§ 4. Assignment of property dispossessed

The property confiscated from fists, according to instructions of the central power, should be transferred basically in indivisible fund of collective farms. However in practice not all withdrawn got to collective farms, its part was appropriated by those who directly spent raskulachivanie.
This negative phenomenon has received enough wide circulation. So, in the inquiry of information department OGPU from May, 17th, 1930 it was marked: «often local workers and selaktivisty went on"sharing". In a number of places the facts of direct assignment by workers of the confiscated property» 236 were fixed. The secretary obkoma VKP () reported on February, 18th, 1930 I.M.Varejkis's on Central Black Earth area in the Central Committee: « In separate places the sharing moments of the property "heart-to-heart" taken away from fists or sale of that for nothing are observed... The marauding facts when the taken away property was plundered, spoilt or destroyed Took place also. Even the member of a working brigade of one of the Voronezh factories, the communist, took to itself the fur coat selected at a fist, have fried the duck taken there and then ».
Let's consider, what scope of similar abusings in Borisoglebsk district by whom they were made also what measures was were undertaken by the power for their suppression. The analysis of materials has allowed to establish a circle of persons, appropriating the withdrawn property. In Verhne-Karchansky area, for example, it was done by representatives of a district committee of party and district executive committee. Against them as the chief of regional administrative branch informed in okradmotdel on January, 24th, 1930, criminal case under item 109 UK has been raised. In Shchuchensky area members of the Village Soviet and some partijtsy were engaged in plunder of the confiscated property. Here the extortion facts under the threat raskulachivanija have been elicited also. According to the chief of regional administrative branch K.I. Kljukina in district administrative department, for plunder one party member is brought to court, court "visiting session" should take place on February, 7th in Pike; one "active worker" has got under court also,
~ 239
Engaged in extortion.
In Rusanovsky area as reported on February, 18th in district committee VKP () the secretary of a district committee Kostyuks, «(dirty fragmentary linen, religious books at priests, removed last footwear from feet - Ternovka)» «separate workers» 240 were engaged in withdrawal of unnecessary things. The employee sent from Voronezh gorfinotdela Prygunkov was one of such workers. Appointed the representative on preparation for a spring sowing-time on Sloes - skomu to the Village Soviet, it, participating in raskulachivanii, selected linen and used it for own нужд241, pulled down from feet dispossessed last valenoks, from the priest took the whole bale of religious books, held at itself on apartment in Ternovke a cow withdrawn from a fist, and one used milk from неё242. A party district committee has withdrawn Prygunkova from the Ternovsky Village Soviet and has sent to representatives to the Novospassky Village Soviet, but that has come back in Ternovku and remained there two days, «being engaged at this time removal of last footwear from the dispossessed women».
The district committee bureau has decided on February, 15th to exclude Pry - gunkova from party, «immediately having withdrawn it from work of the representative on the Novospassky Village Soviet» 244. On February, 19th it has been recalled to Voronezh on what in obkom the secretary okruzhkoma Kolesnikov has reported on party. The message on exception Prygunkova from party has printed on February, 26th and the district newspaper «Collective-farm truth» 246.
At carrying out raskulachivanija assignment of property and valuable subjects «in a private use» has been admitted by "separate unstable elements» and in villages Sukmanovka, Rusanovo, Bratki Rusanovsky area. Cases «withdrawals of house stuff, subjects of kitchen use, children's devices and removal from fists of boots and a coat and even from children of boots» took place in villages Rusanovo, Ternovka, Kozlovka. As it was marked on March, 4th at meeting of a party active, it «undermined authority of a Communist Party organisation and the opinion at collective farmers was created, that raskulachivanie it is necessary for communists to be enriched».
«Red October» accusation in decomposition, a curvature of a class line, bribery has been brought to a party cell of a commune. The bureau Ru - sanovskogo a party district committee, having heard on March, 6th on an extraordinary private meeting the message of a member okrispolkoma G ureva about results of check, has decided: «For the purchase of the fur coat which have arrived from raskulachivanija, to member VKP (tov. Pahomovoj to declare reprimand with entering in the registration form and to raise the question on next plenum RK about a conclusion from structure of members of a district committee, a fur coat to return to the citizen from whom it has been withdrawn». It was offered to party fraction of district executive committee to dismiss the chairman of the Village Soviet of village Sukmanovki Razinkina immediately. As there were cases of assignment of the things which have arrived from raskulachivanija, under safe receipts members of the Komsomol, partjachejke communes and to a Komsomol district committee were recommended «to be paid« Red October »special attention on cell VLKSM» 249.
In village Bratki as the chief of Rusanovsky regional administrative branch reported on March, 31st in district admotdel, the representative of district executive committee and a district committee of party Ikonnikov drank, and also has appropriated not -
How many the things selected at dispossessed economy.
In village Are bright Elan-Kolenovsky area in liquidation kulatskih economy the working brigade from eight человек251 participated sent for collectivisation carrying out. Making withdrawal of property at Olejnikova, Bozhenova, Kotljarova and other fists, some members of a brigade «a part of aloof property, namely: 70 cheeses, 10 banok jam, 5 banok oils, and so forth» - have appropriated cucumbers. The assistant to the chief of district administrative department on criminal investigation department I.I. Ryumin informed on February, 19th the chief of regional administrative branch: «members of a brigade of Goats and Kobyzev, of Borisoglebsk working on cannery were Heads of these abusings... The specified data are checked up by Search and have proved to be true». The district committee bureau, having heard on February, 16th on a private meeting the report about behaviour of members of this brigade, has solved: « To prosecute Nikolaev and pankova, as to Tkachenko, the working woman of cannery on last to inform in fabzavkom on its removal from factory work as discrediting all collective of workers on eyes of country weight »254.
District attorney Gutsev reported on March, 9th in regional Office of Public Prosecutor, that initiators of assignment of property were Punks from rajkolhozpolevodsojuza and members of a brigade of Goats and Kobyzev - from a cannery, that Punks which in an operating time was repeatedly drunk, is involved in the criminal liability »255.
According to the district attorney, for assignment of property dispossessed to the criminal liability workers and in other areas of district have been involved. So, in Borisoglebsk area have dismissed the militiaman has sat down the Kalmyk and on it have opened business. Criminal case have got also against working brigades from the Zherdevsky creamery from which two during time raskulachivanija in village Mahrovke took a part of things and have taken away with собой256. Accusation has been brought With Peskovsky area under item 109 UK to a member of a striking force to A.Tyurin and the worker of a brigade F.Smorchkovu who has appropriated clothing of the dispossessed. In Shchuchensky area for yarn assignment have sentenced to three months of forced hard labour of a member of B.Peskovskogo of Village Soviet SHarova. In village Tavolzhanka of Verhne-Karachansky area of four members of the Komsomol have excluded from VLKSM that they at raskulachivanii took 20 pounds to honey and on -
In Zherdevsky area as the chief of regional administrative branch Konishchev informed in okradmotdel, 10 cases of assignment of property of the dispossessed are established. From them in seven cases of business are transferred in court and on three the investigation was carried on. Workers of militia have been exposed in two cases, both of them are ousted and transferred court. Senior militiaman Sterlikov for a number of similar abusings and waste of state money we judge a show trail and it is condemned for three years of deprivation свободы260. In two cases ba - raholstvo representatives have admitted. As reported in okruzhkom VKP () the secretary of Zherdevsky district committee Beryozkin, business «is transferred to investigatory bodies» 261.
According to the representative okruzhkoma parties, employee OGPU Zajtseva, in village Pavlodar of Zherdevsky area representatives rajispolkomapo raskulachivaniju Agafonov and Shuvalov, having estimated from the house things selected at fists, for example, a good carpet in cost of 20 roubles - in 1 rouble, pillows - in 7 copecks, took for themselves a carpet, a copper basin for jam, feather-beds, pillows, valenye boots. Peasants showed discontent. Representatives have brought the appropriated things to one of inhabitants of village, and have sent to wives in ZHerdevku and Burnak at night. The senior of a brigade party member Berezin took to itself another's valenye boots. Its brigade in village the Bottom Glade has selected at "fist" polgova of a ham of two poods, honey and at Meshcherjakova - jam. Militiamen also left to themselves a pocket watch, honey, jam. In Nikolaevka member VLKSM Brovkin has appropriated gold earrings. In Savalsky state farm at raskulachivanii conventuals Illarionovyh the candidate for I.G.wol's party members was flattered on a tea and bed accessory. In village Burnak the chairman of collective farm party member A.F.Alexander during time raskulachivanija has appropriated a sheepskin coat, valenye boots with the galoshes, four poods of a ham, 30 poods of meat; six taken away milk cows it held at itself(himself), and itself used from them milk. At meeting passing on February, 21st the poor showed discontent with it руководителем262. At the supply manager of artel T.S. Kolmakova the militia has selected at a search two hours, 3 gold rings and a chain, appropriated by it at confiscation. Kolmakova have dismissed. «But it it is not enough, - the district newspaper« Collective-farm truth »wrote, - it is necessary to prosecute for such tricks» 263.
For acceptance of measures in Zherdevsky area district attorney Gutsev personally left. During stay in area from March, 13 till March, 21st by it it has been raised six criminal cases against representatives on raskulachivaniju «for abusings and distortions» and four - against officials local власти264. On March, 17th Gutsev together with the representative okruzhkoma Zajtsevym was present at session of a bureau of district committee VKP (), discussing work Burnaksky партячейки265. Under the offer of the district attorney separate members of a cell as representatives of district executive committee «for curvatures and abusings at raskulachivanii» have been given under суд266. As investigatory bodies had been opened «a number of the ugly phenomena on Burnaku (took away kulatskoe property, excesses at raskulachivanii)», and the party cell «reacted to all these moments» insufficiently, the district committee bureau declared on April, 11th, 1930 to the secretary of Burnaksky cell Blagodatovoj strict reprimand and has removed it with работы267.
In Novohopyorsky area criminal charge has been shown accountant A.Grigoriev that that has deleted from levy of execution of "fist" of I.M.Kubranova and has appropriated 12 pounds of fat and a vegetable oil bottle.
The secretary okruzhkoma M.I.Kolesnikov reported on March, 12th, 1930 in obkom on party: «In separate places were engaged baraholstvom, took a little valuable property (house things, kitchen ware), and there were cases of assignment of aloof things in personal advantage» 269. About such infringements also the district newspaper «the Collective-farm truth on March, 12th, 1930 has written":" In with. B.Danilovke of the Mordovian area dispossesses 20 fists, all their property has been selected and transferred in the Village Soviet. Squandering kulatskogo property is now observed. Authorised partiets Tchernyshev took to itself valenye boots and hours, and member of the Komsomol Lukjanov S.N. has taken away gold rings. All it is taken at half price ». However business has not ended with it. The secretary of district committee Panshin, acting on March, 21st on a bureau with the report« About a curvature partlinii at work on raskulachivaniju and collectivisations, from some representatives RK and RIKa », has informed, that managing partkabinetom A.G.Tchernyshev directed by the representative of a district committee of party and district executive committee in the More-Danilovsky Village Soviet, removed from fists valenye boots and transferred to their other persons, took from the dispossessed property a wall clock and valenye boots and has returned them only under compulsion. As Tchernyshev has undermined authority of the party worker among the population, the district committee bureau has taken out to it strict reprimand and has ousted. However on May, 16th a district committee bureau, having heard Tchernyshev's statement for its rehabilitation, has cancelled the decision from March, 21st as it has been taken out hasty and after check by representative OkrKk Galenkinym has not proved to be true. The bureau has decided to consider Tchernyshev rehabilitated. It was offered to party fraction RIK «is -
polzovat »it as instructor in work with the poor.
On March, 20th a bureau of the Rusanovsky district committee has returned to discussion of a question on party responsibility of representative Prygunkova excluded from the party one month ago. The representative of district supervisory commission of Languages, having studied this business, has established, that the charge facts preliminary were not investigated, and itself Prygunkov to session was not invited. The district committee bureau, having confirmed earlier shown Prygunkovu charges, has made decision to be limited to the announcement to it of strictly reprimand and warning «owing to that
It was absolutely not familiar with conditions of rural work ».
From these examples follows, that irrespective of, the brought accusations were how much proved, possibility of their promotion will be co-ordinated with others, documentary confirmed, the facts of assignment of property of the dispossessed.
In March, 1930 district judicial bodies stirred up the activity on suppression of abusings at carrying out raskulachivanija. They were guided by instructions oblsuda and Offices of Public Prosecutor in which basis as it was marked in the bulletin oblsuda № 3 from March, 20th, 1930, have been put Central Committee VKP decision () «About struggle against a curvature of a party line in collective-farm movement», and also the bureau decision obkoma from the March, 12th, 1930, accepted after known article in I.V.Stalin's "Truth" "Dizziness". The regional management offered «to spend to fortnight term a number of indicative processes concerning the persons supposing criminal bungling (raskulachivanie serednjakov, poor men, experts etc.) Widely covering these processes in the press ». It was offered to local courts in reports-ten-day periods and in the next bulletins to inform oblsud« on concrete results of performance of these instructions, necessarily shining the maintenance of the concrete affairs considered in district with instructions applied
Measures sotszashchity, relations of weights to process etc. ».
One of indicative litigations has taken place on March, 30th in Rusanov - skom area over representatives of district executive committee and a party district committee Evseviche - vym, the director of a commune I.E.Zhigulsky and the secretary of a rural cell, izbachom (managing a log hut-reading room - E.T.) P.V.Pozdnyakov. At carrying out raskulachivanija in village Kiselnom as the chief of regional administrative branch reported on March, 31st in district admotdel, they made night searches in "kulatskih" houses, selected property dispossessed without its entering in inventories, a part withdrawn, mainly, products, addressed in using specified тройки276. One of them, I.E.Zhigulsky, was the party active worker known in area. Acting on February, 3rd, 1930 on district committee plenum in debate under the report of the secretary of a district committee of Kostyukov, he offered drastic measures against fists: « We in Kiselnom have made raskulachivanie by January, 20th, and it was necessary to make even faster. It is not necessary to speak now about any terms of carrying out of this work in any way, it will be finished when we will have a uniform communistic society... Inclinations under a tractor 500 rbl. are collected and the gold withdrawn at kulachestva (applause) is handed over on this purpose. It is necessary to establish, in my opinion, obligatory resettlement bednjatskih families in kulatskie houses »277. Its words have been met by an applause. Now narsud has sentenced Zhigulsky to five years, Evsevicha and Pozdnyakov to three years of imprisonment. On it on April, 6th, 1930 it has been reported to a regional management of the chief of district administrative department Erofeevym279. After the statement of the decision local narsuda district court of a bureau of a district committee on April, 15th has excluded Zhigulsky and Pozdnyakov from party.
From March, 25th till April, 5th as it is specified in a report of district attorney G utseva, addressed to public prosecutor TSCHO, a number of other indicative litigations has taken place also. In regional centre Rusanovo the chairman of collective farm has been sentenced to five years of imprisonment of V.M.Molotova communist Landin that illegally made a search, selected a part of property to itself, from handicraftsmen Ovchinnikova and nelshina extorted a sheepskin coat, threatening them раскулачить281. The district committee bureau still by results of inspection of a party cell of a commune has passed on March, 15th the decision to remove Landina from a post of the chairman of board and all material available on it to transfer to judicial-investigatory bodies, and a bureau partjachejki immediately распустить282.
In settlement Abramovka of Elan-Kolenovsky area «for marauding during the moment raskulachivanija» by eight years of imprisonment the vice-president of the Village Soviet V.P.Zotov has been sentenced. Using the office position, it has appropriated 10 man's top shirts selected at "fists", 6 shirts female, a cloth coat, cloth trousers and other things. On April, 20th a district committee bureau has excluded him from the party «for assignment kulatskogo property and for party discrediting». For six months of forced hard labour have condemned the instructor rajkolhozpolevodsojuza pankova, appropriated the products selected at "fists", drinking and illegally using collective-farm loshadmi during collectivisation carrying out in village Are bright.
In Novohopyorsky area on two and a half a year of imprisonment the chairman of Krasnjansky collective farm "Giant" V.V. Katelikov has been condemned for assignment confiscated коровы286. The district committee bureau, having considered at session on April, 10-11th presented to the representative of district supervisory commission Muzalyovym materials, has excluded V.V. Katelikova from the party.
In ZHerdevke to five months of forced hard labour have sentenced representatives of Village Soviet Agafonova and Shuvalov for acquisition under the reduced quotation of property of fists. For a year of forced hard labour representative Kuzmin has been condemned for assignment pocket часов288 also.
Assignment of property dispossessed was not the phenomenon, characteristic only only for Borisoglebsky district. Similar illegal actions were supposed by ranking officers and in other districts TSCHO. For example, Big samovets Grjazinsky area of Kozlovsky district as it is told in the report of the regional representative from February, 28th, 1930, property confiscation passed in village «following order»: «All ranking officers have rushed to drag kulatskoe barahlo, hurriedly having left the poor away from this work as simple observers... Marauding and property assignment» 289 Have been admitted.
In Timsky area of Kursk district the representative on carrying out of collectivisation Radin, having come back home in a large village Cossack and having learnt, that «the Village Soviet takes out the decision about otobranii property at fists and about its transfer to collective farm», has agreed to militiaman I.A.Lukjanchikovym and the chairman of collective farm I.G. Lukjanchikovym and, «having discussed with them an order raskulachivanija, have left at late night raskulachivat fist Radina, having got drunk preliminary drunk. Having approached on the fist house, they have expelled him with a family on street, have broken icons, ware, there and then a part of products have eaten, then have left, having grasped with itself different things which between them have been divided by a part». The regional court has sentenced all three to imprisonment on one and a half-two year, with prohibition to occupy responsible posts within three years »290. In the same narsude Kursk area case Preobrazhenskiy, sent to the Nizhne-Gutorovsky Village Soviet for the help on collectivisation carrying out was considered. The defendant has dispossessed 14 "serednjatskih" economy with «carrying out full ekspropriatsii at them not only live and dead stock, but also household goods», thus «spent system of night touches». To the withdrawn property it «did not conduct any account owing to what it was plundered, squandered, products there and then on a place were devoured». From its permission members of board of collective farm «samosnabzhalis for the account of the withdrawn property boots, valenoks, sheepskins». Preobrazhenskiy has paid with five years of imprisonment with replacement with the reference by five years and forced hard labour and prohibition after departure of punishment within three years to occupy otvetstven -
nye posts.
So, the wide range of persons was involved in assignment of property of the dispossessed: rural active workers, members of the Village Soviets, partijtsy, the members of the Komsomol, the parties authorised district committees and district executive committees, members of working brigades, militiamen, chairmen of collective farms. More often products, clothes, linen, footwear, other personal things and household goods were appropriated. For suppression of similar abusings local authorities undertake various measures: the guilty discharge of a post, declare it reprimand, exclude from the party, institute criminal proceedings. However all these measures have not changed a legal status of peasants. Raskulachivanie proceeded, therefore conditions for an arbitrariness of representatives of the power concerning peasantry remained.
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A source: Timoshechkina Elena Mihajlovna. The dispossession of peasants in the Borisoglebsk district of the Central Black Earth region (first half of 1930). 2014

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