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THE WORK GENERAL CHARACTERISTIC

The given work is executed in the tideway of the discourse theory, pragmalingvistiki and sociolinguistics. Object of research is the business discourse in higher education sphere. As a studying subject universal and national-specific characteristics of a Russian-speaking and English-speaking discourse are considered.

The work urgency is caused by following moments: 1) the business discourse concerns the major types institutsionalnogo dialogue, at the same time its definition still remains debatable, spheres of its existing and modusy its realisation demand an explanation and the description; 2) modelling of universal and national-specific characteristics of various types of a discourse is one of most actively developing directions of the modern theory of a discourse, thus in the comparative plan the business discourse in the academic sphere in English-speaking and Russian-speaking communicative behaviour is still insufficiently studied; 3) comparative studying of a business discourse in higher education sphere will allow to optimise intercultural communications.

The hypothesis of the present research consists that the business discourse understood as organizational communications, is special measurement of any institutsionalnogo dialogue type in its oral and written modusah and in this plan can be comprehended as metaprofessional dialogue. metaprofessionalnost a business discourse consists in existence defined diskursivnyh types in different spheres of professional work and social institutes and has universal and national-specific characteristics in different lingvokulturah.

Research objective is working out of the concept of a business discourse as organizational communications with reference to higher education sphere in English-speaking and Russian-speaking lingvokulturah.

For object in view achievement it is necessary to solve following problems:

1) to study existing treatments of concept business discourse, to reveal modern approaches to its definition and research;

2) to analyse concepts used in the modern linguistic literature, adjacent with concept a business discourse;

3) to formulate and prove concept of a business discourse, to reveal it konstituirujushchie signs;

4) to reveal and describe the types of a business discourse functioning in sphere of higher education;

5) to develop deskriptivno-comparative model of the analysis of a business discourse and to present algorithm of procedure of the deskriptivno-comparative analysis of a business discourse;

6) to carry out the deskriptivno-comparative analysis situativnoyopragmaticheskih, text and lingvostilisticheskih characteristics
diskursivnyh events for the allocated types of a business discourse in investigated communicative cultures;

7) to reveal and formulate universal and natsionalnoyospetsificheskie characteristics organizational diskursivnogo style in English-speaking and Russian-speaking communicative cultures with reference to higher education sphere.

As a research material the English-speaking and Russian-speaking texts connected with personnel questions, questions of employment and operative interaction on work are used. Documents of the British, American and Russian high schools (King's College London, Southampton University, Cambridge University, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, the Voronezh state university, the Moscow state university of M.V.Lomonosova, the Voronezh state medical academy of N.N.Burdenko), collected during 2004 - became 2014 material sources

The English-speaking case of examples was made by texts Job Announcement, Job Description, Job Application Letters, Job Application Forms, CV, Resume, Reference / Recommendation Letters, Testimonials, Request Letters, Invitation (for a Job Interview), Job Offers, Letters to Unsuitable Applicant, Job Acceptance Letter, Job Declining Letters, Information Letters, Memos, Notices / Notifications, Workplace emails (Requests, Reminders, Invitations Announcements, Information, Discussion), Letter of Appointment, Letter of Dismissal, Letter of Resignation, Annual Evaluation Report, Appraisal Form, Annual Evaluation Review, Evaluation Review Summary, Warning Letter, Thank-you Letter. Total of texts - 2500. Term Letter includes also electronic letters (e-mail), which in our case the overwhelming majority. As source of some texts of a discourse of employment official web sites of high schools where announcements of vacant posts are published in heading Job Opportunities, and also specialised sites on employment served.

The Russian-speaking case of examples texts of the announcement of a vacant post / have made announcements of competition on a vacant post, covering letters, letters-inquiries on vacancy, the resume, letters - of the offer of professional services, letters of recommendation, invitation letters - the circular, the announcement, the news message, the statement, the service record, the report, an explanatory note, the order / the order, nominee representation on a post, the report, an appraisal sheet, a response of the head, internal correspondence on operative questions / electronic letters (e-mail). Total of texts - 2800. As a source of texts official web sites of high schools, intrahigh school dispatch, documents of staff departments and office-work (the general departments) have served. As a source of some texts of a discourse of employment specialised sites on employment, and also newspapers of high schools have served: Newspapers «Medical shots», «the Voronezh university», «the Moscow university».

In research general scientific methods - an inductive method, a method of the qualitative analysis (the interpretive approach), supervision were applied. Also specialised linguistic methods were used: deskriptivno-analytical, a method of the contextual analysis. In research discourse-analysis methods were used: categories and parametres of the discourse-analysis, unit diskursivnogo the analysis, macro-and analysis microlevels, aspektualnyj the approach to the discourse description. Research was spent simultaneously in English-speaking and Russian-speaking communicative cultures that has caused also use of a method of the comparative analysis.

As theoretical basis of the dissertation works in the tideway of following scientific directions have served: diskursivnyj the analysis (N.D.Arutjunova, Century Z Demjankov, JU.N.sentr, V.I.Karasik, A.A.Kibrik, E.S.Kubrjakova, L.M.Makarov, M.Fuko, T van Dejk, N.Feerklaf, M.Stabs, R.Vodak, D.Cameron, D.Tannen); the theory of speech communications and speech influence (I.A.Sternin, A.O.Leontovich, V.V. Bogdanov, O.L.Kamenskaja, E.F.Tarasov, G.G.Pocheptsov, R.Yakobson); comparative linguistics (I.A.Sternin, M.A.Sternina, V.B.Kashkin, A.P.grandmother's, V.G.Gak, Rubbed-minasova Of this year); functional stylistics and the theory of speech genres (M.M.Bakhtin, V.V. Vinogradov, V.V. Dementyev, V.I.Tjupa, K.F.Sedov, O.B.Sirotinina, T. V.Shmelev); text linguistics (I.R.Galperin, T.M. Nikolaev, Z.J.Turaeva, V.E.Chernjavskaja, N.S.Valgina, T.V.Matveeva, T.M.Homutova); professionalnoyoinstitutsionalnyj a discourse (E. And. SHejgal, A.V.Oljanich, L.S.Bejlinson, I.A.Bubnova, M.I.Solnyshkina V. Bhatia, J. Cook-Gumperz, A. Cicourel, P. Drew, J. Heritage, S. Roberts, S. Sarangi, J. Holmes, A. Koester, M. Stubbs); a business discourse (F. Bargiela-Chiappini, S Nickerson, R. Iedema, L. Louhiala-Salminen, G. Poncini, W. Orlikowski, J. Yates); sociolinguistics (A. Pennycook, R. Scollon, S. Scollon, P. Trudgill), communications ethnography (D. Hymes, J, Gumperz, S. Ervin-Tripp, M. Saville-Troike), linguistic the pragmatist, the theory of speech certificates (J.Austin, J. Searle, P. Brown, S. Levinson, S. Blum-Kulka, T.V.Larin, K.M.Shilihina), the theory of intercultural communications (Of this year Rubbed-minasova, O.A.Leontovich, L.V.Kulikova, M.A.Kulinich, L.I.Grishaeva, L.V.Tsurikova).

Degree of a readiness of a problem. Against the general interdisciplinary interest of researchers to various diskursivnym to experts studying of a business discourse from linguistics positions leaves on the foreground. Distinct tendencies of allocation of this object in independent branch of the discourse-analysis are observed. A number of the serious researches devoted to problems of a business discourse testifies to it, published in last decade (O.P.Sologub, S.P.Kushneruk, T.A.Shiryaev, S.V.Mkrtychjan, D.S.Hramchenko, L.Luahiala-Salminen, P.Alatalo, K.Nikerson, S.Roberts, S.Saranzhi, V.Bhatija, K.Kandlin, F.Bardzhela-Kjapini, J. Kamfort, J. Holmes). And if several decades ago the business discourse was treated exclusively as business communications, as language of conducting business negotiations or a writing of commercial letters, in
Present time conceptual borders of comprehension of a phenomenon of a business discourse have essentially extended, as well as variability of approaches to its interpretation and studying has considerably increased. Studying of a business discourse occurs in the tideway of communicatively-dejatelnostnogo campaign. Researches are conducted in the tideway of the theory of speech genres and rhetoric, from positions konversatsionnogo the analysis (as a rule, oral communications) and text linguistics (written communications).

Dynamics of intercultural communications of the end XX - the beginnings of the XXI-st centuries put before philologists, linguists, anthropologists, lingvokulturologami, experts in speech communications - the applied problems connected with research of mechanisms of formation of the communicative competence and working out of ways of use of these mechanisms for effective business dialogue. The decision of these problems has forced researchers to promote from studying of language of business dialogue, for example, English as language for the special purposes, before researches professional, institutsionalnogo, a corporate or administrative discourse in which language plays a key role. For foreign researches of this direction, marking itself turn from language of business dialogue to a business discourse, the combination of interdisciplinary methodological approaches, such as konversatsionnyj the analysis, the organisation theory, the social theory that provides the deep descriptive analysis of interrelation of language and institutsionalnoj experts on an example of social institutes of public health services, a science is characteristic, business, etc. Domestic researches in the field of a business discourse also show a wide spectrum of approaches to research of a business discourse: lingvokognitivnyj (T.A.Shiryaev), it is functional-sinergetichesky (D.S.Hramchenko), is functional-genetic (O.P.Sologub),

Psycholinguistic (S.V.Mkrtychjan). It is difficult to disagree with T.A.Shirjaevoj who specifies in absence of uniform treatment of concept «a business discourse» and nerazrabotannost to its typology. From positions of organizational communications the business discourse was not considered yet.

Scientific novelty of the dissertation consists in working out of the concept of a business discourse as organizational communications, in the comparative description written modusa a business discourse for which the complex model of the deskriptivno-comparative analysis is developed. The system organisation of investigated discourses is presented as definitely structured set diskursivnyh events. Discourses of employment, operative interaction and a personnel discourse are in details shined. Universal and national-specific characteristics business diskursivnogo style of English-speaking and Russian-speaking communications with reference to higher education are established.

The theoretical importance of research consists in a substantiation of the concept of a business discourse as metaprofessional institutsionalnogo formations. Concepts business and professional are specified and differentiated
Discourse, the concept of a discourse of operative interaction is entered. The terms framework for the description of a business discourse is generated: terms used in the discourse-analysis are specified and differentiated: participants of a discourse, diskursivnye strategy, the register and a tonality, diskursivnyj a genre and a text type. New terms are entered into scientific use: the basic and additional information components, diskursivnoyosobytijnyj the status of participants; parametres of the form of the text are detailed, the sign of degree of rigidity of the form is entered (rigidnaja / free / diffuznaja), oppositions diskursivnyh strategy of strengthening of influence - softening of influence, standardization - personification are detailed. Linear and cyclic ways diskursivnogo structurizations are defined.

Theoretically significant revealing and definition of a discourse of employment, a discourse of operative interaction and a personnel discourse as bases of development of typology of a business discourse is represented. For research of a business discourse it is developed integrativnaja model deskriptivnoyosopostavitelnogo the analysis which shows the universal comparative potential, allowing to use the offered methodology in different language and communicative cultures and for the analysis of different types of a discourse. The concept business diskursivnogo style as way of reflexion of national-cultural specificity of a business discourse is defined and characterised.

The practical importance of work is defined by possibility of application of the received results in courses of linguistics, intercultural communications, special courses on comparative linguistics, the discourse theory, pragmalingvistike and sociolinguistics.

On protection following positions are taken out:

1. The business discourse is organizational communications as specific measurement institutsionalnogo a discourse, in a special way structured set diskursivnyh the events, having metaprofessional character. Existence of a business discourse is defined by necessity of regulation, structurization and maintenance of an order of communicative interaction in social institute.

2. The basic theoretical concepts necessary for the analysis of a business discourse, along with traditional (the discourse purpose, participants, their purposes, statuses, speech certificates, a text type, the communications channel), are: discourse structure, diskursivnoe event, diskursivnaja a tonality, diskursivnye strategy, diskursivnyj a genre, diskursivnoe action, diskursivnyj style.

3. A usual embodiment of a business discourse are its concrete types. For communications in higher education sphere usual demonstration of a business discourse is represented by an employment discourse, a discourse of operative interaction and a personnel discourse.

4. The Deskriptivno-comparative analysis of a business discourse represents the consecutive description and comparison of national business discourses at three levels:

I level - the analysis konstituirujushchih the signs, including three aspects: sotsiokulturnyj, diskursivno-subject and strukturnoyosobytijnyj;

II level - the analysis diskursivnogo the events, including three aspects: is situational-pragmatical, text and lingvostilistichesky;

III level - consecutive comparison revealed at the previous stage is situational-pragmatical and lingvostilisticheskih signs diskursivnyh events, definition and interpretation diskursivnyh similarities and distinctions, construction national diskursivnogo a profile and a substantiation of tendencies of development national diskursivnogo style.

5. As the tool of the analysis of a business discourse its deskriptivno-comparative model acts, allowing is system to model konstituirujushchie signs of a business discourse, is full and is volume to present written modus a discourse, to analyse the business text of any genre and type as a basic element diskursivnogo events; possessing in comparative potential which gives possibility to use it on a material different lingvokultur.

6. In sotsiokulturnom aspect the business discourse is based on set of istoriko-economic, legal both tsennostno-ideological principles and features of national business communicative culture.

In diskursivno-subject aspect the business discourse characterises community of the participants possessing diskursivno-institutsionalnym, professional, hierarchical and sobytijnym the statuses defining their purposes, roles and mutual relations in everyone diskursivnom event.

In structurally-sobytijnom aspect the business discourse represents linear interaktsionalnuju sequence dialogichnyh steam (structure of a discourse of employment) or the cyclic organisation of the regular (planned) and irregular (not planned) independent events repeating through identical or different time intervals (structure of a discourse of operative interaction and a personnel discourse).

7. The Deskriptivno-comparative analysis of a business discourse in higher education sphere shows, that diskursivnoe community (participants, the purposes and statuses) are approximately identical in all three types of the investigated discourses, and national specificity of English-speaking and Russian-speaking business discourses mainly reveals in diskursivnyh events and their components, diskursivnyh genres and types of texts, diskursivnyh actions, strategy and a tonality.

8. The basic features of an English-speaking business discourse in an education sphere consist in a high functional and genre readiness diskursivnyh events and texts written modusa communications; multipurpose character and polizhanrovosti
The electronic business letter; presence of emotionally-expressional means of expression at different levels of a discourse; occurrence of composite and voice-frequency diffusion - penetration of elements of colloquial style in officially-business; presence and active use diskursivnyh strategy as means of strengthening of efficiency of a discourse.

9. The basic features of a Russian-speaking business discourse in an education sphere consist in high degree of composite-structural, thematic and zhanrovo-stylistic standardization; in constrained, laconic and unemotional diskursivnoj tonalities of the high and average register; correlation presence between the diskursivno-hierarchical status of participants of a discourse and a choice diskursivnogo a genre; information laconicism, thematic limitirovannosti and minimalism of composite structurization of the text.

10. The Deskriptivno-comparative analysis allows to define specificity national business diskursivnogo style: English-speaking business diskursivnyj style is characterised by aspiration to genre flexibility, deformalizatsii a discourse, tekstovo-structural unification, domination of the electronic channel of communications, strengthening of efficiency and productivity of a discourse; Russian-speaking business diskursivnyj style is characterised genre rigidnostju, adherence to the formal register of communications, expansion of the electronic channel of communications, formation new (including borrowed of an English-speaking discourse) diskursivnyh genres, process of adaptation of English-speaking elements to national diskursivnoj to practice.

Approbation of results of research. Theoretical positions and results of research have been presented at the international All-Russia and regional scientific both scientifically-practical conferences and symposiums: scientifically-methodical conference «Enhancing Quality in Foreign Language Teaching in Higher Education», Voronezh, 2004; III International conference «Stylistics and the theory of language communications» the HAZE, Moscow, 2005; VII International scientific conference «Philology and culture», Tambov, 2009; I International scientific conference “New ideas in XXI-st century linguistics», Pyatigorsk, 2009; the International scientific conference «Kognitivno-pragmatical features of professional discourses», Kharkov, 2009; the international scientifically-practical conference «the Foreign language for the special purposes: the Description. Teaching», Voronezh, 2009; II International scientifically-practical conference «Problems of linguistics, a technique of training to foreign languages and literary criticism in the light of intercultural communications» Ufa, 2009; Sociolinguistic Symposium 18 «Negotiating Transnational Space and Multilingual Encounters», Southampton, UK, 2010; the international scientific conference

«A language life in culture and society», RUDN, Moscow 2010, 2011, 2012; IX Stepanovsky readings “Language and culture in the modern world (on a material of the romano-German languages), RUDN, Moscow, 2013; II International scientific
Conference «the Discourse as social activity: priorities and prospects», the HAZE, Moscow 2014; XIX International scientific conference “Rhetoric in a formation and culture context», Ryazan 2015; the All-Russia scientific conference «Comparative methods in linguistic researches. mezhjazykovoe and intralinguistic comparison», Voronezh, 2015; II International scientifically-practical conference «Magic INNO: new in research of language and a technique of its teaching, MGIMO, Moscow 2015.

Results of research also were reported at annual scientific seminars of chair of a general linguistics and stylistics, the centre of communicative researches of the Voronezh state university «Language and national consciousness», «the world Text-discourse-picture», and also at annual regional scientifically-methodical conference «Culture of dialogue and its formation».

Work substantive provisions are stated in the monography, 63 articles in total amount 48,3 items of l., 16 from which are published in the reviewed magazines recommended VAK of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation.

Work structure. The dissertation consists of the introduction, five heads, the conclusion, the list of the literature, appendices.

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A source: STEBLETSOVA Anna Olegovna. NATIONAL SPECIFICITY of the BUSINESS DISCOURSE In HIGHER EDUCATION SPHERE (on a material of English-speaking and Russian-speaking written communications). The dissertation AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT on competition of a scientific degree of the Doctor of Philology. Tver - 2015. 2015

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