§ 2.2. Vocational training and educational work With police shots

As an element of system of work with shots of police vocational training begins the formation from the moment of creation of regular police in XVIII century with training of the military men who have arrived in its order to features of service on protection of a public order in Main politsmejsterskoj of the office and other bodies of police of that period.

As a measure of increase of level of preliminary special preparation, officials in the police, all officials were obliged to read and re-read laws and orders, on what it provided allocation not less than one hour every day [190]. However to the middle of XIX century general educational level, degree of professional qualification not too influenced career growth or at appointments on service. Even in «the Charter blagochinija, or the Policeman» by 1782 of any attestative influence in work with police shots also it has not been provided.

In the middle of XIX century requirements to professional qualities of employees of police both from the state, and from a society considerably increase. To the government comprehension of necessity special and legal education of policemen, in particular the bottom ranks that promotes acceptance of measures in this direction comes. Despite it, general educational and vocational training of policemen remained on a low level. The great bulk of ranks of police has got education in the lowest educational institutions, or so-called house formation. Than thirds of policemen, and among chiefs of districts and their assistants - less than half [191] had secondary education less.

During the considered period in police it is possible to allocate two educational levels conditionally. The first level - officials on supervising posts of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, Department of police, polices of provinces, districts and cities, in the majority having the higher, basically military or the juridical education which was not demanding additional vocational training. At the second level there were urjadniki, police officers, okolotochnye supervisors, the policemen trained in created for them of a various sort courses and schools.

In many cities of Russian empire at police administrations lessons with okolotochnymi supervisors, with policemen and police attendants were conducted. Employment were spent two times a week, and with supervisors police officers, and with policemen and ordinary police attendants - their assistants were engaged.

During employment by the policeman and to police attendants on practical activities examples corresponding paragraphs of instructions were explained, orders and ordinances spoke. On employment with okolotochnymi supervisors, except explanations of current orders and practical activities cases the special attention was given to interpretation of articles of "the criminal trial Charter», a procedure of inquiry and drawing up of reports on various sorts to infringements, instructions of the public prosecutor of an appellate court were explained to police ranks, «the Charter about the prevention and suppression of crimes», «the Charter about the punishments imposed by world judges». So in due course policemen quite often left good okolotochnye supervisors, and from okolotochnyh supervisors - quite good assistants to police officers. Besides, with a view of maintenance of office eagerness it was authorised to enlist them at first candidates, and then, under condition of successful passing an examination in a reserve, on vacant posts okolotochnyh supervisors and assistants to police officers [192].

The features were in preparation of the bottom ranks of district police guards. At receipt on service they should stand tests in which course was defined: for officials - ability to constitute reports, the general acquaintance to the policeman service and with duties on investigation of crimes; for guards - ability to read and write and «the general sufficient» a level of development.

Responsibility in province for drill of staff of district police guards, and also training of horse ranks to riding was assigned to the chief of provincial gendarme management to whom the rank of the provincial inspector of police guards was appropriated. Unter - officers of the Case of gendarmes on supervision of training operated under instructions of the inspector and its assistants. On occasion instead of the corporal with the same purpose the senior policeman [193] was appointed.

Preparation of officials of district police guards was carried out in several ways. In the first case from among interested persons on reaching 1015 of an extra urgent period of service staffs of military districts recalled for the term up to six months for preparation and test for knowledge of duties of district police guards. Then the candidate list of the persons who had the right to reception of places of officials guards was constituted. At opening of vacancies the candidate was sent to a place of its new service with a transfer to the reserve or resignation (depending on age). In the second case when there were no candidates, vacancy was displaced from guards under own discretion of the governor. Therefore for the purpose of acquaintance of guards with operating statutes, order of conducting office-work, mutual relations of various establishments and officials, to each district police administration prikomandirovyvalsja one policeman for the period, sufficient for achievement of the above-stated purpose [194].

Organizational forms of vocational training of policemen and employees have not been unified. There was no uniform system of selection, a direction, training and definition to the duty station after preparation end. But such state of affairs in the given sphere allowed to consider as much as possible at preparation carrying out, both local features, and a contingent of those who was trained.

In the beginning of 1909 in Revel the school of policemen urjadnikov on 15 persons has been opened. As candidates on training went not only policemen developed enough and positively certified by the heads, but also the private persons who have got education not below district school. Training term at school has been defined in two months. Into the preparation program entered: «jurisprudence, a search part, a security police, data under the excise charter, on country affairs, on the general police, on medicine, on geography and history, on factory affairs, by a veterinary part, by a prison part» [195]. After passing an examination policemen were recalled on places of those urjadnikov which it was planned to send in school. Thus, it was planned to "drop" all cash structure of officials of province through school.

At replacement of posts urjadnikov the district police was recommended to prefer «to quite competent and developed bottom ranks of army supplied at a transfer to the reserve or resignation with recommendatory certificates from chiefs of parts in which they served» [196 [197].

The candidates selected thus by the military heads urjadnikov gathered for posts in a provincial city where under the guidance of skilled officials under special commissions at the governor prepared for police activity. At schools for urjadnikov the maintenance and limits of their rights and duties, receptions and activity conditions, a liability of infringement of laws, signs of crimes were explained to candidates. First such school has been based by the Grodno governor a wing-aide-de-camp the colonel N. M.Tsejmernom in 1879 the Further preparation urjadnikov assigned on district ispravnikov.

For 1910 of school urjadnikov functioned in 14 provinces of Russian empire.

Under the program developed by the Ministry of Internal Affairs, at schools special subjects which concerned were taught both general educational, and: 1) the police charter; 2) jurisprudence; 3) bases of search activity; 4) training and use of dogs; 5) ways of self-defence and disarmament of criminals; 6) a photo, anthopometry and dactyloscopy; 7) bases of veterinary science, sanitary and medicine; 8) shooting; 9) drill.

Development of schools was braked by absence of credits for their existence. Free work was in most cases used. Schools had no means for employment of premises, acquisition of manuals, etc. Meanwhile there was a huge requirement for preliminary courses and schools not only for the bottom ranks of police guards, but also for class ranks of the general police.

Despite some measures accepted by the government on improvement of qualitative structure of the bottom ranks of police, level of their literacy and vocational training remained insufficient and did not meet the requirements of time. Schools and courses which were created at various times in different districts of empire, could not satisfy requirement for professional police shots. The small monetary maintenance of the bottom ranks of police, an uncooperative altitude to police in a society did not allow to select for service in police of competent and respectable people. Besides, absence of the centralised management of preparation and training of shots brought to nothing that positive experience which collected on places.

The most part of class ranks of the general police has been presented by the officials who have got education in civil higher and average educational institutions on faculties of law of universities,

Aleksandrovsk (Tsarskoselsky) lycée, the School of Jurisprudence, the Yaroslavl Demidovsky legal lycée, lycée of Cesarevitch Nikolay and other higher educational institutions, and also grammar schools, schools district and equal to them. It is necessary to notice, that a part of police officers in general were hardly competent. In such cases in questionnaires wrote: «has got house education».

Necessity of improvement of professional and legal preparation of policemen admitted also them, especially ranks of executive police of an "average" link. It was caused both the general growth of criminality, and changes in a social composition of criminals.

Importance of preparation of heads of police divisions and services was defined also by that they, as a rule, led employment on various courses and at the schools created on places, and also should train the subordinates directly. When in 1908 «the law has been passed About the organisation of a detective part», under the order of Minister of Internal Affairs P.A.Stolypina at police department special courses for preparation of chiefs of these new divisions [198] have been formed. However, according to R.S.Mulukaeva, the given law «has not solved a question on the organisation of detective branches in districts though by its preparation this question was discussed and in police Department, and in the State Duma», owing to «absence of necessary means, impreparations of staff, absence on places of special schools for training to criminally-search business» [199].

The attention to the question on creation of schools for preparation politsmejsterov was brought and their assistants, many of which had no corresponding education, experience of police service and were appointed governors from people close to them, without the coordination of their nominees with a local police management. Creation of educational institution for preparation of heads of police and their statement in a post depending on successes in study were discussed on pages of "the police Bulletin». Authors fairly noticed, that it is a unique way for formation of the case of competent heads of police bodies and means of overcoming of protectionism and voluntarism at their appointment and promotion [200]. It was supposed to open also schools for preparation of workers of criminal investigation and to organise search business on the beginnings used in the Western Europe [201].

Especially it is necessary to allocate preparation for appointment to class posts in the St.-Petersburg and Moscow police. For this purpose in both capitals there was a police reserve. As an example we will consider activity of a police reserve of Moscow.

Existing rules for receipt in the Moscow metropolitan policy on a post okolotochnyh supervisors and for preparation for police service of officers and the class ranks accepted in staff of police, have been stated in the order of Moscow town governor A.A.Rejnbota from July, 10th, 1907 [202]

Before interested persons to hold the post okolotochnogo of the supervisor following demands were made:

Age frameworks from 25 till 40 years (if served in police is more senior);

Growth not less than 169 see;

Strong constitution and health;

Presence of the certificate on the termination of a course of three-class city or district school (or equal to them), received before receipt on military service, or about passing an examination under the status volnoopredeljajushchegosja 2 categories (the same formation, but received in army without attending lectures);

Sufficient intellectual development and literacy, for the proof of that was necessary to pass written examination: a dictation and a statement;

Certification for a regiment with the conclusion of one of two steps: outstanding or very good (the preference was given to the persons who had military rank);

Favorable data from police in the moral, judicial and political relation.

Candidates should submit following documents: the metrics about a birth and a christening or an extract from the parish register, zapasnootpusknoj the ticket, the certificate on formation, the passport, and from persons of the Cossack estates - special clearing for the introduction into the Moscow police, the certificate from the senior ataman.

Persons who met the specified requirements, on Moscow gradonachalstvu were enlisted by the order in a reserve where within two months passed a curriculum under the program approved by the town governor.

Teaching at reserve school okolotochnym to supervisors and the officers sent for studying of police service, was carried out by the senior assistant to the chief of a reserve. The best officer was appointed to this post for the term of not less than two years the town governor from the senior assistants to the police officer of the Moscow police, possessing «unconditional experience, firm will and the corresponding educational qualification».

During study at school okolotochnye supervisors of a reserve in dresses on a city were appointed or in case of emergency, or for the purpose of the practical


Upon termination of a training course at school verifying examination on which were present the chief of the reserve, one politsmejster, the police officer and the person under instructions of the town governor was appointed. That who has passed verifying examination with an estimation "very well", the certificate in which it was specified stood out, that it goes to a site for the further practical preparation. Okolotochnye supervisors who have not sustained verifying examination or went again for passage of a training course to reserve school, or were released from the further service in police.

After successful passage of practice enlisted in a reserve were supposed before definitive examination before the commission under presidency of the assistant to the town governor, at participation politsmejstera, the chief of a police reserve, the senior assistant to the chief of a reserve, police officers. Those who has not sustained definitive examination or came back to training, or were released from service behind inability.

The supervisors enlisted in a reserve, and also the policemen admitted to transfer by applicants for a post okolotochnyh of supervisors were exposed to the same tests okolotochnye. Admitted on this category before definitive examination were released from office employment on two weeks.

Preparation for police service accepted in staff of the Moscow police of officers and class ranks differed from preparation okolotochnyh supervisors a little.

To transfer by candidates for staff of police officers passed examination - the composition for the set theme. Officers who have successfully handed over entrance examinations, were taken at the staff polices with sending out on business in a reserve before delivery of verifying examination in volume of the program approved for preparation of officers. Persons who have passed verifying examination, went for a practical training to area where there was a shortage of shots. Their heads local police officers were appointed. Examination of officers was carried out to three times a year in volume of the program with addition to it of the questions concerning: 1) practical preparation for service in sites; 2) performance of police functions at execution of novels about meeting and the press: 3) the political parties which knowledge was necessary.

The officers who were in staff of police, admitted after passing an examination prepared for to employment of posts of younger assistants to the police officer under III category of payment.

To the same examination the supervisors taken by candidates on as of the younger assistant of the police officer were supposed okolotochnye.

Very effectively the school for preparation on a post of class and bottom ranks operated at a police reserve St.-Petersburg capital polices. In 1909 at school of a police reserve Sankt - the Petersburg police 713 policemen and 42 attendants of police houses have been prepared 71 class rank.

Thus, it is possible to draw a conclusion, that already to beginning HH century in Sankt - Petersburg and Moscow there was a certain system of selection and a professional training that allowed to prepare for both capitals enough the qualified executive officials of police of an average link. Thus the basic emphasis became on officer shots and on spare (retired) bottom ranks of army and fleet. Except St.-Petersburg and Moscow the police reserve existed in Warsaw and other large provincial cities that allowed to solve a problem of filling of shots of police officers. At the same time absence of the uniform approach to initial preparation and impossibility for the financial reasons to create bolshee quantity of schools of a police reserve led to considerable contrast in level of preparation of policemen of Russian empire. In the remote districts and especially in district polices the professional standard during all investigated period remained the lowest, despite all measures taken by the government.

Training of ranks of police at special schools and on courses was reduced not only to formation and perfection of professional skill, demands were made to police shots also norms of morals and morals. Executing the official duties, each police rank at the heart of the consciousness should have honesty, justice and firmness, courage, testing thus unshakable fidelity to the Sovereign, the law and the Oath. Each word and business should clear up in a shower of the policeman not only unshakable fidelity to the Sovereign and Fatherland, but also memory of conscience and the sacred Oath. As one of the major factors of effective activity of police mutual aid necessary in their work, respect of honour and advantage each other were marked.

From the moment of establishment Peter the Great in 1718 in St.-Petersburg regular police and the acquisition beginning its shots the important question, besides actually police activity, was the question about moralnopravovyh bases of activity of the persons participating in maintenance

Public order and safety.

The first "regular" policemen were basically operating military men as originally the police was completed at the expense of personnel structure of army. Hence, morally-legal side

Activity of policemen of that period, their position in a society and the relation to the official duties, to itself and associates corresponded to the status of military men.

In the conditions of rigid class structure of a society of serf Russia of difference in class and a property status of the senior and younger officials defined character of their office relations. The power of the chief extended far beyond offices, covering all aspects of life of employees [203].

Essential distinctions in soslovno the caused position of officers, officials not military rank and the bottom ranks, left a certain mark and on their police activity. Ranks of police of a noble rank concerned service, time or constant in police bodies, as to a stage of the career in a field of service to the Tsar and Fatherland. Other police serving in the majority were people dependent, accordingly and the duties concerned only with that minimum «office eagerness» which would allow them to avoid negative consequences in default or their not appropriate execution.

The great bulk of the population of Russian empire, consisting of persons podatnyh estates, was base for acquisition of army and according to police bottom chinovym structure.

In development and police formation there was a semblance of corporate estate of the police officers who were carrying out the office activity in law enforcement bodies, and it, accordingly, left traces on their relation to service with all following positive and negative aspects inherent in any corporate structure.

These processes passed in the development some stages.

The first stage - establishment in 1718 Main politsmejsterskoj offices and the subsequent development of regular police up to creation of provinces in 1775 This stage from the point of view of the moral party of police activity, is characterised by search and perfection of initial forms of its organisation on the basis of foreign experience, in completely militarised channel of development. During this period there is an origin and formation of system of work to police shots as versions gosudarevoj the service equal to military, with accent on maintenance of an internal order and safety. Feature of transition in police from army was that policemen on - former were registered on military department «on a weapon sort» and it military ranks remained.

The beginning of the second stage differs the prolonged character and consequently consists of two periods: provincial reform of 1775 and establishment of the Ministries in 1802 Creation of the named administrative-territorial and is functional-branch divisions of Russian empire has actually begun development of process of branch of moral bases of service in police from other kinds gosudarevoj services. In one of sections «the Order to a justice blagochinija», containing in signed in 1782 Empress Catherine II «the Charter blagochinija, or the policeman», under the name «Zertsalo justices blagochinija» were fixed substantive provisions of "decency Rules». The list of qualities which should possess certified on a higher post, included requirements of moral character: besporochnost behaviour, sensible mind in business, good will to service, unselfishness at imposing of collectings, dobrohodstvo to people, diligence to a post [204].

By the end of XVIII century obvious differentiation of powers of army and police was outlined in departure of administratively-policemen and economic functions: original specialisation of army and police was carried out. In 1800 at emperor Paul I police has been recognised as «a part civil» though it on - former was formed of soldiers and the officers carrying military ranks [205]. Thereby police activity admitted a direction of public service separate of military service. The Moral status of the policeman becomes more distinct expressed in respect of acquisition from among those military men that have passed already certain way of service to the Tsar and Fatherland and were ready to service in a civil field. However frequently at acquisition of police as policemen, on expression of contemporaries, «one rabble of army» [206] went. All attempts to change developed situation did not lead to positive results. More and more distinctly comprehension of necessity of basic changes in moralnonravstvennom maintenance of police activity acted. Necessity of working out of qualitatively new approaches on police acquisition by exclusively positively proved military men corresponding on the qualities to requirements of police service.

The third stage begins with an epoch of "great reforms» 60-70th of XIX century and is connected with basic changes as in the social system of Russian empire, and the changes which have followed after them in principles of public service and the preparation of the ripened reforms connected with them in police of the beginning of XX century Introduction of free hiring in 1873 and clearing of military department of a duty to direct to police of the bottom ranks has led to essential changes in moral position of the police employee. If earlier the police received already prepared, disciplined employees necessity of working out of measures on selection now was outlined, to selection, attraction and the further stimulation of a conscientious attitude to official duties from the future and operating policemen.

Actually for the first time there was a necessity for special measures on maintenance not only reception and support in service already prepared and motivirovannyh military men, but also moralnopravovom maintenance of police activity in the changed realities of a state-public life.

For these purposes besides domestic the operational experience of foreign polices which with some updatings was transferred and took root into the Russian conditions was investigated also. And as always, this artificial inculcation in the limited terms of alien elements did not bring expected result. The Western Europe, whose experience of police activity in the plan moralnonravstvennogo maintenance of worthy course of duty it was transferred on the Russian soil, passed these processes much earlier. For this reason to such work there was a change and with shots taking into account the historical past the understanding of necessity of working out of own methods of work came to development of law-enforcement sphere. So sharp transitions from a semifeudal principle of replacement of posts in polices and works with its shots in the course of their service to a principle of "free hiring» and the accompanying changes connected with it in personnel support of employees of police, in particular local level, should affect results of such "introduction".

In the end of the given stage it is necessary to note as the important factor promoting as a result disintegration of police of Russian empire and its fast liquidation in March, 1917, the lowest prestige of police and the uncooperative altitude to it a considerable part of a society [207] is sharp.

Despite it, judging by the historical, memoirs literature, and also on archival sources, in history of domestic police there were many examples of high professionalism, fair and self-denying performance of the debt by its higher and lowest ranks. Professionalism and display of high moral qualities, always were held in high esteem. Not casually many instructions addressed to police of the end XIX in - the beginnings of XX century, included such categories, as honesty, morals, courage, truthfulness, unselfishness.

Lacks of vocational training of policemen were partially compensated by efforts on moral education of employees of police. However systems of police formation and education of shots in pre-revolutionary Russia it has not been created. In structure of the Ministry of Internal Affairs there was no the special division supervising preparation and education of shots. Financial complexities and an inconsistent position of a management of the Ministry of Internal Affairs on this question were unsystematic character principal causes in this direction.

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A source: AKAZEEV Dmitry Mihajlovich. DEVELOPMENT of SYSTEM of WORK With SHOTS of POLICE of RUSSIAN EMPIRE (XVIII - the XX-th century BEGINNING). ISTORIKO-LEGAL RESEARCH. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the master of laws. Moscow - 2017. 2017

More on topic § 2.2. Vocational training and educational work With police shots:

  1. 4. Use in educational work of possibilities general educational and vocational training condemned
  2. § 2.1. Police reforms in second half XIX century and their influence on development of work with shots
  3. § 1.2. Legal bases of creation of police and the organisation of work with its shots in first half XVTTT century
  4. § 1.1. Theoretical bases of istoriko-legal research of system of work with shots of police of Russian empire
  5. Chapter 2. Development of work with police shots in second half XIX century - beginning HH century
  6. Chapter 1. Formation of system of work with police shots in XVTTT century - first half XIX century
  7. the analysis of results of skilled-experimental work on realisation of model of integration of an average of the general and average vocational training in the conditions of social partnership
  8. § 2. Principles of acquisition of shots and service In police of the Estonian Republic
  9. § 3. Vocational training perfection in public service system
  10. AKAZEEV Dmitry Mihajlovich. DEVELOPMENT of SYSTEM of WORK With SHOTS of POLICE of RUSSIAN EMPIRE (XVIII - the XX-th century BEGINNING). ISTORIKO-LEGAL RESEARCH. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the master of laws. Moscow - 2017, 2017
  11. foreign models of realisation of integration processes in training and a modern condition of integration of an average of the general and average vocational training in Russia