov as which we understand the difficult mental formations representing quanta of worried knowledge, including significant for folklore carriers traditional cultural senses is described. As distinctive lines such kontseptov the following is allocated: 1) reflexion in them donauchnyh, mythological, traditional representations of the people about the world; 2) a valuable saturation pertseptivnogo an image; 3) interpretive depth and multidimensionality; 4) the special importance for culture carriers.

In the given research folklorno-symbolical mental formations in Russian and German conceptual systems are considered on an example of the analysis of mental formations the moon and Mond. Kontsepty the moon and Mond, it agree tryohchlennoj classifications kontseptov, the offered M.V.Pimenovoj, concern to base kontseptam, making the base of language and all picture of the world, enter into a class space kontseptov [Pimenova 2011а: 96-97]. Data kontsepty meet in common forms of language - word-combinations, phraseological units, proverbs, sayings and riddles, they represent the special importance for carriers of Russian and German cultures. Thus, investigated kontsepty it is possible to carry to folklornoyosimvolicheskim kontseptam.

In the separate paragraph various techniques of the analysis of conceptual structures are considered. For the description of structures kontseptov the moon and Mondбыла is chosen the technique of the conceptual analysis offered Sankt - the Peterburgsko-Kemerovo school of the conceptual researches which founder is professor M.V.Pimenova. Research kontseptov by M.V.Pimenovoj's technique occurs stage by stage. At the first stage the internal form of words-reprezentantov kontsepta is analyzed, their general and specific signs, at the second stage there is a research of conceptual metaphors, on the third - the analysis of functional signs kontsepta. The fourth stage assumes the analysis of conceptual signs through the analysis of a lexical word meaning, revealing of a synonymic number of a lexeme-reprezentanta kontsepta. The given stage includes revealing of the general properties and special signs of synonyms. At this stage the analysis of antonyms is possible. At the fifth stage are studied kategorialnye signs (dimensionalnye, kolorativnye and tsennostno-estimated, spatial and temporalnye) in structure studied kontsepta. The sixth stage is directed on the analysis of symbolical signs [Pimenova 2007б: 17].

In Chapter 2 «the Comparative analysis of structures and ways obektivatsii signs kontseptov the moon and Mond» is presented the analysis of groups of signs investigated kontseptov.

In separate paragraphs motivating, conceptual, figurative, tsennostno-estimated and symbolical signs kontseptov the moon and Mond are described.

Motivating signs kontseptov have been defined by means of the analysis of etymological and istoriko-etymological dictionaries. At the heart of five of seven motivating signs kontsepta the moon is property of the reviewer to radiate or reflect light: ‘ a glow ’, ‘ a reflexion ’, ‘ a light source ’, ‘ a beam ’, ‘ a bald head ’.

In M.Fasmera's dictionary it is underlined, that «slavic form Giicsccb is based on expansion with the help nazalnogo an element and, further,-to-. Attempts were undertaken to establish relationship with *me -" to measure ", and the moon was represented as time measure» [Fasmer 1986: 608]. A word month in N.I.Shansky's dictionary, it «obshcheslavjanskoe suf. Derivative (suf. - %сь> jats, the hare) from the same basis, as dial compare. mesik« month, the moon », an armour. mensis« month », gotsk. tyopa« the moon », etc. indoevrop. Tyoz - tyopz - it is considered related to measure» [Shansky 2004: 248].

According to data of the etymological dictionary «Etymologisches Worterbuch des Deutschen», word Mondвосходит besides indoevropejskomu to a root *tyo - they be to measure, and the moon was represented as time measure [Grimm: the Internet - a resource]. Kognitivnaja the model ‘ lunamera time ’ was widespread before the XX-th century both in Russian, and in German conceptual system, now in the given value lexemes and Monat.Однако in modern fiction are used month, in poetic texts this sign compared kontseptov does not lose the urgency:

When minuli two moon, Great CHaadi has stopped to speak. E.Romanov, N.Romanov. Ladies-trumps; Doch er hatte auch nicht vergessen, wie herrisch und kuhl sie ihn angefahren hatte, als er ihr vor zwei Monden Widersprochen hatte. Knodel. Adelheid von Lare.

The basic conceptual characteristics compared kontseptov coincide: 1) ‘ a heavenly body ’; 2) ‘ the natural companion of the Earth ’; 3) ‘ a star ’ (‘ a night star ’); 4) ‘ the companion of any planet ’; 5) ‘ time measure ’; 6) ‘ something having the form of the moon ’. At kontsepta Mondотмечен a specific sign ‘ a body, visible on certain days ’.

In Russian explanatory dictionaries, unlike German dictionaries, it is underlined, that the moon is «the heavenly body shone by the reflected sunlight»:

... And at night from the Moon also there is light because the same Sun somewhere shines, and the Moon reflects its beams to the Earth. Vavilov. An eye and the sun.

However the examples expressing the given sign kontsepta Mond have been found in a language material:

... nur der Mond, der soeben voll ward, ubte die Kraft seines Gegenscheins... Goethe. Aus meinem Leben.

Many revealed conceptual signs investigated kontseptov meet in folklore. Change of phases of the moon is easy for observing, therefore many people since olden days used a lunar calendar in which basis the period of change of lunar phases lays. Various phases of the moon are closely connected with national signs and poverjami. It, first of all, instructions on weather change:

Snow in a new moon will drop out - will soon thaw. During a full moon light and pure month - good weather, dark and pale - a rain.

Change of phases of the moon has found reflexion and in German national superstitions and signs:

Holzfallen soll man bei abnehmendem Mond, damit das Holz nicht fault oder Wurmer es nicht fressen. Ernten soll man nur bei Vollmond. Vor allem bei Honig ist dies anzuraten.

Observing of moon changes, people differently tried to explain the given phenomenon. These explanations find the reflexion in myths and fairy tales. At the people of Siberia the phenomenon of change of lunar phases speaks so: Month goes down on the earth (or in the underground world), and it is caught by the sorcerer, the mistress of the underground world. The sun, the wife of Month, comes to it to the aid and tries to pull out it from hands of the sorcerer, but that holds it strong, and Month is broken off on two parts [the Moon in mythology: an Internet resource].

In the full version of a national fairy tale "Kolobok" it is told, how Kolobok lost the roundish form, escaping from different animals which bit off from it on a slice. The fox has swallowed remained bit Kolobka, has choked with it and has spat out. And Kolobok has run back to the same animals, demanding to give bitten off. And then it has returned back to the grandma and the grandfather whole and safe. «The fairy tale cosmogonic, speech in it goes about a lunar eclipse (« the fox who has swallowed bit Kolobka "-" this sun which has absorbed the moon »)» [Pimenova 2015: 31].

In dictionaries of English language it is underlined, that the half moon is an emblem of Turkey or Islam (Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary) [Sidorov 2010: 53]. Examples have been found In German and Russian language material as, obektivirujushchie a sign ‘ an emblem of Turkey or Islam ’ though in explanatory dictionaries the given sign is not fixed:

Man kennt die Zuneigung dieses erlauchten Wesirs eines christlichen Potentaten zum Halbmond; Hauff. Die Hohle von Steenfoll; the Constancy has born fruit, and in XIV century the cross has conceded domes to a half moon. Brodsky. Travel to Istanbul.

J. Cooper in «the Encyclopedia of symbols» specifies, that the growing moon which personifies the divine and Supreme power, is Islam symbol [Cooper 1995: 192].

Figurative signs kontseptov the moon and Mondреализуются by means of groups and subgroups of signs live (vitalnye, vegetative, zoomorfnye, somatic, antropomorfnye) and the lifeless nature (signs of elements, substances, food, subject signs).

As the most actual signs of elements of investigated mental formations signs ‘ waters ’ and ‘ fire ’ act. To it there is an explanation: the elements of water symbolise itself the parent beginning of the world which is giving rise from all real. The moon personifies Mother-goddess, the sovereign of waters giving a life [Cooper 1995: 199]. Being a light source, as well as fire, the moon is allocated with its characteristics:

Also their reservation the Ripple of lunar fire sparkles... Baltrushajtis. Evening in mountains;... plotzlich der ganze Saal im dustern Feuer des Vollmonds stand. Hoffmann. Nachtstuecke.

Among substance signs in Russian conceptual system as the most productive act kognitivnye models ‘ lunametall ’ (39,9 %), act as the most actual signs ‘ copper ’ (22,3 %) and ‘ lunasteklo ’ (23,3 %). In German conceptual system of the most productive the model ‘ lunamjagkoe substance ’ (36,2 %), and also ‘ lunametall ’ (27,7 %), among which most frequency sign also ‘ copper ’ (14 %) is.

Model ‘ lunamolochnoe a product ’ - the most widespread among kognitivnyh models, obektivirujushchih food signs:

Month dairy has gone down so low. Kuzmin. Assizi;... These streets of another's city filled in with lunar milk awoke in it a strange feeling. Kin. On that party; Milchiger Mond des Osterwerdens. Maier. Ahnung.

It is connected by that many people identified month with a cow and named its horned. Southern Slavs told about witches who can dump month on the earth. When month goes down from the sky and turns to a cow, the witch doit it or touches it, becomes invisible and goes to select milk at another's cows [Slavic antiquities 2004: 146].

Bread was a primordial and basic foodstuff for Slavs. In Russian fiction there is a set of comparisons of the moon various bakery products, among them: ‘ a roll ’, ‘ a loaf ’, ‘ kolobok ’, ‘ a small horn ’, ‘ a pie ’, ‘ a cheese cake ’, ‘ bread ’. For kontsepta Mondактуальной
Is kognitivnaja model ‘ lunavkus ’ (33,3 %), among frequency signs here act a sign ‘ sweet ’.

The artefact considers any creation created by the person; it can be any construction, the work tool, a work of art or other object. First of all, the moon is one of heavenly bodies, therefore it is often compared to artificial light sources: ‘ the fixture ’ (It became dark - again run clouds have extinguished the lunar fixture. Valeev. First aid), ‘ a lantern ’ (.der Himmel war Sternenklar, und der Mond schien wie eine groβe, bleiche Laterne. Hohlbein. Der Inquisitor), ‘ a beacon ’ (As on the sea the beacon, in the dark blue sky shines the moon. Budishchev. «As if in a shroud the dressed arable lands doze a fog...» ), ‘ a projector ’ (.so da β die bleiche Scheibe des Mondes sichtbar geworden war und ihr silbernes Licht wie der Strahl eines absonderlichen Scheinwerfers auf ein frisch aufgeworfenes Grab fiel. Hohlbein. Neues vom Hexer von Salem), ‘ a lamp ’ (An dem Himmelsdome brennet Still des Mondes ewge Lampe; Brentano. Romanzen vom Rosenkranz), ‘ an icon lamp ’ (the Moon silver icon lamp Vidneet in the sky blue; Polezhaev. Erpeli), ‘ a chandelier ’ (the Moon in the star sky so it is bright. And all very well was visible, as though the bright chandelier shone under a room ceiling. postnikov. Surprising adventures of evil spirit).

The basic productive kognitivnoj in Russian and German conceptual systems acts as model model ‘ lunaserp ’:

In the sky a sharp sickle the moon has begun to shine. Feodors. Steppe road; Beim Heimwartsgang stand die Mondsichel uber den Dachern des Stadtchens. Wassermann. Der niegekuBte Mund.

The sickle repeats the half moon form, it is considered a lunar sign. The sign ‘ a sickle ’ is one of motivating signs kontsepta Mond.В myths a crescent moon often is called as a knife; so it is necessary to understand the ancient text on which Hons, the god of the Moon, kills in the sky a victim for the tsar. A crescent moon as the weapon That cuts off to infringers of the law (villains) of a head [Lurker 1998: 80].

Signs of wildlife compared kontseptov differ variety of images.

Vegetative signs are connected with the form description (roundish) and colours of the moon (the moon happens white, yellow, orange and red) more often. The most productive model for kontsepta the moon - ‘ lunaplod ’ (37,3 %). Vegetative signs kontsepta Mondбольше are connected with the heavenly body phases, the most typical are signs ‘ growth ’ (28,6 %), ‘ flowering ’ (14,3 %), ‘ withering ’ (14,3 %).

In German and Russian conceptual systems the moon is represented in image ‘ live beings ’, as the most widespread among vitalnyh signs at compared kontseptov signs ‘ movements ’ act.

In structures kontseptov the moon and Mondвходят the diverse somatic signs expressed by signs of a body and its parts. In many ancient myths the moon was considered as an eye of the God (as well as the sun). The moon / Mondнаблюдает behind world around with the help ‘ an eye ’:

The moon already has had time to wash out eyes and now looked here haughtily, knowing all about them beforehand. CHerchesov. A wreath on a wind tomb; Schief uber einen Giebel lugte manchmal der gelbe, halbe Mond: ein hohnisches Auge, das gleich wieder das Lid einkniff. H. Mann. Professor Unrat.

Representing the moon a live being, it allocate not only sight, but also hearing:

Einsam wein ' ich an der Rosenstelle, wo uns oft der spate Mond belauscht! Heine. Die Harzreise; For a knot of a dry birch month was hooked, Listens to passers-by of maids pene. The block. «For a knot of a dry birch month was hooked...».

Metaphorical and metonimicheskie the carryings over connecting the moon with images of animals, birds and fishes, are characteristic for both investigated kontseptov. In various slavic traditions month is represented as a horned animal. South slavic motives of abduction also are connected with a moon embodiment in an image of a pet by witches of the moon from the sky and collecting of milk by a witch which milks dry month. Kognitivnaja the model ‘ lunarogatoe an animal ’ is widely presented both in Russian, and in German conceptual system:

When zlatorogaja the Moon because of a cloud Over roshcheju will look out... Zhukovsky. My goddess;... wo des Mondes Horn Verschwarmten Parchen winkt auf Iauschigen Wegen. Dehmel. Allerlei Ratsel.

Heads of goddesses of the Moon in various cultures are decorated by the cow horns. Horns symbolise supernatural force, a deity, force of soul or the vital principle arising from a head. Horned gods symbolise soldiers, fruitfulness, both for people, and for animals. In the Scandinavian mythology of a horn symbolise force, man's qualities.

Among antropomorfnyh signs allocate following subgroups: gender signs, signs of character and employment, emotional, mental, social (interpersonalnye and ethical) signs.

For compared kontseptov antropomorfnym a sign the sign ‘ the traveller/companion ’ (9,9 % for Russian and 18,3 % for German conceptual system) is frequency. For Russian kontsepta the moon are characteristic antropomorfnye signs of the social status, power presence. There are representations about the moon «as about the space ruler of all terrestrial changes in an animal and flora» [Pimenova 2008: 301]. Was considered, the god of the moon Attract often went on foot, strumming on a flute. He is a patron of travellers and the pedestrian walking in general, that also is reflected in antropomorfnyh signs investigated kontsepta: the sign ‘ the guidebook ’ (‘ the way index ’) is one of the most frequency signs kontsepta Mond (13,7 %).

In most cases the moon embodies the female beginning, the exception is made by some African and North American American Indian tribes, tevtony, Scandinavians, tribes of Ocenia, Maori and Japan where the moon is a man's productive principle. As words-reprezentanty investigated kontseptov are nouns of a different sort (the moon and month), their gender signs differ. Dual gender representation about the moon is peculiar to Russian language picture of the world (though feminine gender signs nevertheless prevail - 54 %), in German prevail man's signs (99,4 %).

Signs of character investigated kontseptov are often connected with myths and widespread representations of the moon as the woman, the Goddess in Russian culture or men, the God (Attract) in German culture. Kontseptu the moon such signs, as ‘ kapriznost ’, ‘ extravagance ’, ‘ sumatoshnost ’, ‘ charm ’, ‘ charm ’ are inherent; kontseptu Mondсвойственны signs ‘ reticence ’, ‘ mildness ’, ‘ gravity ’, ‘ patience ’, ‘ obstinacy ’.

For kontsepta Mondнаиболее as the frequency the sign ‘ calmness ’ (15 %) acts. Here again finds the reflexion a mythological image of the lunar god Attract, which possessed quiet and soft customs and differed compassion. For Russian kontsepta the moon signs ‘ grief ’ (13,25 %), ‘ fun ’ (10,5 %), ‘ calmness ’ (8,8 %) are frequency.

Both in Russian, and in German conceptual system, the moon as the person, is allocated with mental faculties:

And here also it is high over a monastery the silent, thoughtful moon. Chekhov. The bishop; Nur der Mondglotzte vor sich hin und begriff nicht. Meyrink. Das Fieber.

antropomorfnye interpersonalnye signs analyzed kontseptov are numerous, they are closely connected with beliefs and myths of Slavs and Germen. The motive of relationship of the moon and the sun in slavic folklore is presented by beliefs that the Moon and the Sun is a son and the father (ukr., a floor.); native brothers (rus., ukr., a floor., the Serb.); sister and the brother (bolg.); the wife and the husband (bolg., a floor.). On views of Serbs, month is the husband of star Danitsy (Venus). According to beliefs of Macedonians, month is a brother of the sun. The moon enters marriage relations with a lightning, a wind, clouds, morning star Denitsej. The sun and the Moon were the brother and sister, but were not familiar; when they have grown, have grown fond each other and have wanted to get married; mother has damned them, and since then the sun and the Moon meet only time in a year during a summer solstice (bolg.) [Slavic antiquities 1995: 143]. In germanoyo

The Scandinavian mythology the lunar God Attract - the brother Salt (Sun) and son Mundilfari («time Rotator»).

For people the moon / Mondстановится ‘ the listener ’ (For a knot of a dry birch month was hooked, Listens to passers-by of maids pene. The block. «For a knot of a dry birch month was hooked...»; Und der Mond, der stille Lauscher, Wirft sein goldnes Licht herein. Heine. Bergidylle), ‘ the interlocutor ’ (.drugim dialogue with blednolikoj the moon suffices. Fuks. Two in a drum; Er konnte ehrerbietig mit dem Monde reden. Hesse. Das Glasperlenspiel), the moon - ‘ the accomplice ’ (Tsap-Tsarapych - the enemy. The moon — the accomplice. Here it not to give out me, has whisked for a roof. Kassil. Konduit and SHvambranija), ‘ the accomplice ’ (to Come back opasnoju dorogoju With the accomplice eternal - the moon. Tsvetaeva. A wood kingdom).

The moon / Mondоказывает influence on world around and on people (moon Influence. The full moon is fast. Lemons. The young villain;... ich erhob mich zuerst undgratulierte, obgleich ich den Einflu β des Mondes nicht unterschatzte. Grass. Die Blechtrommel): ‘ influences a dream ’ (Ah, neduzhnyj a dream under the moon the bad. Has not put it! Sadur. The German;... denn der Mond durfte Schlafenden nicht auf ihre Lider scheinen, weil sie sonst am kommenden Tage Traumen nachhingen und die Welt ihrer Vorstellungen sich mit der Wirklichkeit vermischte. Bonsels. Das Anjekind; Zuerst lie β mich der Mond nicht schlafen, der mich durchs Fenster herein angrinste, und als ich die Gardine vorzog, schien gar der Engelskopf des Madchens
hereinzublicken. Hauff. Mitteilungen aus den Memoiren des Satan), ‘ regulates mood ’ (the Moon, they speak, regulates mood, causes feeling of depression and aggression. Pristavkin. A valley of a mortal shade; Sie wollten sich beide nicht voneinander trennen und hatten diese besondere Stimmung, die, so sagten sie sich, hauptsachlich von der Nacht und dem Mond kam, gerne noch lange festgehalten. Dietrich. Sprung ins Leben).

The moon / Mondвыступают ‘ object of inspiration ’ for creative people, writers and poets: of it ‘ sing ’:

But here the moon: it is not dim, is not pale, is not thoughtful, is not foggy, as at us, and is pure, transparent, as crystal, is proud shines white shine and is not sung, as at us, poets, hence, devstvenna. Goncharov. A frigate "Pallada".

In structures investigated kontseptov have been allocated also tsennostnoyootsenochnye signs. Value signs kontsepta the moon in Russian conceptual system obektivirujutsja signs of various jewels that is connected with their symbolics, for example, pearls - the most essential symbol as light, and feminity. Its pale light associates with the full moon that is kept in language:

. She at light round, as the big pearl, the Moon admired defencelessness of the bared neck and the white brawny foot extended over a blanket. Orlova. The Moon way.

Besides, value of the moon and Mondобъективируется signs of such precious metals, as ‘ silver ’ and ‘ gold ’:

Der silberne Mond, die duftenden Rosen, der entzuckende Sommerabend, sorecht zur Liebe und Traurigkeit geschaffen, haben unsern Herzen Wehmut und Thranen entlockt. Rhoden. Der Trotzkopf; Dorten rauscht die grune Tanne, Und erglanzt der goldne Mond. Heine. Buch der Lieder; But that it for marvellous night; warmly and silently around, and it is high over zemlyoju harmonously approached arch of pale blue heavens sparkles the silver moon. Nadson. Diaries; Both the hero pale and sad Looks for a month gold. Hamsters. Vadim.

Metals, as well as people, were considered generated as the earth and had divine possibilities. In symbolics of metals silver - a lunar, female, cold sign, attribute of the goddess of the moon of Artemis (in Diana's Roman mythology), and also metal of queens. Gold in an antiquity everywhere associated with the Sun and was a symbol of the man's beginning. Symbolism of this metal is attributed as well to gold colour - the sun, fire, glory, a deity, light of heavens and true [Tressider 1999: 143].

In compared conceptual systems the aesthetic estimation (beautiful, good) the moon dominates and Mond, thus among this type of an estimation the positive estimation of appearance of the moon and Mond prevails:

Back on foot at light of the magnificent moon... Boldyrev. Obsidional record;. den Vollmond in seiner ganzen Herrlichkeit neben dem Spruhfeuer des Vulkans. Goethe. Italienische Reise.

During research symbolical signs kontseptov the moon and Mond have been allocated: 1) ‘ the moon - the Deity ’; 2) ‘ the moon - an eye/person of the God ’; 3) ‘ the moon - an omen symbol ’; 4) ‘ the moon - a symbol of death and potustoronnego the world ’; 5) ‘ the moon - a symbol of people «not from this world» ’.

In Russian culture to the moon did not worship, however in Russian conceptual picture of the world the moon is described by signs ‘ deities ’. In culture of Germen there was a God of the Moon - Attract, but modern northern pagans do not take away Attract a place of honour in a pantheon of gods. In compared conceptual systems representations about the moon which include symbolical signs of other people have remained, in them influence Greek, Roman, Egyptian and other cultures is reflected.

Ancient Slavs the higher being of the divine world had Bird Mater Sva. Sva inspired on feats, helped to overcome enemies to what the book »testifies« Velesova (Vlesova): «Also beats Mater Sva krylami and sings a song fighting, and this bird not the sun, but from it all has begun». Many civilisations know the goddess Swan Sva (compare: the Swan - swan (English) / Schwan (it.)). A swan - the companion of the Greek goddess of beauty of the Aphrodite. In Russian conceptual system the moon appears in an image of the Swan:

Floating, as a swan, in heavens, the Moon srebrit grey-haired clouds. Polezhaev. The Kremlin garden.

Month acts as attribute of the Tsarevna of the Swan in A.S.Pushkin's products:

Overseas a tsarevna is, That is not possible an eye otvest; in the Afternoon light divine eclipses, at Night the earth shines, Month under a plait shines, And in a forehead the star burns. Pushkin. A fairy tale on tsar Saltane.

In many cultures of the people the moon symbolised a night eye, being opposed to the Sun - an eye day. In daosizme the Moon symbolises an eye shining in a haze [Cooper 1995: 190]. In compared conceptual systems the moon is considered as ‘ an all-seeing eye ’:

Month the dim eye Everywhere looks in Ocean. Bryusov. «Sing sad songs...»; Month, a rest star, in a gloom night notices Secret all in heavens and secret all in podnebesi. Zhukovsky. Nali Damajanti; Der Mond aber ist die heilige Sechs und somit das sehende Auge. Pawlowski. Meo.

In some cultures the moon sometimes represented in the form of an evil eye observing of an event:

Month bad between oblak sleepless bypasses camp patrol, he searches, searches for fighters doomed by a steadfast look. Ellis. Before fight; Der Mond blickte seltsam und unheimlich aus dunklen Wolken, die schnell uber den Himmel flogen. Eichendorff. Ahnung und Gegenwart.

The moon / Mondконцептуализируется signs ‘ persons ’:

Only month through a fog will fill a crimson face In the motionless seas. Batyushkov. Evening;. der volle Mond lugt hinterm Wald hervor: das kuhle Gesicht eines schmunzelnden Weisen. Strittmatter. Ole Bienkopp.

For people colour, the form, moon phases served as a prediction, a sign often bearing something negative:

And though us learnt, that the Sun covers for a while the Moon body, that all is a science is explained, but for simple people, as well as in annals, it was a bad sign. Zurov. Ivan-yes-marja; They looked at the sky and saw an omen: the moon, sklonjas to the earth,
Reddened, as though plunging into bloody waves; Korolenko. The legend on Flora, Agrippe and Menaheme, son Iegudy.

There is a set will accept, the instructions connected with variability of the moon. On the moon predicted and forecast the weather, destiny, an outcome of any events. Signs and influence of phases of the moon on various events coincide in Russian and German representations:

Sieht man das erste Viertel des Mondes uber den linken Schulter, so geht einem alles verkehrt, sieht man es zuerst uber den rechten, so hat man Gluck. Fruh. Der Mond: Marchen, Brauchtum, Aberglaube; If to see young month to the left of themselves next 30 days become unhappy. Will notice it on the right, expect the successful period. Lunar signs; the Moon, being poured crimson, hung on the right — on good luck. Lazarchuk, Uspensky. Look in eyes of monsters; Er hatte Gluck, der Mond stand an einer gunstigen Position im ersten Viertel der zunehmenden Halbmondphase. Gude. Binarcode.

With a month it is connected both representation about money and incomes:

Zunehmender Mond bringt Geld, wenn man ihn im Freien in die Geldtasche scheinen laβt. Fruh. Der Mond: Marchen, Brauchtum, Aberglaube. That money was found, it is necessary to show to their young month. They will grow together with the moon the next days. Lunar signs.

Three-day absence of the moon in the sky, and then its new occurrence have made the moon a symbol of transition from a life to death and from death again by a life. In some traditions the moon shows road to a next world or itself is a place of a posthumous residence of just souls [Tressider 1999: 201].

The given symbolism has remained in Russian fiction (On the ancient belief which has remained in manihejstve, the moon is intermediate station for souls died. Nightingales. The good justification) when the moon shines - there are phantoms (At an o'clock of midnight silent, At light of the gloomy moon, From podzemelnoj the parties the phantom timid Proceeds. Polezhaev. The live dead person). In German culture it is considered, that in the light of the moon it is possible to see phantoms (O Jungling! Sei so ruchlos nicht, Und leugne die Gespenster. Ich selbst sah eins beim Mondenlicht. Lessing. Die Gespenster), Mondнаполняет wood phantoms (Mit toten Heldengestalten Erfullst du MondDie schweigenden Walder. Trakl. Der Abend), it is occupied by souls died (... vom Mond, von seinen Phasen und Wirkungen, wie er immer wieder anschwoll und immer wieder hinschwand, bevolkert von den Seelen der Gestorbenen, sie zu neuer Geburt aussendend, um Raum fur neue Tote zu schaffen. Hesse. Das Glasperlenspiel), souls fly to it (Wenn ich gestorben bin, fliegt mein Geist in den Mond. Hesse. Das Glasperlenspiel).

It is considered one of lunar goddesses Gekata which was the goddess of an underworld. It was also the goddess of witches, poisonous plants and many other things magical attributes. Gekatu which often visited tombs and crossroads of roads, dogs accompanied tryohglavye; in its honour ancient Greeks sacrificed dogs:

Zum Schluss ist sie zu einem maghrebinischen Krauterweib gegangen, das ihr geraten hat, um Mitternacht an einem Kreuzweg auf einem Bein zu stehen und dabei den Mond anzuheulen, undder Ausschlag war verschwunden. Hohlbein. Die Ruckkehr der Zauberer.

In Russian and German conceptual systems communication of the moon with dogs and wolves which bark has remained and howl on the moon:

In different places of a city howled and barked at the moon of a dog. Bitter. Life Klima Samgina; And wolves go-wander in the snow winters, howl on the moon from a cold and hunger. Moskvin, Sedov. The Grandfather the Frost has come to the Earth;... nur der Hund bellte noch ein Weilchen den Mond an. Eichendorff. Die Glucksritter;. von der Wohld heulten die Wolfe den Mond an und im Moore waren die Kraniche am Prahlen. Lons. Der Wehrwolf.

In German language expression «Den Mond anbellen» means to shout, swear on someone, who cannot do much harm (compare the Indian proverb: That for the moon bark of a dog).

Sometimes people repeat behaviour of animals: they start to howl on the moon from grief and melancholy:

. I began to cry together with it and so, nestling to each other, we on pair howled on the moon. Shishkin. All are expected by one night; Wenn du wusstest, wie sehr ich mich nach dir sehne «, flusterte er, lehnte sich erschopft gegen die Motorhaube des Gelandewagens, und seine Augen heulten stumm den Mond an, der jetzt ziemlich gerade uber der Grenze stand. Vertacnik. Ultimo.

The moon / Mondпредставляется other world therefore there are the metaphors describing people, verbalizujushchiesja steady expression «not from this world». It can symbolise people silly (Or you simply fool, or you the person who has fallen from the moon. Yerofeev. Notes of the psychopath), «not from this world» (.aber neulich, wie du da in den Saal hereinkamst, wie vom Mond gefallen. Hesse. Der Steppenwolf), madwomen (From the moon has fallen down! psihopatka! Grekova. Crisis), not knowing truisms (All das Fragen und Verwundern hatt kaum arger sein konnen, wenn einer warm vom Mond gefallen war. Morike. Maler Nolten).

The name of painful frustration "lunatizm" (it. der Mondsucht) occurs from pozdnelatinskogo lunaticus - mad. The given term is connected with representations of many ancient people about influence of lunar cycles on mentality of the person. In Germany the moon name the sun of fools: ‘ Sonne der Dummen ’, ‘ Lumpenlaterne ’.

On the basis of the description of ways obektivatsii signs of mental formations the moon and Mondбыли their full structures are restored. In structure kontsepta Mondбольше all conceptual signs are presented (61 % from the general number of analysed units), are frequency also figurative signs (34 %). In structure kontsepta the moon conceptual signs also occupy the most part (43 %). Besides, significant signs are figurative and motivating signs (41 %; 12 %). Structures compared kontseptov coincide only partially, basically they reflect specificity of national-cultural perception and ways kontseptualizatsii the world.

In the Conclusion are summed up the carried out research, the conclusion about quantitative predstavlennosti those or other groups of signs in structures investigated kontseptov becomes, the most frequency signs, and also the general and differentiating signs in structures investigated kontseptov come to light, prospects of development of the given theme are outlined.

<< | >>
A source: ZAHAROVA Tatyana Vadimovna. FOLKLORE-SYMBOLIC MENTAL EDUCATIONS IN RUSSIAN AND GERMAN LANGUAGES (using the words Luna and Mond as an example). ABSTRACT dissertation for the degree of candidate of philological sciences. Tver - 2017. 2017


  2. the Basic maintenance of work
  10. the Basic maintenance of work