§ 2. Decisions of the partijno-state country leaders on liquidation kulatskih economy and organizational activity of local authorities on their realisation

Creation of powerful state economy was the main strategic problem of the USSR in the late twenties - the beginning of 1930th. Necessity of the forced modernisation of the country I.V. Stalin explained so: « We have lagged behind the advanced countries for 50-100 years.
We should run this distance in ten years. Or we will make it, or us will crumple »65. However in the conditions of an agrarian overpopulation and prevalence edninolichnyh economy in agrarian sector of economy realisation of technical modernisation was impossible. Material and manpower resources, according to the partijno-state country leaders, collectivisation of country economy could provide uninterrupted supply of the domestic industry only. Meanwhile, the considerable part of prosperous peasants and serednjakov did not wish to socialise means of production available for them and other property. The actions planned by the power for cardinal reconstruction of agriculture began to break. To stop resistance shown by peasantry and to induce its great bulk to enter collective farms and not to admit failure of the first five years' plan, large-scale state campaign for liquidation kulachestva as class has been developed. An ideological substantiation of a new policy was the theory klassoj struggle according to which for construction of a socialist society followed destroy kulachestvo - last exploiter class.
Before to open the maintenance of this policy, we will find out, who such fist against which the state policy has been directed. In pre-revolutionary Russia the prosperous peasant who had the unearned income, the usurer, the buyer and the dealer was considered as a fist. In V.Dalja's dictionary such interpretation is given a word "fist": «the Miser, the miser, the secondhand dealer, the redealer, svodchik, lives a deceit, obschyotom, measurement» 66. A unique fair source of a prosperity, according to country outlook, heavy physical work, therefore a word "fist" was reflected, first of all, a negative moral estimation of the dishonest person. In 1905 P.A.Stolypin wrote: «Now stronger peasant turns ordinary in a fist, the exploiter of the one-public men, on a trope - miroeda» 67.
Modern researcher T.Shanin marks: «As to fists in a countryside of Russia, at least in country value of this term, they were not necessarily the richest owners or employers, but« not absolutely peasants », standing away from communities or against them. The closest country synonym to the term"fist"was actually« miroed "-" the one who devours a community., »68.
After an establishment of the Soviet power the word "fist" has got political colouring, it designated «the class enemy». Fists called rural bourgeoisie, rural exploiters. V.I.Lenin made at times inconsistent explanations whom it is necessary to consider as a fist. In its opinion, in a fist any peasant who has collected bread the work and even without wage labour application turns, but hides хлеб69. At the same time as special line kulachestva V.I.Lenin considered wage labour operation.
In 1924 on pages of the newspaper "Poor" discussion on a question «Whom was developed to consider as a fist, whom - the worker? That peasants» speak about it. The beginning to it was put by the publication of the letter of the peasant of Vjatsky province of G.Smerdova containing such questions:
Whether it is possible to consider burzhuem the peasant having from 2 to 4 cows, 2-3 horses and the decent house?
2. Whether it is possible to consider burzhuem and a fist of the tenant of mills if he runs business fairly and under the Soviet laws?
3. Whether it is possible to consider as a fist of the poor person which on pennies trades
To starving to death? »
The majority of participants of discussion considered what to define an accessory to kulachestvu only to a property sign it is impossible. It could lower stimulus for economy lifting for the account of own energy and diligence. According to peasants, it was necessary differentsirovanno to approach to economy, to consider, first of all, «presence of operation of another's work, a life at the expense of others», «who lives on not the labour income». In the village everyone knew, who as has acquired a condition: itself or another's work.
M.I.Kalinin, acting with the report at XIII congress RKP () in May, 1924, has paid attention to discussion in the newspaper "Poor". He has noted importance of offers of peasants not to take a great interest in one property indicators at definition kulachestva. Meanwhile, decisions on criteria of definition of fists at congress it was accepted not.
The question about kulachestve was discussed and on October (1924) Central Committee RKP Plenum (). The secretary of the Central Committee V.M.Molotov heading the Commission of the Central Committee on work in village, in the report has declared, that under «the general heading kulachestva such percent of agricultural population which in the majority is not only not hostile but which should not become hostile to the Soviet power» at all is sometimes enlisted. However, whom to consider as a fist, he has not told. Has not followed specific proposals and from the people's commissar of agriculture A.P.Smirnova. As a result of any recommendations about this question Plenum has not given to local party and Soviet bodies.
On the Plenum which has taken place in April, 1925 of Central Committee RKP () V.M.Molotov occurring definitions of a fist, that the fist - «is what maintains wage labour, instead of that fist who does not maintain another's work», that the fist - «is the one who is engaged in usury in village», named "unusable". He considered, that «it is necessary to chase"fist"definition, how many behind not so much making correct definition,« whom from peasants should not carry to a fist »at all as it is necessary not to admit a problem reckoning to fists serednjaka and« the diligent cultural peasant »which economic development the party supports. M.I.Kalinin, on the contrary, considered, that it is necessary to name fists those,« who has acquired to itself(himself) a condition criminal and enslaving activity », and, characteristic lines of a fist will not be defined yet, on places an arbitrariness - transfer of a considerable part serednjaka in fists and, on the contrary, kulatskih elements - in середняки76 will remain. Polemizing with Kalininym, Hammers has declared: «... The Rich muzhik in conditions nepa - here that such a fist». But such wide concept of "fist", in our opinion, allowed to rank as an exploiter layer and a part of prosperous peasants - serednjakov.
As a result of direct definition of a fist Plenum has not given, but in the resolution «the Next problems of economic policy of party in connection with economic needs of village» has been noticed, that to kulatskim to economy it is necessary to carry such which are connected with «rural usury and enslaving
Poor operation ».
Discussion about a fist has proceeded and at XIV conference RKP (), A.I.roar who has taken place on April, 27-29th, 1925 has spoken against opposition of the prosperous peasant to a fist as «an exact side here to spend it is impossible». He has suggested to admit a fist in co-operative building. According to A.I.Rykova, all economic processes occurring in village including in a top layer of village, followed direct on «the Soviet channel». He considered erroneous and harmful to "press and"clamp"кулаков82.
As in the partijno-state management there was no unity of sights concerning fist definition, local authorities continued to solve, what economy to enlist in kulatskie.
In connection with crisis of grain-collections in 1928 again has ripened necessity to be defined with concept "fist". On official data, in the country in 1927 kulatskih economy was about 900 thousand - 3,9 % from the general number of country court yard. But such quantity could not provide performance of the plan of grain-collections, therefore local heads, aspiring to carry out the tasks assigned to them, emergency measures extended to other layers of peasantry. On May, 21st, 1929 SNK the USSR has accepted the decision «About signs kulatskih economy in which the Code of laws on work» should be applied. In it following signs kulatskih economy have been specified: regular application of wage labour unless, according to the legislation on elections in councils, application of wage labour did not involve disfranchisement; Mill presence, maslobojki, kruporushki, prosorushki, volnochesalki, the industrial enterprises, application of the mechanical engine and also if in an economy were available water or a windmill with two postavami; regular delivery in employment of difficult agricultural technics with the mechanical engine; delivery in employment constantly or for a season of the separate equipped premises under habitation or the enterprises; employment by trade, usury, commercial intermediary or reception of other unearned incomes (including attendants of a cult). Union republics SNK and to regional (regional) executive committees the right to alter these signs depending on local conditions was represented. The code of laws on work was completely applied to the economy falling at least under one of these signs, at
About l
The size of the income more than 300 rbl. on the eater, but not less than 1500 rbl. on an economy.
The list of signs offered by the central power kulatskih economy was, as is visible, wide enough, and without the account, for example, quantitative structure of a family, presence of able-bodied men, children, old men, a state of health of members of a family, their personal participation in housekeeping, the local management could rank as fists and representatives of labour peasantry: as serednjakov, and poor men. As academician V.A.Tikhonov if «the economy at least on one point fell under these signs he could be carried to kulatskim and raskulachivat» truly marks. The property sign, does a conclusion the scientist, «it has appeared prevailing over social» 86. According to A.N.Solopova, «to one of five signs it was possible to carry almost every third country court yard involved in a market turn and using in different degree methods of conducting of a family farm». We razdelem point of view E.A. Kirjanovoj, that the term "fist" was frequent a synonym "miroeda", "predator", the wild, brutal exploiter, abusive character, thus transfer in a category "kulachestvo" quite often had occurred not on social and economic, and on political признакам88.
Till now sharp discussions are caused by a question, whether was kulachestvo a class. We share a position of researchers which consider, that kulachestvo was not a class. So, according to G.Shmelev, «to fists ranked all those who well processes a field, has breeding cattle, builds the new house etc.». V.A.Tikhonov stated such point of view: «To fists carried economy with the largest landed property. But whether there was a class kulachestva? I think, it all the same not a class. Meanwhile to kulatskim in 1929-1930 ranked any economy which on a level of development were allocated above an average, including constantly applying the wage labour, having any cars with the mechanical drive, the leasing premises which are engaged in trade» 90. V.P.Danilov declared: « Concerning social stratification of village of 20th years in our literature there are many exaggerations. But nevertheless in serious works kulachestvo at all it is not represented the independent class which has quite stood apart from the country environment »91.
In the given work based on documentary materials, we are compelled to use expression «kulachestvo as a class» according to the official formulation of that time though now it is not considered scientifically proved.
The relation to fists from the partijno-state country leaders was always guarded. V.I.Lenin directly declared: «They, fists and miroedy - not less terrible enemies, than capitalists and landowners. And if the fist remains untouched if miroeda we do not win it will be inevitable again the tsar and the capitalist». Meanwhile, in November, 1918 it after F.Engelsom still supposed possibility not to resort to violent ekspropriatsii fists if those obey to actions of the Soviet power. However in the spring of 1919 at VIII congress RKP () parties V.I.Lenin has told: « At one Moscow meeting I have resulted exact words of Engels which not only specified, that the average peasantry is our ally, but expressed even confidence, that perhaps it will be possible to do without reprisals, without suppression and in relation to large peasantry. In Russia it is the assumption it was not justified: we stood, we stand and we will stand in direct civil war with fists. It is inevitable ». Transition in 1921 to new economic policy stimulated manufacture lifting, including in village that has led to increase in quantity of prosperous country economy. In the political report of the Central Committee at XI congress parii in 1922 V.I.Lenin has specified, that« with Russian capitalism, with what grows from a small country economy, with what is supported by it... It is necessary in the near future fight, term koto -
rogo it is impossible to define precisely ».
XV congress VKP which has taken place in December, 1927 (), defined «as a priority on the basis of the further cooperation of peasantry gradual transition of the sprayed country economy to rails of large manufacture», has made the decision on transition to a policy of approach on kulachestvo. It meant restriction of exploiter possibilities and aspirations kulatskih economy, their active replacement economic методами96. Fists were assessed with the raised tax, limited in supply selhozmashinami, lost suffrages in Councils of deputies, for them terms of rent of the earth were twice reduced, the control over performance in kulatskih economy of the labour legislation concerning farm laborers amplified, cleaning of collective farms from kulatskih elements »was spent«. In connection with the 1928 which have arisen by winter crisis of grain-collections because of unwillingness of peasants to give bread to a city, the policy in village began to become tougher. To nesdatchikam grains criminal punishment under the item was applied 61 UK and partial confiscation of property. It was, as truly considers N.A.Ivnitsky, a prologue already new on -
litiki in relation to prosperous peasants.
The decision of the Central Electoral Committee and SNK the USSR from April, 21st, 1928 had been entered the individual taxation most economically strong country economy. The maximum rate of withdrawal selhoznaloga from incomes in 30 % was established. As the basis following signs for this purpose served: if members of a court yard are engaged in buying up for the purpose of resale, trade or usury; if in an economy or in a craft wage labour is regularly applied; if in an economy is available: a mill, maslobojka, prosorushka, volnochesalka, sherstobitka, terochnoe an institution, a potato, fruit either vegetable dryer or other industrial enterprise - under condition of application in the listed enterprises of mechanical engines or wage labour and also if in an economy is available wind or a water-mill with two and more postavami; if the economy hands over in employment constantly or for a season the separate equipped premises under habitation or under trading or
The industrial enterprise.
At All-Union meeting on the uniform agricultural tax, taken place in January, 1929, the chief of State tax NKF M.I.Livshits has declared the USSR, that «the question on individual taxation is a question political» 100. It was authorised to apply the individual taxation of country economy for the purpose of withdrawal at them grain surpluses. Local authorities could expand signs of the economy which are subject to individual taxation. As a result with the individual tax were assessed not only kulatskie, but also a part serednjatskih and even bednjatskih economy. Has besides, grown also itself selhoznalog. So, if in 1926/27 one kulatskoe the economy paid on the average 100 rbl. 77 copeck, in 1928/29 - 267 rbl. 45. The copeck, that is in 2,7 times is more, whereas the average size of the tax to one serednjatskoe an economy has increased in 1,6 times - about 17 rbl. 77 copeck to 23 rbl. 60 copeck 101. As marked M. And. Kalinin, selhoznalog was «one of the major tools for change of social and economic structure of peasantry: we assess a top by a principle of an income progression, not allowing to increase» 102.
Transition to collectivisation of the whole villages accepted more and more wide scope. There was a question how to be with fists: whether to suppose them in collective farm or not to suppose on any conditions? In April, 1929 on incorporated plenum of Central Committee VKP () and TSKK individual country economy as, in their opinion, collective farms and state farms will not soon give to the state bread in the necessary quantity have suggested to support N.I.Buharin, A.I.roar, M.P.Tomsky, and have opposed emergency measures, for peace «growing of a fist into socialism». These sights have been condemned I.V.Stalin's by supporters. Plenum decisions were supported taken place in April, 1929 by XVI party конференция104. However among its delegates of the uniform point of view on a question how to be with fists at mass collectivisation, was not. One considered possible their acceptance in sowing associations and collective farms under condition of transfer of means of production by them in collective farms, others suggested to leave these economy isolated and in collective farms not to suppose, the third supported eviction of fists in special settlements and allocation of the earth by it on suburb of kolkhoz fields. The commission under S.V.Kosiora's presidency, not having come to a common opinion, has offered a question about «a fist and collective farm» to transfer in Политбюро105.
XVI conference VKP () has approved Central Committee installation on transition to collective forms of work of the whole villages and деревень106. Association of poor men and serednjakov one settlement in collective farm finished isolation kulachestva and, on M.I.Kalinina's expression, did a fist by the superfluous person in village. It was necessary to define the most expedient forms of restriction and replacement kulachestva. On July, 18th, 1929 Central Committee VKP () has decided fists in collective farms not to accept. Since summer of 1929 tax taxation kulatskih economy has been considerably increased. For non-payment and delay of taxes of fists began to judge and fine. The property zadolzhnikov was withdrawn and on sale with торгов109. Such policy ruined kulatskie economy. Manufacture in them stopped, cattle and selhozmashiny were sold. There was a fast reduction of their number. According to TSSU the USSR, to autumn of 1929 relative density kulatskih economy made 2,5-3 %, and number - 600-700 thousand семей110.
The course on toughening of a policy concerning a fist has supported also November (1929) Central Committee VKP plenum (). In the accepted resolution it has been specified «to develop resolute approach to a fist» 111. On December, 5th, 1929 Central Committee VKP Political bureau () has formed the special commission for working out of the plan of continuous collectivisation under J.A.Jakovleva's presidency (since December, 7th, 1929 the people's commissar of agriculture of the USSR - E.T.). A question on the politician concerning fists
The subcommittee led by the secretary of Central Committee VKP () was engaged in K.JA.Bauman. It has come to conclusion, that «has ripened time when it is possible to bring in more concrete form an attention to the question on liquidation kulachestva» 114. Having noticed, that «hopelessly to try to resolve« kulatskuju a problem »eviction of all weight kulatskogo the population in the remote edges and to that similar actions», the subcommittee has considered necessary to do it дифференцированно115. The subcommittee has suggested economy of fists to break into three categories. To the first category, the richest fists conducting active counterrevolutionary work against the Soviet power have been carried to the second category - economically powerful fists maintaining the rural poor, to the third category - economically less powerful which actively were not opposing the Soviet power. For each category certain repressive measures have been planned: For the first - arrest, return under court, confiscation of all means of production, for the second - dispatch on country suburbs. Fists of the third category after confiscation at them means of production could be accepted in collective farms, but with test сроком116.
I.V.Stalin has considered commission JA.A offers. JAkovleva. Addressing to scientific conference agrarnikov-marksistov on December, 27th, 1929, he openly declared transition from a policy of restriction and replacement of capitalist elements of village to a policy of liquidation kulachestva as класса117.
On January, 5th, 1930 Central Committee VKP () has accepted the decision «About rate of collectivisation and measures of the help of the state to collective-farm building» in which it was noticed, that last months collective-farm movement has captured «not only separate groups of individual economy, but also the whole areas, districts and even areas and edges» therefore the material resources «for replacement large kulatskogo manufactures by large manufacture of collective farms» are created. «This circumstance having crucial importance for all national economy of the USSR, - was specified in the decision, - has allowed parties the full basis to pass in the practical work from a policy of restriction of exploiter tendencies kulachestva to a policy of liquidation kulachestva as class» 119.
For development of concrete measures in the relation kulachestva Central Committee VKP Political bureau () has created on January, 15th, 1930 the commission led by the secretary of the Central Committee V.M.Molotovym. In its structure, along with executives of Average and Bottom Volga, Ukraine, the North Caucasus, the secretary obkoma VKP () I.M.Varejkis's Central Black Earth area has been included also. The project of the decision prepared by the commission «About actions for liquidation kulatskih economy in areas of continuous collectivisation» has been confirmed Central Committee VKP () on January, 30th, 1930 As it was specified in the decision, in areas of continuous collectivisation it was necessary «to spend immediately, and in other areas in process of really mass expansion of the collectivisation, following actions»: To cancel concerning individual country economy action of the law on rent of the earth and wage labour application in agriculture, to confiscate from fists of means of production, cattle, economic and inhabited constructions, the enterprises for raw materials processing, fodder and seed stocks.
To fists measures depending on a category to which they have been carried were taken: fists of the first category (counterrevolutionary kulatsky an active) immediately consisted in a concentration camp, organizers of acts of terrorism, counterrevolutionary performances were subject to the higher measure of punishment; fists of the second category («other elements kulatskogo an active», the richest fists) were moved in the remote districts USSR; the fists of the third category left for residing within area, were subject to moving on new sites taken away outside of collective-farm economy. The quantity liquidated kulatskih economy on all areas should average 3-5 % from the general number of country economy.
Repressive measures concerning fists of first and second category OGPU has been obliged to spend within four months: from February till May. For this time followed direct in a concentration camp of 60 thousand and to move in the remote areas of 150 thousand fists. In this connection still on January, 18th, 1930 central management OGPU has ordered to the plenipotentiaries to result all devices «in mobilisation readiness». The Plenipotentiary representations have been obliged to develop and present immediately in OGPU an operation detailed plan on eviction kulatskih families, having specified in it areas and quantity planned to eviction, railway points where will concentrate moved before the sending, required quantity of cars and эшелонов126. The question on eviction of fists was in detail discussed at the meeting of all plenipotentiaries called on January, 30th, 1930 by board OGPU. Order OGPU from February, 2nd, 1930 had been defined an order and terms of carrying out of eviction. For a direct management of operation in areas and districts operative three were created.
In a legislative order transition to a policy of liquidation kulachestva as class has been issued by the decision of the Central Electoral Committee and SNK the USSR from February, 1st, 1930 «About actions for strengthening of a socialist reorganisation of agriculture in areas of continuous collectivisation and on struggle with kulachestvom». According to the decision, rent of the earth and wage labour application in individual country economy was forbidden. The right to apply «all necessary measures of struggle with kulachestvom, up to full confiscation of property of fists and their eviction from limits of separate areas and edges (areas)» was given to executive committees. Detailed instructions as it is necessary to carry out the new policy, the confidential instruction of the Central Electoral Committee contained and SNK the USSR from February, 4th, 1930 It has been dispatched all organisations for practical guidance by work on liquidation kulatskih economy.
Thus, to the beginning of February, 1930 the central power had been accepted the basic standard documents defining an order of liquidation kulatskih of economy. Practically to carry out a policy of liquidation kulachestva as class it was necessary to local authorities. By present time their activity is studied still insufficiently full and comprehensively. Necessity of continuation of working out of the given theme on materials, first of all local archives, is obvious. It will allow to show more objectively participation of local links of various structures of the power in campaign on raskulachivaniju, it is detailed to open problems solved by them and results of their activity.
In a number of the regions, which heads participated in preparation of the project of the decision of the Political bureau of Central Committee VKP () from January, 30th, 1930, decisions on liquidation kulatskih economy have been accepted even before reception of the instruction of the central power. So, in the Sredne-Volga edge of a bureau krajkoma VKP () the decision «About withdrawal and eviction of counterrevolutionary elements and kulachestva from village» has taken out on January, 20th, 1930 Similar decisions were prints Nizhnevolzhsky krajkom VKP () on January, 24th, Central Committee KP () Ukraine - on January, 28th, North Caucasian krajkom parties - on January, 29th and on February, 2nd.
In Central Black Earth area the question on liquidation kulachestva was discussed on plenum obkoma the parties, passing in Voronezh on January, 26-27th, 1930 134 Secretary obkoma I.M.Varejkis has declared, that in TSCHO are subject raskulachivaniju 90-100 thousand fists (4-5 %). Meanwhile, such installation not with
Replied quantity available in area kulatskih economy. According to TSSU the USSR, in 1927 in TSCHO was 2 012,5 thousand country economy, from them kulatskimi was 44 875 (2,2 %) 136. I.M.Varejkis as marks P.V.Za-gorovsky, being guided by instructions of the central power, that fists are 4-5 % of all Russian peasants, «has simply calculated this percent from the general number of country economy». In the resolution accepted by plenum measures which followed were specified apply to fists: not to suppose fists in collective farms, and pronikshih to exclude from them, having deprived of the earth, selhozinventarja, cattle, constructions; fists to dispossess to (expropriate) in full or in part, transferring their property in collective farms in the socialised indivisible funds of the capital; immediately to conduct campaign of repayment by fists of debts to the state or co-operative bodies (shortages under taxes, State fear, credits, self-taxation, etc.) ; kulatskie economy to move on the remote earths out of collective farms, without fail they should fulfil all requirements of ground bodies about agrominimum carrying out, in case of infringement of these requirements for ever to deprive of their right of use of the earth, to move from area or district, and in an unusual case and from области139.
raskulachivanija the management of some districts TSCHO has accepted decisions on the beginning, also not waiting receipts of corresponding instructions of higher instances. For example, Tambov okruzhkom VKP () - on January, 20th, Ostrogozhsky and Usmansky okruzhkomy - on January, 21st, 1930 140
The secretary of Borisoglebsky district committee VKP () M.I.Kolesnikov directed on January, 19th, 1930 to all secretaries of district committees the confidential letter containing practical instructions on carrying out of liquidation kulachestva. For harmful actions of fists against collectivisation it was necessary to confiscate from them agricultural stock, working and grocery cattle, the industrial enterprises, economic extensions both in some cases valuable premises and it is obligatory to deprive of their allotment. « As "Soviet loyal" fists in the nature does not exist, and all of them in the latent or open form are engaged in hostile harmful actions, - Kolesnikov underlined, - that in essence specified methods we have possibility to resolve a problem raskulachivanija »141. At the same time the secretary okruzhkoma has stated fear, that the fist will outstrip it« action "," immediately will sell, will alloy the basic and most valuable of its property and stock ». Having noticed, that already« there is a number of cases when it all sells also itself leaves with the family », it has specified to local heads« to show the greatest flexibility, originally revolutionary rates in work, that at all
To admit success in this new maneuver of a fist ».
All practical work was assigned to the Village Soviets. Raskulachivanie followed spend «firm hands of farm laborers and poor men». «There should not be no farm laborer, any poor man, - Kolesnikov wrote, - which would not have the certain task, the commission in this difficult work on raskulachivaniju» 143. kulachestva it was necessary to involve In liquidation and serednjakov. To interest bednjatsko-serednjatskuju weight as the secretary okruzhkoma considered, it will be possible in the event that gratuitously to transfer only in collective farms all confiscated stock, and also to kill to collective farms and state farms the earths which were in using of a fist.
Kolesnikov warned against possible errors: «not to suppose at all that the blow intended for a fist, fell on serednjatskoe peasantry"."It is necessary to remember, - he wrote, - that a fist is such layer of peasantry which lives for the account of operation of a hired labour in the economy or for the account of assignment of an additional product, by usury, rent, private trade, a summer residence in employment of working cattle, selhozmashin, etc.». Further necessary strict prevention: « To mix etotsloj with serednjatskim an economy even in single instances - there will be a crime before party ». Referring to I.V.Stalin's statement, that raskulachivanie is« a component of formation and development of collective farms », Kolesnikov underlined, that« all work on raskulachivaniju should be directly co-ordinated to faster rates on continuous collectivisation of district, with formation of new collective farms, integration old, nationalisation of the basic means of production belonging to collective farmers ». As a result of liquidation kulatskih economy on places should« not only not lose any pood of bread which was given before by a fist, but, using advantage of collectivisation, considerably to increase grain surpluses ». The secretary okruzhkoma considered, that it is possible, if the plan of a spring sowing-time is completely executed. That any not sowed in the hectares does not remain, it was necessary to include in plans of crops by collective farms and kulatskie zem -
Corresponding instructions have been given also by Borisoglebsky district executive committee. On January, 18th, 1930 the presidium okrispolkoma has specified to district ground management and district executive committees at carrying out zemleustroitelnyh works in areas of continuous collectivisation, mass MTS and at transition of separate settlements to continuous collectivisation kulatskim to economy to take away «distant from ground societies and thus the worst earths, mainly deposits» 145. On January, 26th, 1930 At session in which members of presidium the chairman okrispolkoma Bohr participated, its assistant Djakov managing of district Workers' and Peasants' inspection Zajdes, Vdovin managing by district ground management, the candidate in members of presidium of Medvedev, district attorney G utsev and the chief of district administrative department Yerofeev, has been considered the project made by district ground management providing expansion of state farms in district on 30 000 hectares for the account of withdrawal of irrationally used earths and at kulatskih of economy. Having decided, that the project «is quite realizable and is minimum», the presidium okrispolkoma has charged OkrZU «to start practically kprovedeniju this question during a life, having co-ordinated it with RIKami» 146. In connection with earth tap svinhozu at Bacon factory at station Esipovo the presidium okrispolkoma has decided not to suppose in number of counteractants kulatskie an economy, and all seed sowing material available for them to withdraw for needs
Collective farms.
The presidium okrispolkoma has given special orders concerning medical aid rendering: «Medikosanitarnye district establishments should spend strictly a class principle, providing with the prime help of workers, selhozrabochih, the collective farmers insured and their family and batratskobednjatskie of weight of village, resolutely having finished with a principle uravnitelnosti in business of service of the population. To consider necessary the termination of free treatment of fists and an unearned element, having entered for them platnost on the raised norms, except for cases of infectious illnesses and emergency character». Okrzdravu it was entrusted to give on places of instructions of an instructive order on service by medical service of the population and in week term «to work a question» about an introduction order platnosti for fists and unearned «an ale - 149
The cop ».
The district power had been planned also variety of practical actions for re-education of children of fists. Under the plan of district department of national education it was necessary to spend the account of children at the age of 7-15 years from families in which the head "is withdrawn", and they could remain homeless; at railway stations to organise «protecting groups for a delay homeless, not giving it possibilities to ply from a city in a city». All detained children followed direct to district department of national education for placing on children's homes of the city of Novohopyorska, having passed them at first through the commissions at hospitals for an age establishment. At children's homes for illiterate it was planned to create mugs on an educational program, and competent to place in school of 1 step. For labour preparation all homeless were distributed on shops in the centralised children's workshops «according to their inquiries and interests». Children who had knowledge not below school of 1 step and were "re-educated enough", went for reception of qualification and knowledge to agricultural schools, apprenticeship schools in Marinku, Kalinovo, in industrial educational workshops in villages the Kalmyk and Makarovo, and after noegenesis - in collective farms and state farms «for an independent life». For children which families were moved in settlements on the remote and worst sites of the earth, schools of 1 step by a self-support principle opened. Children "lishentsev", living in villages, were accepted in schools only on empty seats and were involved in all children's organisations. For children who have not got to school in the absence of places, groups on the basis of self-support were organised. Children who have ended schools of 1 step in kulatskih settlements, and groups at the general schools, were accepted in schools of 2 steps on empty seats after satisfaction of statements of children of workers, collective farmers, the poor, serednjakov and служащих150. As we see, the power took under the control vital arrangement of children dispossessed, reception of formation by them and a labour speciality, at the same time limiting their rights in comparison with children from other social strata.
That fact, that the management of Borisoglebsky district was engaged in the organisation raskulachivanija, not waiting receipts from higher instances of any lawful substantiations for this purpose, confirms also the letter of a member of a bureau okruzhkoma VKP () Semovsky, addressed on January, 27th, 1930 to the secretary Talov - skogo a district committee to Frolov. Semovsky, having received the letter from the secretary okruzhkoma Kolesnikov participating in the commission on development of a draught resolution of plenum obkoma of party, and considering, that plenum and instruction instructions okruzhkoma will follow only in some days, has given to Frolov «the basic basic installations» with which followed be guided. To raskulachivaniju it was necessary to start immediately, expropriating at fists all means of production, and also valuable property, depriving of their right of rent of the earth and labour hiring. It was necessary to collect the state and public payments from fists, and all confiscated property to transfer in indivisible fund of collective farms. To eviction for district limits followed subject 30 35 % of the general number of fists, «taking from them the most malicious». Other fists it was necessary to move within district, area, the Village Soviet on the distant and worst earths. Raskulachivanie it was necessary to spend «only through weight of farm laborers and poor men, at support serednjakov», through decisions of collective-farm meetings, making out them in the Village Soviets. At the same time the power supposed, that peasantry broad support can not be, therefore followed involve bodies GPU and militias. The district management recommended not to be limited to "legality frameworks», not to search for "lawful substantiations of spent actions» 151. Such installation, in our opinion, allowed to representatives of local links of the power ample opportunities to suppose various abusings and offences during campaign.
The special role in the organisation raskulachivanija was taken away to local bodies OGPU and People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs. By order of OGPU as already it was marked above, for a management of operation on eviction of fists in areas and districts operative three were created. In Borisoglebsk district the operative three was headed by the deputy chief of district department OGPU Budantsev152.
According to the instruction of chief of regional administrative department Zemiseva temporarily taking up a post and assistant to the chief temporarily taking up a post obladmotdela on criminal investigation department Kuhtina from January, 24th, 1930, district administrative departments have been obliged to render «due assistance» and the practical help to party and Soviet bodies. Through an informative network they had to strengthen supervision over a prosperous part of village so that «each action kulachestva» was known to militia and criminal investigation department bodies that they «have taken in due time all measures of precautionary character to fulfilment from the party kulachestva acts of terrorism». For fulfilment of acts of terrorism and display of anti-Soviet actions guilty followed hold in custody. It was necessary to instruct militia and criminal investigation department staff «about display of due energy from their party at selection of property from kulatskih economy and transfer of that to collective farms», to take all measures to revealing of fists, pronikshih and trying to get into collective farms, immediately to inform of it corresponding authorities, in due time to inform in obladmotdel «as separate reports, and in information reports» on all acts of terrorism made kulache -
By order of the chief of regional administrative department Zueva from January, 31st, 1930 on administrative bodies «exclusively especial responsibility» for carrying out during a life of problems «on vykorchyovyvaniju capitalist elements - liquidations kulachestva, as class», put by party and the government 154 was assigned. Bodies of militia and ugolvnogo search followed immediately alert. To chiefs okradmotdelov together with okruzhkomami and district committees, okrispolkomami and district executive committees it was necessary to reconsider quickly the administrative board of regional administrative bodies, and also all ordinary structure of militia and criminal investigation department on village. Chiefs of district administrative departments have been obliged to strengthen protection of the weapon, at the disposal of administrative bodies, within 72 hours to make a plan of measures and to reflect the general course of campaign for liquidation kulachestva in monthly information сводках155.
This very day, on January, 31st, 1930, the Borisoglebsky district administrative department has directed to regional administrative branches the instruction. In it, in particular, it was spoken: «Accepted by party and the Soviet power of a measure to fist liquidation as class naturally cause wild resistance of a fist and nepmana. Enemies of the Soviet power will kill representatives of the public, the power, to set fire to state enterprises and establishments, to poison cattle and products, they will be to pass from the latent wrecking to open struggle.
All it from bodies of militia and search demands work statement on a fighting foot. To any conversations the place subordinated to maintenance of performance of a problem of liquidation of a fist as class should be taken away. Chiefs of the Russian Open Society should remember all completeness of responsibility of a duty laying on them as on heads of the armed force »156.
It was ordered to chiefs of regional administrative branches «unusable to clean all from staff, having replaced with its members VKP (and members of the Komsomol» to throw in other areas of those militiamen, «which work near to relatives, that cannot guarantee clearness and absoluteness of performance of problems laying on them». Before district executive committees followed raise the question «about necessity of maintenance of militia transportation means, by supply loshadmi and vehicles from among confiscated». It was necessary to take also measures to maintenance of branches completely arms and an ammunition, missing to receive in district admotdele. With militiamen to establish telecommunication for what to organise watch from rural executors. To militiamen not less often than an once in a week to be in the Russian Open Society with reports on a condition of served areas. On all incidents immediately to inform district committees, district executive committees and OkrAO, «taking measures to liquidation, remembering about all severity of responsibility». On an area condition to inform chief OkraAo in writing and by phone every three day, «until the special order».
As liquidations kulatskih economy judicial bodies should promote, it is possible uzanat from the confidential letter of chairman of regional court Izraelja temporarily taking up a post «About court problems in connection with a policy of liquidation kulachestva as class», adresovnnogo on January, 31st, 1930 for chairmen of district courts. In it it has been specified in necessity «to liquidate by physical destruction (execution) of those fists which with a sawn-off shotgun or with fire oppose lives of our public men, collective farmers or against property of collective farms in all those cases when a similar sort of business vessels» will be left, «in the most most severe image to punish the fists which are carrying on counterrevolutionary propaganda against collective-farm building and other economic-political actions of party and the government», to expel a fist from collective farm and severely to punish it. It was recommended to use sdedujushchie Criminal code articles. CHtby «with all ruthless severity» to stop counterrevolutionary propaganda of a fist about sale of live and dead stock, about cattle slaughter, to make answerable under item 79 ch. 1 UK to expose lzhekolhozy, lzhekooperativy and «to take down them from the person of the earth, applying concerning guilty items 169 ch. 2 UK. The Kulatsky propaganda directed on squandering of seed stocks, ssypku unusable seeds, failure of plans of a sowing-time to stop in" the most ruthless image ». In the relation« kulatskih elements », not carrying out accepted plans of a sowing-time (creation of seed funds etc.) Followed apply item 61 UK if in village plans of a sowing-time were not carried out by group of fists, to apply 3 part of item 61 UK with confiscation of property and eviction. Deliberate damage or destruction by fists of agricultural cars and the tools belonging to collective farms, state farms, it was necessary «to qualify under item 58-7 UK with all consequences following from here». Concerning the most active counter-revolutionaries-fists it was offered to apply the higher measure of social protection, in other cases - property confiscation, isolation, eviction, штрафы159.
The management oblsuda on places had been gave such installation: «It is necessary to acquire firmly, that in connection with transition to continuous collectivisation and turn of a policy of the party towards liquidation kulachestva as class lose any value a number of laws in force. Undoubtedly, that in the near future a number of laws will be excellent and the edition of some the new acts answering to new turn of our policy parii will follow. But would be criminal bureaucratism if we began to expect these new laws. The ORGANIC LAW FOR EACH OF us is the POLICY of our PARTY (so it is allocated in the document - E.T.). It is necessary to acquire therefore, that such laws as the law on rent and on hiring by labour fists - are already void - the fist should be immediately deprived the rights of rent, labour hiring etc. These new circumstances are necessary for considering in the daily practical work» 160.
Not to admit failure «ekspropriatsii kulachestva», it was necessary to stop immediately registration «in a notarial order of sections kulatskogo property and other transactions of purchase and sale by property fists». Those officials of machinery of state who «will lead a protection and protection line kulatskih elements from a policy raskulachivanija», it was offered «most to punish decisively». Also it was necessary «to strengthen judicial reprisals on affairs about gangsterism and to other socially-dangerous crimes interfering business of collectivisation and complicating work on liquidation kulachestva». All affairs connected with liquidation kulachestva, should pass through court in the shortest terms. The regional court considered inadmissible displays by judicial workers «any swayings, fluctuations or indecision in business of realisation of a policy of liquidation kulachestva as class». It was necessary for court «to be prepared for business and to strike on kulachestvu, yes to strike on it so that it could not rise to the feet more (Stalin)» 161.
This letter oblsuda visually testifies that for liquidation kulatskih economy the power was not limited to the measures aimed at their economic ruin. She intended widely to apply to fists and criminal prosecution. In such a way the power wished to isolate from agricultural population of the most independent and resolute peasants which could organise active counteraction of all campaign on raskulachivaniju, first of all.
Along with the power instructions which maintenance was known only to a narrow circle of ranking officers, the policy of liquidation kulachestva as class has found wide reflexion in materials of periodicals both central, and local. On January, 21st, 1930 in the newspaper «Red Star» I.V.Stalin's article «About the politician of liquidation kulachestva as class» in which the essence of a new policy was explained has been published. In it, in particular, it was said, that «it is impossible to supersede kulachestvo as a class measures of tax and any other restriction, leaving in hands of this class of an instrument of production with the right of free using the earth and keeping in our practice the law on work hiring in village, the law on rent, prohibition raskulachivanija». That «to supersede kulachestvo as a class», has declared I.V. Stalin, «it is necessary to break in opened to fight resistance of this class and to deprive of its industrial sources of its existence and development (free using the earth, instruments of production, rent, the right of hiring of work etc.)» 162.
The Borisoglebsky district newspaper «Collective-farm truth» has published on February, 2nd, 1930 article «About raskulachivanii», containing such recommendations: «the General basic installations from the centre are given. To wait for regulations in hundred points it is not necessary. Any regulations not in a condition to provide thousand cases and features raskulachivanija fists in different areas, in different conditions. Here the revolutionary initiative and severe resoluteness are necessary... It is necessary, that all local workers have clearly understood, that such liquidation kulachestva as class and why right now, instead of earlier and not under any circumstances not later, it is necessary raskulachivat a fist. Raskulachivanie has begun!» 163
Let's consider, what work on the organisation raskulachivanija was provodena directly on places. So, the bureau of Verhne-Karachansky district committee VKP () has decided «to involve on January, 19th, 1930 without fail in an investment of means on spetskapitaly» all kulatskie economy with entering by each able-bodied member of a court yard of 500 roubles, having collected them in 24 часа164. The party fraction of district executive committee together with representatives of a district committee should in three-day term, on January, 22-25nd, to make collecting from fists of all shortages for three years under the agricultural tax, the credit, the industrial tax, individual tasks on grain-collections, and also gathering spetskapitalov. Withdrawal at fists of all available money resources was required to be finished by January, 25th. All party cells and representatives of a district committee were recommended «to develop since January, 25th active work on the uttermost raskulachivaniju». Concerning the fists, showing physical resistance or carrying on counterrevolutionary propaganda, was recommended to adhere strictly to the instruction of a district committee from January, 16th - for attempts to terror, for counterrevolutionary propaganda and their counterrevolutionary measures in due time to arrest and send in regional militia. To the chief of regional administrative branch Evtushenko followed «take measures to resolute strengthening of struggle with kulachestvom». Party cells and representatives of a district committee have been obliged to organise immediately from members of collective farm, communists and members of the Komsomol protection of the socialised stock, the seeds, the property selected at fists. In case of arsons of property of collective farms, responsibility a bureau of party cells and representatives, as «not taken measures to protection» 165 "first of all" should bear.
On January, 21st a bureau of the Verhne-Karachansky district committee has confirmed lists уполномоченных166. For «study of all practical questions connected with measures raskulachivanija», the decision of a bureau of a district committee had been created on January, 25th the commission in structure Litvinova, Evsina and Пищугина167. It was entrusted to the party and Komsomol organisations, «having worked nominees of fists and having established their valid accessory to kulatskim to economy, to make on them a touch for the purpose of a presentation it payments of shortages, spets. Means and levy of execution» 168. After the statement of these nominees at meetings of the poor and collective farmers followed carry out «the uttermost alienation of all economic, material resources of fists», them raskulachivanie. All party cells and representatives of a district committee were obliged «immediately to make the full and exact account of all property selected at fists, to organise protection and to define necessary warehouses and premises» 169. By February, 1st party fraction of district executive committee, partjachejki and representatives of a district committee should «put into practice through meetings of collective farmers deprivation of fists of all allotments» for their joining at carrying out zemleustroitelnyh works to ze -
melnym to plots of collective farms.
On January, 28th the secretary of district committee VKP () Evsin has specified to secretaries of party cells and representatives of a district committee to create at each Village Soviet staffs on continuous collectivisation and raskulachivaniju led by secretaries of party cells and where they are not present - led by representatives. In structure of staffs vklju -
chalis the secretary partjachejki, the chairman of the Village Soviet, the chairman of collective farm, the secretary of cell VLKSM and the representative from the poor. In each one hundred staffs should organise responsible three led by «good business» communists, members of the Komsomol or non-party collective farmers, especially from poor men. The staff was obliged regularly, each three days to spend briefing of all members of three on which to hear reports of heads of three, to sum up work, to reveal positive and weaknesses and «to pump up, up, learn and learn incessantly, endlessly». The secretary of a district committee suggested to allocate from a staff of 5-10 awards, including for the account of aloof razors at fists, a cheap wall clock etc., and to give out to their best three, brigades and teams.
Similar decisions were accepted by a management and other areas. So, the secretary of the Talovsky district committee of party Frolov has instructed secretaries partjacheek immediately «to start to raskulachivaniju, selecting at fists all means of production, valuable property and an allotment not to be limited to frameworks of legality legal zatsepok», all confiscated to transfer in indivisible collective-farm fund, having collected before from all fists all state and public payments. For maintenance with sowing materials the Village Soviets were entrusted to finish an estimated figure to settlements, to the prosperous, individually imposed economy, to economy, «cleaned of collective farms», and fists. It was necessary to fine them for default by "individuals" of the task in the fivefold size, to confiscate all property, malicious "individuals" to prosecute, and fists to arrest without court, having on them «a terrible material». Guilty of cattle slaughter, sale of fodder and wrecking sle -
dovalo immediately to judge a show trail.
To continue a policy «resolute and ruthless approach to a fist», «having taken immediate measures to its liquidation as hostile class by deprivation of the right to the earth, alienation of property in favour of collective farms and eviction from area limits», having mobilised for this purpose batratsko-bednjatskie and serednjatskie weights, has decided and taken place on January, 28-29th, 1930 plenumnovohopyorskogo district committee VKP (). For population involving to practical work on collectivisation and raskulachivaniju the regional management by February, 10th, 1930 had been spent 22 party meetings, 74 meetings of groups of the poor, 116 meetings of the poor, 37 sessions of the Village Soviets, 23 plenums of the Village Soviets, 46 meetings of an active, 30 delegatskih meetings, 37 meetings of women, 214 general meetings of collective farmers, 16 meetings of trade unions. In total on them there were 58 447 persons: 2 037 communists, 2 475 members of the Komsomol, 2 694 farm laborers, 19 579 poor men, 20 250 serednjakov, 10 727 women.
In total for carrying out of collectivisation and raskulachivanija in district areas in village 849 persons - 443 regional and district workers, 406 - from the regional centres, among them - two assistants to the district attorney, the senior inspector of the work, two chairmen of district departments of the Unions, the senior inspector of district court, the chairman of trust "Water light" have been sent, I manage -
shchy okrmesthozom.
So, raskulachivanija in Borisoglebsk district TSCHO various bodies of local authorities were engaged in the organisation: okruzhkom and district committees VKP (), okr - executive committee and district executive committees, rural partjachejki and the Village Soviets. The management of areas without special delays has defined the whole list consistently and continuously put blows on kulatskim to economy: from collecting of shortages and requisitions before full alienation of their property. Concrete actions have been planned, practical instructions are given on places. At the Village Soviets from among ranking officers and active workers the commissions, three, staffs were created. The wide range of party and Soviet workers of regional, district and regional levels has been besides, involved. Participation in liquidation kulatskih economy of bodies OGPU, militia, Office of Public Prosecutor and courts should provide productivity of all campaign.
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A source: Timoshechkina Elena Mihajlovna. The dispossession of peasants in the Borisoglebsk district of the Central Black Earth region (first half of 1930). 2014

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  2. chapter 2. Mutual relations of the power and peasantry in liquidation carrying out kulatskih economy
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  6. §2. Pravotvorchesky activity of local governments and feature of its realisation.
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  10. § 2. International «the soft right» in activity of federal and regional bodies of the state, local governments
  11. § 2. The maintenance and limits of restriction of a constitutional law on the information on activity of the state bodies and local governments
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