§ 6. Eviction dispossessed in North country

Fists to "the second category» were subject to eviction in kept away, maloobzhitye country areas: North country, Urals Mountains, Siberia and Kazakhstan. As it was specified in the decision of the Political bureau of Central Committee VKP () from January, 30th, 1930 «About actions for liquidation kulatskih economy in areas of continuous collectivisation», such measure was undertaken on purpose «resolute blasting of influence kulachestva on separate layers bednjatsko-serednjatskogo peasantry and unconditional suppression of any attempts of counter-revolutionary counteraction from fists spent by the Soviet power and collective farms to actions». Eviction dispossessed was authorised the decision of the Central Electoral Committee and SNK the USSR from February, 1st, 1930 «About actions for strengthening of a socialist reorganisation of agriculture in areas of continuous collectivisation and on struggle with kulachestvom».
As the Soviet historiography affirmed, that eviction of fists promoted their labour re-education. So, A.P.Finarov noticed, that they have received habitation and work in lespromhozah, on fishings, at the enterprises of the wood industry. I.J.Trifonov underlined, that, carrying out «liquidation of exploiter classes, proletariat dictatorship at all was not guided by motives of social revenge concerning the former exploiters, and put a problem their involving in active labour activity and gradual re-education in the spirit of socialism». N.A.Ivnitsky also considered, that liquidation kulachestva as class in the USSR did not mean physical destruction of fists, and «had the purpose, along with other problems, labour re-education of the former exploiters, their transformation into workers of a socialist society equal in rights». According to the Soviet historians, eviction of fists promoted the decision of some economic problems. So, N.I. Platunov wrote, that in a basis pereselencheskoj politicians of the end of 1920th necessity to unload agrarian-overpopulated areas European part of the USSR laid, to liquidate there malozemele, and also to involve in economic circulation uninhabited territories on east suburbs of the country for development and rational placing of productive forces, that this policy was spent in interests of planned development of a national economy of the country. JI. Rybakovsky also considered, that mass resettlements in the USSR were not a method of the proved demographic policy, and were means of realisation of a policy of the state, first of all, in economy sphere.
The main accent in modern researches becomes on violent character of eviction of fists and considerable human losses. According to N.JA.Guschin, spetspereselenija 1930th years are one of the largest demographic accidents XX века390. We divide its point of view, that it was legal, social and economic discrimination of fists, that the relation of the power to them as to cheap and bystrovospolnjaemoj "rabsile" conducted to physical  destruction of this layer of peasantry. By present time the extensive statistical material is entered into a scientific turn, allowing to establish number of the moved country families from various regions of the country, and also to track dynamics of movement spetsposelentsev. By a number of scientists the economic device of the moved peasants, cultural and community conditions of their life, and also their legal status are shown the functioning organisation spetsposeleny.
However not all aspects of a theme are investigated still full and in details. For example, there is no complete picture of the operation on eviction.
On materials of Borisoglebsky district we will show, how eviction of fists by local authorities has been organised and spent.
As it was marked in the confidential instruction of the Central Electoral Committee and SNK from February, 4th, 1930, «the organisation of delivery and delivery of fists in the remote districts of the Union
The Soviet Socialist Republic »was assigned on OGPU. On February, 4th OGPU has definitively defined quantity moved and terms of carrying out of operation in various areas of the country. From Central Black Earth area it was planned to take out from February, 20th till April, 15th, 1930 to North country of 8 thousand семей394. The assistant to plenipotentiary OGPU on TSCHO Gordon, headed an operative three, and a member opertrojki the chief of information department Zedin on February, 14th, 1930 have informed the secretary obkoma VKP (I.M.Varejkisu, that under the plan from area are subject to eviction 8 000 kulatskih families, practically eviction will begin on February, 20th and should be ended on April, 14th, all fists in 23 echelons go to North country. Points of formation of echelons have been defined and the schedule with instructions of time of their sending and stations of appointments is made. 17 echelons followed to Arkhangelsk, 6 - to Kotlas, in each of them - on 1760 persons. In total from TSCHO moved 40 480 крестьян396.
Let's consider, what spadework in connection with forthcoming eviction of the dispossessed was spent by local authorities. First of all, they defined nominees for eviction, and did it with the account of the order given from above. So, the Mordovian district committee of party, after reception on January, 26th, 1930 telegrammes from okruzhkoma that on area few fists are planned on eviction, has decided to spend «additional work» on revealing of fists and lists to present in OGPU. After a month, on February, 28th, representative OGPU Znaharev has informed a district committee bureau on "withdrawal" from area 200 кулаков398.
Some regional heads initiated increase in quantity of the moved. For example, the presidium of Verhne-Karachansky district executive committee, having confirmed on February, 28th for eviction 41 family with number of eaters of 150 persons, has decided, that «the given dress on eviction kulatskih economy does not absorb all structure of the most malicious kulachestva, subject to unconditional eviction from district limits» that is why he has addressed to presidium okrispolkoma with the request «about a summer residence of the additional dress on eviction of 150 families with number of eaters 550» 399. It is More to take out fists have wished and in Peskovsky area. The district executive committee presidium has decided on March, 13th, 1930 to move for limits TSCHO
400 tt „
On a case «shortage at eviction» the district executive committee presidium has in addition confirmed 10 more kulatskih economy with 69 eaters, from them on 1 Sand - skomu to the Village Soviet - 4 economy (22 eaters), on 2 Peskovsky Village Soviet - 2 economy (18 eaters), on the Gubarevsky Village Soviet - 3 economy (27 eaters), on the Mazursky Village Soviet - 1 economy (2 eaters) »402. An extract from the report of session of presidium of district executive committee and the personal list kulatskih economy and members of their families have directed in okrispolkom for the statement. However on March, 30th in okrispolkom other extract« with some changes »has arrived, and earlier sent the chairman of district executive committee G.M.Pinjugin asked to consider"void"403. According to a new extract, to eviction intended bolshee number kulatskih economy - not 76, but 97 with 493 eaters and not from 10, and from 13 Village Soviets. It was planned to take out following quantity of families and едоков404:
1) On 1 Peskovsky Village Soviet 11 families 67 eaters
2) On 2 Peskovsky Village Soviet 12 families 69 eaters
3) On Tretjakovsky To the Village Soviet 7 families 44 eaters
4) On Vihljaevsky To the Village Soviet 6 families 32 eaters
5) On Tantsyrejsky To the Village Soviet 11 families 56 eaters
6) Under the Item to the Voskresenovsky Village Soviet 1 families 5 eaters
7) On Gorelsky To the Village Soviet 7 families 34 eaters
8) On Mazursky To the Village Soviet 5 families 19 eaters
9) On Bajchurovsky To the Village Soviet 3 families 15 eaters
10) On Is dry-Elansky To the Village Soviet 3 families 13 eaters
11) On Gubarevsky To the Village Soviet 14 families 60 eaters
12) On Tjukovsky To the Village Soviet 10 families 46 eaters
13) On Makashevsky To the Village Soviet 7 families 36 eaters
Quantity increase Moved on 193 person, As we see, was

stignuto not only for the account of an available reserve but also because to take out fists have solved also in other Village Soviets: Vihljaevsky, Bajchurovsky, the Sou - ho-Elanskom.
As the secretary okruzhkoma VKP reported obkomu on party on March, 12th, 1930 () M.I.Kolesnikov, to export in the Arkhangelsk edge was subject 3 thousand persons or 600 economy, the material on them «is processed and there is a preparation for their sending» 405. On March, 27th, 1930 lists of the moved have been confirmed by Presidium okrispolkoma. In total from district have planned to take out 3 080 persons. On areas this quantity was distributed так406:
Aleshkovsky Area 240 persons
The Arkhangelsk Area 200 persons
The Borisoglebsky Area 350 persons
Verhne-Karachansky Area 150 persons
Elan-Kolenovsky Area 240 persons
The Zherdevsky Area 250 persons
The Mordovian Area 190 persons
The Novohopyorsky Area 200 persons
The Peskovsky Area 340 persons
The Rusanovsky Area 270 persons
The Talovsky Area 240 persons
The Tokaryovsky Area 230 persons
The Shchuchensky Area 180 persons

The greatest quantity moved was necessary on Borisoglebsky area (350 persons) and Peskovsky area (340 persons), the least - on Verhne - Karachansky area (150 persons) and Shchuchensky area (180 persons). From 317 Village Soviets available in district and 1 855 settlements were taken out, by our calculations, on the average from one Village Soviet about ten fists, and from one settlement - one, two fists.
For maintenance of compulsory export of peasants on a new residence in target dates local authorities solved such practical problems, as mobilisation for carrying out of eviction of necessary quantity of people, allocation a supply, supply moved by clothes and products, an establishment of routes to assembly points, the equipment of assembly points. The bureau of Mordovian district committee VKP (), for example, has charged to party fraction of district executive committee «to earn additionally a question of maintenance of the fists planned to eviction by means:) a food for the term of 2 weeks,
Warm clothes, means of production (saws, axes, etc.) »407. In Novohopyorske session of a bureau of district committee VKP (with participation of representative OGPU Timofeeva, the representative of district supervisory commission Muzalyova and the chief of regional administrative branch Fastykovsky on March, 1st, 1930 has taken place. Under the message rajupolnomochennogo OGPU Timofeeva from area it was necessary to move 47 families (168 persons). For conducting explanatory work with farm laborers, the poor and preparations of corresponding public opinion of a bureau has allocated 9 of" responsible companions »: Fas - tykovskogo, Ignatov, Bragin, SHefrana, Kozlenkova, Zhukovsky, Nasedkina, nekrutova, Muzalyova. For supply of fists and their families the necessary warm clothes, tools, products of party fraction of district executive committee entrusted« to resolve a question on a place at departure selected kulatskih things ». Ranking officers have been obliged by March, 5th to reveal on a place« available available »at fists clothes and necessary вещи408.
By this time the regional management already had data on the various infringements admitted at eviction of fists. That they have not repeated in Borisoglebsk district, the chairman oblispolkoma has sent on March, 10th, 1930 to E.I.Ryabinin there the following telegramme: « Work on eviction of fists of the second category - a number of cases passes badly. Local Soviet bodies, the Village Soviets, RIKi give to this question not enough attention. Cases of eviction of families of Red Army men, serednjakov, former red the guerrilla, even poor men are noted, move invalids, old men and children. The requirement ostavlenija moved a minimum potrebnogo for moving and acquisition on a place in the conditions of the north is not observed. The moment of sending of echelons do not deliver moved, echelons do not load in addition. Categorically I suggest to get rid under personal responsibility of chairmen of district and regional executive committees of the specified abnormalities, to allocate representatives of executive committees on eviction, to inform their surnames »409. On March, 1 1st the copy of the telegramme from Borisoglebsk has been directed all chairmen райисполкомов410.
As on places the orders given "from above" were carried out, it is possible to judge on such facts. Chairman Aleshkovsky of district executive committee Shobanov, for example, already has presented on March, 17th, 1930 to the district heads the list of the appointed representatives on eviction, having specified thus, on what Village Soviets they are distributed:
«1) Nikitin on Pavlodar and 1 Aleksandrovsky with/councils
2) prokopenko on Shpikulovsky and Mihajlovsky with/councils
3) Litunovsky on Aleshkovsky with/council
4) G ichin on 3 Aleksandrovsky and Lipjagovsky with/councils
5) Penkin on 2 Aleksandrovsky and to Volodarsky with/councils
And the regional representative allocates Yerofeev »411.
On the plenum which has taken place on March, 17th of Novohopyorsky district committee VKP (), the member okruzhkoma Semovsky has declared, that to those fists which will move, it is necessary to prepare warm clothes to keep calmness and to deliver them to a place. This question followed be engaged "now".
Evident representation about what concrete actions have been planned by local authorities for maintenance of eviction of fists and what forces were for this purpose involved, gives the plan of carrying out of eviction of fists and their families, confirmed on March, 13th, 1930 Presidium of Peskovsky district executive committee. For a management of eviction the regional staff has been created. Its structure included the chairman of district executive committee Pinjugin, the secretary of district committee VKP () CHistjakov and the chief of regional administrative branch Djakin. In the full order of a staff all party members, members of the Komsomol, militiamen, the Soviet, trade-union workers obliged implicitly to carry out its task arrived. For delivery moved in the city of Borisoglebsk term, i.e. three days have been established 72часовой. The area has been broken into 4 sites:
1 site - Peskovsky, with the centre has sat down Sand, into it entered 1 and 2 Dog - kovskie, the Voskresyonovsky and Mazursky Village Soviets, the responsible representative was the chairman of district executive committee G.M.Pinjugin;
2 site - Tantsyreevsky, with the centre village Tantsyrei, in it the Tantsyreevsky and Tretjakovsky Village Soviets entered, the responsible representative was Gomzin;
3 site - Gubaryovsky, with the centre village Gubari, in it entered Tjukovka, the responsible representative was Alexey Kuznetsov.
4 site - Makashevsky and G orelsky, with the centre village G orelka, representatives were Sviridenko, Yevstigneyev.
For communication with district executive committee with the Village Soviets it was allocated «on one well developed riding». In each Village Soviet the striking force which under the guidance of the responsible authorised district executive committee, spent eviction of fists was created. It mobilised necessary quantity a supply and prepared a ware contentment and products. By March, 14th in district executive committee from the Village Soviets should deliver sheepskin coats, fur coats, valenoks, linen, and by March, 20th - the foodstuffs. The district executive committee through representatives has allowed to the Village Soviets the order to establish, how many economy and eaters are subject to eviction and how many for this purpose it is necessary to mobilise a supply. Fists and their members of a family should be dressed in warm clothes (valenoks, short fur coats, caps, sheepskin coats) and in a stock to have on one pair linen. Each economy was authorised to "grasp" for a month of the foodstuffs (a flour, bread, millet, a potato), and it was necessary to take all luggage from 15 to 30 poods, consisting of products, house prophetic (footwear, clothes, bedding, saws, axes), slesarno-plotnichnogo the tool, and also kitchen accessories (pots, chugunov, buckets). Loading of enormous things was not supposed At all: chests, kadushek, cots, tables, chairs, cases.
On responsible authorised district executive committee delivery moved on destinations was assigned. For it the 48-sentry term has been established and following routes are defined: 1 and 2 Peskovsky, Voskresenov - sky, the Mazursky Village Soviets arrive to village Sand, Tantsyrei and Tretjaki - in Tantsyrei, G orelka - in Tjukovku, Makashevka - in Gubari. From Peskovsky point transports with the moved followed through Tantsyrei, grasped tantsyrejskih and went to Borisoglebsk, from Gubarej moved through Tjukovku and together with tjukovtsami further to Borisoglebsk, from Makashevki - on the Torch and then on Bo - risoglebsk. In case of flood Hopra and impossibility to pass to Borisoglebsk animal-drawn by it was provided to use a special steam locomotive with 8 cars: 6 cars under people, on 50 persons in everyone, all on 300 persons, and 2 cars under luggage on 1000 poods. For delivery moved to stations and plantings in cars the Peskovsky area has been broken into three sites:
1 site: Sand and station Voskresyonovka bring up village to station Karda - silt, the commandant is Sorokin.
2 site: the Mazourka brings up village to station the Mazourka, the commandant is G rebennikov.
3 site: the Torch-makashevka has sat down commandant Sviridenko brings up to station Bajchurovo.
4 site: Tantsyrei with Tretjakami, Tjukovka with Gubarjami, with the centres Tan - tsyrei-Tjukovka go animal-drawn by to Borisoglebsk. Responsible representatives on Tantsyrejam and Tretjakam Gomzin, on Tjukovke and Gubarjam Alexey Kuznetsov.
Initial loading moved in cars, according to the plan, became at station Bajchurovo, then the structure followed on the Mazourka, having grasped there fists, went on Kardail, took away fists from Sand and further moved on Борисоглебск413.
In the eviction plan have not been included Is dry-Elansky, Vihljaevsky, Time - dolevsky and the Kardailsky Village Soviets as the representative of district executive committee of Marks has taken away materials for study on places and by March, 9-10th, 1930 has not presented them.
About what was volume of forthcoming work, it is possible to judge on «the Summary sheet to plan RIKa on spent work on eviction kulatskih economy with families from Peskovsky area» (the appendix 8 see) 414. As the witness - stuet the document, local authorities thoroughly prepared for this operation. On each Village Soviet it planned, what quantity of fists is subject to eviction, how many it is necessary to involve people for its carrying out, the supply for delivery moved on the station, what quantity of sheepskin coats, fur coats, valenoks, linen how many was required, the foodstuffs followed collect for them. However it has been caused, in our opinion, not by touching care of the power about dispossessed, and, first of all, aspiration to spend eviction of fists as much as possible organizovanno and in the specified terms, not having admitted its failure by discontent of the population.
Carrying out of eviction dispossessed in Borisoglebsk district have started on March, 19th, 1930 On the eve of, on March, 17th, okruzhkom VKP () and okrispolkom have directed to secretaries of district committees, chairmen of district executive committees and chiefs of regional operative groups the confidential instruction with following instructions:
«1) to Mobilize necessary quantity, as party, Komsomol structure of area, and a rural active.
2) to Provide timely and fast delivery moved in loading points so that they have arrived to last under instructions nach. Operations groups.
3) to Provide families moved by warm clothes, footwear and linen in the established quantity.
4) Those families moved which do not have foodstuffs to provide the last on 6-7дней.
5) to Provide moved at which are selected by necessary quantity of tools for lesorazrabotok.
6) not to admit At all in number of the moved poor man, serednjaka etc. and as categorically it is forbidden to move:) families of fists at which children serve in RKKA, and families of fists in which structure there are no able-bodied men.
7) Points of concentration of fists to provide with reliable protection »415.
The prevention of a district management, that «no objective reasons in the justification will be accepted» and that «figures of area and terms are firm also their infringement will cause the strict responsibility in a party and judicial order», did execution of these instructions безоговорочным416.
For the organisation of eviction dispossessed directly on places representatives of various authorities have left. So, on March, 19th, 1930 in session of a bureau of Novohopyorsky district committee VKP () the representative of district supervisory commission Muzalyov, the chief of regional administrative branch Fasty - kovsky, the representative obkoma on vesenne-sowing-time Gaish, the chairman of district executive committee Chugunov managing regional financial department participated the representative of district committee Semovsky,
Savelyev managing regional ground department Molchanov, the assistant to the chief of district administrative department Kostin, the chief of operative three Borovin, employee GPU Gusev authorised GPU of Timothies, from RKSM Studenikin, from an office of propagation of Cormorants. Having heard report Borovina on the instruction okruzhkoma VKP () on eviction of fists, the bureau has planned at once practical actions. For operation realisation on occupied puntam following representatives have been appointed: Dolmatov (Red), Gaish (Alfyorovka), Zhukovsky (Moscow), Aljukov (Starozhilsky), Bragin (Kamenka-Sadovka), Ignatov (Tsentralsky), Molchanov (Bo - gdan), Muzalyov (Pyhovka), poleshchuk (polovtsevo), Natsutov (city), Savelyev (Poker), Levin (Averinka).
Representatives and secretaries partjacheek were obliged under personal responsibility «to show a maximum suryoznosti regarding check of all data characterising the validity kulatskogo h-va, subject to withdrawal as socially dangerous (the class enemy) for about-va, adhering to exact performance of instructions OK VKP (». They were entrusted to leave on March, 20th, 1930 on places, till March, 22nd to spend a proverochno-spadework of materials and in the morning on March, 22nd to start practical eviction. In case of rendering by the population of resistance to withdrawal of fists, representatives it was necessary to inform on it to the chief of operative group, «not showing reprisal measures, except explanatory work». Representatives and secretaries partjacheek should prepare communists, members of the Komsomol, farm laborers, poor men, collective farmers "in a fighting way", that could provide «correctness and timeliness» performance of this operation. Concentration kulatskih families found expedient to organise not in a city, and at railway station Novohopyorsk. In this connection it was entrusted to party fraction of district executive committee to give the order rabsovetu and managing school about clearing of premises, club and school, and the chairman of district executive committee Ignatov should «resolve a question with a contentment, etc. hoz. Needs of an operations group, and also sent fists». The chief of communistic group Fastykovsky had to check up and alert komotrjad, having established a corresponding order of execution of a guard duty on loading point of station Novohopyorsk. Personal responsibility for it was born by the assistant to the chief of group Alatortsev417.
Eviction of fists as it was marked above, was assigned to local bodies OGPU. Financial support appeared it. So, the bureau of party fraction Borisoglebsky okrispolkoma has decided on April, 1st, 1930 to give out to district department GPU on operative expenses four thousand roubles.
To move fists OGPU everywhere the militia helped. In Tokaryovsky area, for example, as the chief of regional administrative branch Utkin reported on March, 23rd, 1930 in district admotdel, the senior and departmental militiamen have been translated on barracks position in especially taken away premise. They were used for replenishment of "fighting brigades», created by a district committee and district executive committee under the guidance of representatives OGPU, for konvoirovanija at support of groups of fists to points of departure. As a result eviction has passed fast rate. In total 57 families, 202 человека419 have been moved. In the data presented on May, 10th, 1930 from the Tokaryovsky Russian Open Society in OkraAO also it was specified, that its workers have accepted active participation «in liquidation business kulachestva»: helped agents OGPU to reveal on places of fists, moved fists, conducted supervision over their actions, «in due time took to their corresponding measures» 420.
On export of fists all forces of militia and in Zherdevsky area have been thrown. Eviction there as it was marked in an information report of the Russian Open Society, was carried out «at the weakest activity of farm work and the poor», therefore the basic weight of work has laid down on employees of nation-wide and departmental militia. As the chief of regional administrative branch Konishchev reported in OkrAO, for the period of carrying out of campaign from departmental militiamen the group in number of 14 persons has been created and, the group of 30 party members and VLKSM is besides, organised. From 340 dispossessed economy have moved 58 economy, 282 persons. Militiamen were at the disposal of the operative staff which has spent work in Zherdevsky, Rusanov - skom and Arkhangelsk areas, and were used at eviction of fists, at confiscation of their property, at konvoirovanii dispossessed to station Zherdevka, for mobilisation of transportation means, for protection of the premises occupied with moved families and for supervision of a public order in a countryside. According to the deputy chief of the Zherdevsky Russian Open Society Sysoyev, militiamen were sent to villages for delivery of fists in operative staff OGPU, departmental militiamen stood on posts and protected fists, on request of an operative staff urgently gave horses, taking them at peasants of settlement Chibizovka and at visitors of citizens.
In Borisoglebsk area as it is specified in an information report Okradm - the department, all workers of the Russian Open Society «for operative actions are broken on those settlements, whence there is a withdrawal of fists» 424. Militiamen stopped also attempts of peasants to avoid eviction. Here, that the chief of the Borisoglebsky Russian Open Society informed on it: «From area 365 eaters at what at the tightening moment in a city about eviction from 15 fists of men planned to dispatch ran are moved, from them 10 persons are found by the accepted measures of search, hence a part of workers of the Russian Open Society at present are directly prosecuted by an eviction subjects for there are fears, that the running part will be engaged prestup -
nymi acts ».
Meanwhile, at carrying out of eviction of fists power structures not always operated in coordination. In acknowledgement we will result following facts. District department OGPU has mobilised for work «on withdrawal kulachestva» the assistant to district attorney Kovalyova and narsledovatelja on Alyoshin's Peskovsky area. Kovalyov has left in one of areas till April, 5th. However against such order there was district attorney Gutsev. On March, 27th he has addressed to the secretary okruzhkoma VKP () with such letter: «In bodies of investigation we have now the big flow has put, connected with spring agricultural campaign, their prompt advancement and analysis in court is required, - all it probably to make only under one condition if prokurorsko-investigatory workers are used on the direct appointment about what the question on a bureau okruzhkoma was already repeatedly brought up and in this occasion there is a full arrangement.
I consider, that a parcel pom. The public prosecutor tov. Kovalyova as operative worker in the area of GPU it is obviously inexpedient and I ask it to return.
Narsled Alyoshin has informed me, that all investigatory affairs at it are suspended by investigation whereas in its manufacture there are important enough political cases (about prosecution of school working woman Pominovoj on which there is decision Okr KK to end its investigation to 1.IV.30, etc.). It is necessary to recognise such position obviously abnormal when narsled and the public prosecutor carry from village in a city of fists, and politichesko - investigatory affairs lay without movement »426.
In the Mordovian area eviction of fists have charged to military commissioner Trunov, but that has refused. As Trunov in the letter of district supervisory commission has explained, he «at all did not know», that «fist withdrawal» on March, 20th will be made. On meeting at a party district committee where the question on withdrawal kulachestva », taken place in the evening on March, 19th was discussed«, he has not been invited. It as member VKP () and the chief of garrison, have not advised even, that such operation will be spent. On March, 20th to Trunov have called from the Village Soviet and have asked to come at one o'clock. When it has come to the Village Soviet, authorised a district committee and district executive committee Pochalov began to give it the list of fists, speaking: « To take, plant them and to result in RIK ». As the purpose of commission pochalov has not explained, rajvoenkom it« has accepted not as eviction of a fist from area limits, and as simple clearing of apartments ». Having urgent urgent mobilisation tasks which should be executed in the minimum term, and, considering, that clearing of apartments less important work, than mobilisation, Trunov from the commission has refused. Attraction voenkoma to eviction of fists was infringement of the instruction of chief PUMVO from 10/II-30 and Central Committee VKP instructions (from 6/II-30 about prohibition of mobilisation of military workers for carrying out of different campaigns for an all-party and Soviet line. Meanwhile, in the evening on March, 20th a member of district operative"three"Troshin has made a search on Trunov's apartment, and him has arrested. The whole days rajvoenkom was in custody and has been released only after the special order of district department OGPU428. Trunov's refusal to move fists because of "peregruzhnosti" the work of a bureau of the Mordovian district committee on March, 21st recognised as unreasonable and has made decision to ask a district military registration and enlistment office to oust it, and business for investigation to transfer to the representative of district supervisory commission Galenkinu429. On April, 29th a district committee bureau declared to Trunov, the party member since 1919, strict выговор430.
It is necessary to notice, that some representatives of local authorities even tried to help dispossessed to avoid eviction. So, in Borisoglebsk area militiaman G olomazov was to relatives and has told it, that will move fists in the morning. Having learnt about it, two families have disappeared. Though subsequently they have been found, Golomazova as the chief of the Russian Open Society reported in Okradmotdel, have arrested and have placed under guards ОГПУ431. Sekretnooperativnoe the decision of Mordovian district committee VKP () «regarding eviction kulachestva» «was proclaimed among an alien element (fists)» and the representative of a district committee in the Kazminsky Village Soviet by Ryazantsev. For this bureau of a district committee on March, 21st has excluded it from партии432.
Country families subject to eviction organizovanno were brought on gathering points. In Borisoglebsk district it has been organised such four points: Borisoglebsky, Novohopyorsky, Zherdevsky, Mordovian. There is enough detailed data that from themselves these points represented and as they functioned, contain in a report of operative group of district department OGPU for March, 24th, 1930:
«Borisoglebsky point: daily watch of the doctor which serves under statements of the moved is established. People are in a premise of a bath and constraint have no. Boiled water is daily given. In most cases a food is made by the products since for them transfer is resolved. On occasion requiring stands out on 400 gr. Breads on the eater and a dinner (kulesh with a potato and vegetable oil) in two days once. Cases of disease by infectious diseases it is noted.
Novohopyorsky point: the Condition of point the satisfactory. Requiring persons are supplied within possibility with bread, there is a boiled water. For cooking there is a plate and military kitchen. Three premises where are moved - lacks have no. At points there is a medical staff which serves their inquiries. Cases of diseases by infectious diseases - it is noted.
Zherdevsky point: Moved are placed in three big premises which are well equipped, are heated, shined, aired. A food is made for the account moved which have a superfluous stock of products, and for especially requiring RIKom is released millet and a flour. At point there is a doctor serving patients. Cases of diseases by infectious diseases it is noted.
The Mordovian point: Premises for moved are given the equipped. By a grocery contentment are provided, for requiring daily prepares "kulesh". At point 1 doctor, 1 medical assistant work. On a case of occurrence sick infectious illnesses - take away an insulator ».
The condition of points was under the control of district and regional management OGPU. In Zherdevsky and Mordovian points, for example, the chief of district department OGPU Damberg and the representative from plenipotentiary representation OGPU on TSCHO Ревинов434 on March, 25th left.
According to workers OGPU, conditions for moved fists in concentration points were "favorable": peasants were surrounded with corresponding medical supervision that has allowed to avoid occurrence and mass distribution infectious заболеваний435. In Borisoglebsk point, for example, only 2 cases of diseases of children with suspicion on a scarlet fever on March, 26th have been registered. Patients immediately isolated and have directed to hospital, and all premises where fists contained, have subjected дезинфекции436. Were supposed, meanwhile, and "excesses". In the Mordovian point all being
There moved (664 persons) under the order of a member of district "three" of Troshin, without the knowledge of district department OGPU, have inoculated against a smallpox.
On what means these points of gathering were equipped and contained, it is possible to learn from correspondence between representatives of the regional and district power. The chairman of Zherdevsky district executive committee Zavadsky has directed on March, 28th, 1930 in okrispolkom such letter: «the Request to make the order about transfer RIKu the assigned sum of money for the maintenance of the sent group, besides the district executive committee bears expenses on protection of assembly points where there are dispossessed families, on heating of premises etc. the Request to inform, who will pay these expenses, in an affirmative case the regional executive committee will make the account estimate and will present for compensation of the made expenses». On March, 30th the district management has given the following answer: «1) On the maintenance a clod. Groups means from okrbjudzheta are released and RIKom from the budget of means not to release. 2) on a food and the maintenance of sent fists to use only funds dispossessed» 439.
On the expenses connected with eviction of fists, fraction VKP bureau () okr - executive committee on April, 1st, 1930 has decided also to use 50 % of deduction from the salary of the fists working on лесоразработках440.
Money was allocated for the maintenance of points of gathering as appears from documents, from the district budget, but insufficient quantity, therefore on places has been compelled to take in addition money from regional budgets, and also to involve the means confiscated from fists.
Each point accepted moved of the nearest areas. So, in Borisoglebsky point carried dispossessed of Verhne-Karachansky, Peskovsky, Borisoglebsky, Aleshkovsky of areas; in Novohopyorsky point - from Talov - skogo, Elan-Kolenovsky, Novohopyorsky areas; in the Mordovian point - from Tokaryovsky, Shchuchensky, Mordovian areas; in Zherdevsky point - from Rusanovsky, Arkhangelsk, Zherdevsky areas.
Dynamics of delivery moved on points can be tracked on the operative reports made by group of district department OGPU. According to an operative report № 8, from March, 21 till March, 24th, 1930 points the following quantity moved was accepted:
1) Borisoglebsky point - 249 economy (1165 persons), separately men from 18 years - 321 persons; except these 1165 persons are delivered on impassability in Novohopyorsky point 45 the person; in total on point 1210 persons have arrived;
2) Novohopyorsky point - 121 economy (646 persons), separately men from 18 years - 202 persons;
3) the Mordovian point - 119 economy (664 persons), separately men from 18 years - 217 persons;
4) Zherdevsky point - 139 economy (638 persons), separately men from 18 years - 202 persons.
In total 628 economy (3158 persons) have been concentrated to four points, from them men from 18 years - 942 человека441. Planned okrispolkomom the quantity moved in 3 080 persons is exceeded, as is visible, on 78 persons. It was a reserve on an elimination case on age, a disease state and to other reasons. Thus, by March, 24th the plan on eviction have executed in district on 102,24 %. The plan on Borisoglebsky (112,31 %) has been exceeded and Mordovian (110,66 %) to points, is not executed - on Zherdevsky (88,6 %) and Novohopyorsky (92 %) пунктам442.
The next two days on points continued to bring up the moved. On March, 25th they have arrived only in Novohopyorsky and Zherdevsky points, i.e. there, where the plan on eviction yet выполнили443. According to an operative report № 10, for March, 26th the quantity moved on points was следующим444:
№ / № one after another Concentration points By the plan is subject to delivery to point On 26/III-30 It is delivered over the plan (reserve)
Department. muzhch. From 18 l.
1 The Borisoglebsky 1080 251 1187 335 107
2 The Novohopyorsky 680 150 807 225 127
3 The Zherdevsky 720 152 678 223 Not dob. 42
4 The Mordovian 600 121 648 207 48
In total 3080 674 3320 990 240

As we see, the quantity moved has increased on all four points. By our calculations, in Novohopyorsk, Borisoglebsk and Mordovo 282 persons have been delivered over the plan, and in ZHerdevku 42 persons are not taken. In total on points there were 3 320 persons or on 240 persons more than намечалось445. On March, 26th «work on tightening kulatskih families» on Borisoglebsky, Novohopyorsky and Mordovian points has come to the end and there have started «elimination» and to drawing up povagonnyh списков446. The operative report № 11 contains total data on quantity of the fists which are on points for March, 27th, 1930 447:
Concentration points On 26/III For 27/III it is eliminated Consists with 21/III on 27/III
Department. muzhch. From 18 l. Kolich.
Department. muzhch. From 18 l. Kolich.
Department. muzhch. From 18 l.
The Borisoglebsky 251 1 187 335 15 71 36 236 1 116 299
The Novohopyorsky 150 807 225 - - - 150 807 225
The Zherdevsky 152 678 223 47 116 63 105 562 160
The Mordovian 121 648 207 6 33 6 115 615 201
In total 674 3 320 990 68 220 105 606 3 100 885

Apparently from these data, by March, 27th, 1930 as a result of "elimination" the quantity of moved fists at all points has decreased for 220 persons, from them 116 persons were necessary on Zherdevsky point though here the plan on eviction has not been executed. In total on points of district sending in North country of 3 100 persons expected. The greatest quantity of the moved was on Borisoglebsk point (1 116 persons), the least - on Zherdevsky point (562 persons). Men was more senior 18 years on all points less than third moved (885). In some days dispossessed have shipped in cars and, according to the schedule, on April, 1st and 3, 1930 two echelons have sent in Arhan -
Eviction of fists and their families in Borisoglebsk district has taken place in the planned terms. Under the statement of central management OGPU, only «thanks to pressing of bodies OGPU and a direct management on mestahrajonnyh representatives OGPU (lifting from villages, the organisation of parties of sending on assembly points) eviction, in general, has passed rather well» 449. According to OGPU, for May, 6th, 1930 from TSCHO in North country 8 237 families or 42 837 человек450 have been taken out, from them more than 600 families or more than three thousand persons (more than 7 %) were inhabitants of Borisoglebsky district.
As there was a further destiny of the moved peasants is a theme of special research. In frameworks sew works we will result the letter of wives dispossessed, addressed in VTSIK: «We, wives of the awarded immigrants of Borisoglebsky, Kamyshinsky and Usmansky districts, are brought under an escort with the families more than four thousand persons on station Harovsky the Vologda district.
We, children, invalid - invalids, are moved from cars, placed in wood in the barracks made in the winter from has fallen ill a simple country tent, is covered rastruskoj straw about in bulk earths, two vershoks of length and 24 arshins of width low, 15 top, heights 10, plank beds three circles, are placed with things of 180 persons, a floor earthen.
Our husbands, a part from them Red Army men, without a stop are stolen for work it is not known where.
In barracks from the crude wood covered with the earth, an earthen floor, mnogoljudija intolerable atmosphere of what children start to die turns out. Adults badly feel. With approach of spring rains the barracks constructed as resheto, covered with the earth, should begin to flow, we with children and things should be lost. We ask VTSIK to pay attention to our unfair resettlement and not to allow to us to be lost in bestial premises, and make check of ours raskulachivanija and evictions by our local authorities in such barracks and who should cancel raskulachivanie and to whom is not present - give fair resettlement in all places, only not in the district or area. We ask the answer. Station Harovsky, to immigrants.
Wives of immigrants of Borisoglebsky, Kamyshinsky and Usmansky districts »the facts Stated in the letter, that the peasants who have been violently taken out to strange lands visually show, have undergone there extremely to the hardest tests. No doubt, that for development maloobzhityh areas of the country and maintenance of the industry with a necessary labour many lives of Russian peasantry have been ruthlessly ruined.
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A source: Timoshechkina Elena Mihajlovna. The dispossession of peasants in the Borisoglebsk district of the Central Black Earth region (first half of 1930). 2014

More on topic § 6. Eviction dispossessed in North country:

  1. § 4. Assignment of property dispossessed
  2. § 1. Counteraction of the country population raskulachivaniju
  3. Chapter 7. Some problems of modernisation of the country
  4. 3. Position about Country ground bank).
  5. reduction of country plots.
  6. a country question and ways of its decision
  7. Country bank on the last agrarnomuzakonodatelstvu.
  8. Country excitements.
  9. 3. Intermediary activity of Country bank.
  10. Activity of Country bank from the moment of its basis before reform of 1895
  11. 2. The basis of Country bank.
  12. a theme of knowledge of natural resources of the country
  13. the Russian passports with biometrichesshshi country
  14. the HEAD the SEVENTH Country bank on the last agrarnomuzakonodatelstvu.
  15. HEAD CHETVERTAJA.Reforma of Country bank.