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Introduction


Urgency of a theme of research. Raskulachivanie peasantry in the early thirties in the USSR as the scientific problem keeps the urgency and now. It is caused by that, despite the extensive historiography, many questions of the given theme insufficiently full and are in details studied.
Besides, long years this theme was shined within the limits of the official concept, according to which problems of collectivisation of village and «liquidations kulachestva as class» were treated as outstanding victories of the Soviet system. Therefore many conclusions of historians were biassed and till now cause sharp discussions. Separate aspects of a theme were stated earlier or schematically, or not mentioned at all and began to be developed only last decades. That is why the reconstruction of a full and truthful picture of one of the drama periods of domestic history remains an actual scientific problem.
Degree of a level of scrutiny of a problem. The given theme is investigated on an extent already more half a century both domestic and foreign scientists. It has found reflexion as in the general works on collectivisation history, and in special works. In a domestic historiography it is possible to allocate three periods differing on intensity of studying of a problem and scientific approaches: since 1930 to the middle of 1950th, from the middle of 1950th up to the end 1980th and from the end of 1980th on present time.
First articles and brochures about liquidation kulachestva have appeared in the late twenties - the beginning of 1930th They have been written by party and Soviet workers in the agitation-and-propaganda purposes, therefore cannot be considered as the research. Meanwhile, the actual material containing in them allows to track the basic stages of development of a new policy in relation to кулачеству1.
From the middle of 1930th ideological and thematic frameworks of historical researches have been defined «by the Short course of history VKP (». The first attempts of generalisation of results of struggle of communist party for socialist transformations of agriculture and liquidation kulachestva as class have undertaken J.Nikulihin and S.N.Krasavin. M.J.Zalessky, investigating a tax policy, has shown, that tax taxation not only contained growth of economic power kulatskih economy, but also formed the basis for
3
The subsequent them raskulachivanija.
In the late forties - the beginning of 1950th interest of scientists to studying of history of collectivisation increases. Being under influence partijnogosudarstvennoj to ideology according to which the collective-farm system was one of the major factors of a victory in the Great Patriotic War, historians stated collectivisation exclusively positive estimation. The domestic historiography has replenished with a number of popular scientific and research works. New archival sources, periodicals materials, statistical data have been entered into a scientific turn, the circle of investigated questions, including concerning liquidations kulachestva has extended. From the works which have appeared these years, it is necessary to note G.E.Glezermana's monographies «liquidation of exploiter classes and overcoming of class distinctions in the USSR», B.A.Abramova «Bolshevik party - the organizer of struggle for liquidation kulachestva as class», M.A.Kraeva «a victory of a collective-farm system in the USSR» 4.
E. Glezerman states theoretical positions of a problem of classes and class struggle in the USSR. B.A.Abram has regularly covered for the first time a liquidation problem kulachestva as class, but was limited only to the separate facts concerning the beginning of 1930 According to M.A.Kraeva, kulachestvo was liquidated by originally revolutionary methods, and measures of struggle against it in different areas were various. However it is not confirmed by a concrete material. The first researches on the given theme on materials of the Central Chernozem region have spent N.M.Black Sea and G.K.Pljushchev5. Authors asserted, that the peasantry great bulk has supported measures against fists. At the same time they marked wide scale of the "excesses" admitted at raskulachivanii.
Historians, being in rigid ideological frameworks and being guided by doctrines about objective necessity of liquidation kulachestva, about positive reaction of the majority of peasantry, about positive results of an agrarian policy for destinies of village, actually have not brought anything new in problem working out. And the literature of those contained a poor concrete historical material.
Since second half 1950th the second period in the Soviet historiography begins. The quantity of works on the given theme has increased, their scientific level has raised. Many researches are distinguished by wide source study base, the critical approach to sources. There are the special researches based on documentary materials of party and state archives. The beginning to concrete historical studying of the named theme was put by P.V.Semernina and V.K.Medvedeva6's articles. S.P.Trapeznikova's work otra -
p
Pressed the official concept of collectivisation and raskulachivanija. Interest
Represent also JU.A.Moshkov, F.M.Vaganov, J.S.Kuo's researches
kushkina, I.J.Trifonova. In them the basic stages of development of class struggle in transitive from capitalism to socialism the period are considered, forms of this struggle reveal, activity of the party and Soviet organisations is shined. Of time of the beginning of liquidation kulachestva historians had the various points of view. So, B.A.Abram, M.A.Kraev, I.J.Trifonov, JU.A.Moshkov, J.S.Kukushkin considered, that it has occurred in second half of 1929 V.K.Medvedev, I.I.Slinko, I.S.Stepichev, F.A.Karevsky, N.JA.Guschin on an example of separate areas have shown the liquidation beginning kulatskih economy in the end of 1929, i.e. since transition time to continuous коллективизации9. According to JU.A.Moshkov, as the legislative ground for partial ekspropriatsii kulachestva before acceptance of janvarsko-February decisions of Central Committee VKP () and the Soviet government decisions VTSIK and SNK RSFSR from June, 28th, 1929 «served About expansion of the rights of local Councils concerning assistance to performance of nation-wide tasks and plans "." Though these measures, - the author writes, - concerned only preparations, they in practice have formed that legal basis which has allowed to begin already with second half of 1929 partial ekspropriatsiju kulachestva »10. 61 article UK RSFSR as considers F.A.Karevsky, was applied by autumn of 1929 not only to bread withdrawal, but also in quality« mechanical raskulachivanija »11.
New questions on the given problem, for example, deportation of fists, their labour re-education and the further destiny are studied also. A.P.Finarov noticed, that the question about raskulachivanii was discussed on batratsko-bednjatskih meetings with participation of representatives of public organisations and serednjatskogo an active, that ekspropriatsija kulachestva passed at direct participation of peasantry. Under the statement of the author, the party and the government showed care of immigrants, and fists from eviction places ran only that
To be engaged in harmful activity in the industry and rural ho - 13
zjajstve.
Rod work on the considered problem reflecting the official concept of collectivisation of agriculture and liquidation kulachestva as a class, was S.P.Trapeznikova's monography «Leninism and an agrarian-country question» 14. Historians have been put in rigid ideological and thematic frameworks.
In the late sixties - first half 1980th the domestic historiography has replenished with proceedings of high research level. It, first of all, V.P.Danilov, N.A.Ivnitsky and I.J.Trifonova15's works. The substantial part of researches covered the whole complex of questions such, as the analysis of an agrarian policy of the Soviet state of the end 1920 - the beginnings of 1930th, an estimation of the difficult social processes occurring in peasantry on the eve of continuous collectivisation, the characteristic of forms and methods of resistance of fists, illumination of development of a policy of liquidation kulachestva, mass peasants' revolts, eviction of fists.
The conclusions drawn by historians were not beyond the official concept: ekspropriatsija kulatskih economy it was proved and inevitable, processes of collectivisation and raskulachivanija are interconnected, reprisals of the power you -
zvany resistance of fists, their deportation was compelled and enough the humane measure, the moved fists were re-educated, them provided with work, habitation, medical aid, iridescent enough picture spetspereselentsev is recreated. At the same time researchers noticed, that raskulachivanie was frequently spent prior to the beginning of collectivisation and was its means ускорения16.
The question on a periodization raskulachivanija was debatable. N.A.ivnits ky allocates two stages: the end 1929-1930, 1931-1932 In its opinion, the beginning partial ekspropriatsii kulachestva concerns not all second half of 1929, and only by the autumn - winter of 1929 as «malicious saboteurs and speculators to whom emergency measures were applied, up to sale from the auctions of their property, could be revealed only after in September plans of regional preparations were informed the Village Soviets for an apportion of tasks on separate economy» 17. « Workers of weight of the peasantry, carrying out continuous collectivisation, - the author writes, - in the end of 1929 javochnym rather began to drive fists from the earth, to select at them cattle, agricultural stock and to demand from the Soviet power of eviction of the most malicious fists, stirring to collective-farm building ». In collective work« agriculture Collectivization in the USSR: ways, forms, achievements. A short sketch of history »other periodization of process raskulachivanija has been offered: the end of 1929 - spring of 1930, spring of 1931, spring of 1932 - autumn 1933 19
Result of scientific working out of bases, essence and consequences sotsialnoklassovoj politicians concerning peasantry in 1920 - 1930th became the edition of the second volume «to History of peasantry of the USSR. Histories of the Soviet peasantry». In it the richest documentary material contains.
V.I.Pogudi-'s articles on, V.P.Danilov, M.L.Bogdenko, I.E.Zelenin, A.M.Chinchikova, L.M.Zak are devoted the historiographic review of the literature.
The given theme was studied and on materials of the Central Chernozem region. First of all, it is necessary to note P.N.Sharovoj's monography «agriculture Collectivization in Central Black Earth area (1928-1932)». Written on the big actual material, it has not lost the scientific value and today. In it data about scales raskulachivanija in TSCHO for the first time are cited, the admitted excesses are marked. However it is impossible to agree with the statement of the author, that raskulachivanie it has been supported by wide country weights.
The official Soviet concept of collectivisation is presented in collective work «the Historiography of peasantry of the Central Chernozem region. 1917-1980». Separate aspects of the given problematics are reflected and in a number of other works. Historians enter into a scientific turn various materials of the central and local party archives, periodicals, statistical data. However the conclusions drawn by authors demand today reconsideration. So, I.M.Chvikalov wrote: «In days of mass collective-farm movement the poorest peasantry in the union with serednjakom has shown the unity and firm determination to conduct uncompromising struggle with rural exploiters» 25.
In the late eighties the third period in a historiography of a problem which proceeds on present time begins. For it change of conceptual approaches of the historical researches, caused by crisis of the Soviet statehood is characteristic. Rassekrechivanie the big file of archival materials has considerably expanded documentary base of researches. Revision of events of the Soviet history has begun with historicism and objectivity positions. The collectivisation and liquidation problem kulachestva as class has caused discussion in scientific сообществе26. There are collections of articles which authors cardinally changed the estimations which have settled in the Soviet historiography of events of 1920-h-1930th. One of the first historian V.P.Danilov has critically rethought consequences of socialist transformations in village. It had been drew a conclusion on violent and antihumane character of continuous collectivisation, raskulachivanija and deportations of peasants. The critical estimation of collectivisation and raskulachivaniju is given Century of the Item Danilov and N.A.Ivnitsky in introduction article of the collection of documents and materials «Documents testify. From village history the day before and during collectivisation. 1927-1932» 29.
The greatest interest is represented by N.L.Rogalinoj, N.V.Teptsova, N.A.Ivnitsky, N.JA.Guschin's works. N.L.Rogalina investigated scales of reprisals, negative consequences the spent power of an agrarian policy: mass discontent of peasants, hunger. The author comes to conclusion, that «raskulachivanie turned to the basic method of acceleration of collectivisation, acted not so much as its result, how many the reason». Using documentary sources, N.L.Rogalina shows depressing picture of employment and a life of the moved peasants. The facts mentioned in the book specify that the majority spetspereselentsev were diligent and capable workers. According to the researcher, there has come time to refuse a myth about so-called «labour re-education of the former fists». The dispossessed peasants », - the author writes, - have endured weight of development of huge uninhabited areas» 32.
N.V.Teptsov opens the maintenance, forms and methods raskulachivanija, gives an estimation of scales raskulachivanija country economy. As the historian considers, the large rural bourgeoisie was not, and «there were the peasants using the big ground areas and applying wage labour», «the part has not accepted them innovations in village, confronted it», others got to the category of "fists" and «enemies of the people» absolutely люди33.
N.A.Ivnitsky in the monography «Collectivization and raskulachivanie (the beginning of 30th years)» shows violent character of a state policy in village. The author gives the big attention to research of resistance of peasantry. If earlier he wrote about struggle «embittered kulachestva» against collectivisation now opens the reasons of discontent of various layers of the country population more objectively, characterises various forms of resistance, both passive, and active, shines difficult political conditions in village more in details. The historian makes statistical generalisations. By its calculations, in 1930 has occurred 13 756 mas -
sovyh performances in which 3 369 730 persons participated, i.e. in 10 times more, than in 1929 It, according to the author, testifies to participation in resistance of collectivisation and raskulachivaniju peasantry broad masses, and not just its prosperous part. The historian considers, that «raskulachivanie and reprisals turned to the basic means of collectivisation, becoming the main method of acceleration of its rates». The researcher in the work comes to conclusion, that «violent eviction of millions people could not be justified: it was not caused neither political, nor social and economic about - 34
stanovkoj that time ».
N.JA.Guschin also asserts, that «the violence over peasants» and «naked raskulachivanie» practised almost everywhere and was used as means podstyogivanija collectivisations, the percent of the expropriated country economy was almost equally high both in areas of continuous collectivisation, and in areas where it was not spent yet, «decisions, instructions and especially practical instructions following from top to down, focused not on restriction, and on impetuous razvjazyvanie violence». According to the author, in the Soviet historiography participation of fists in terror certificates, "sabotage", "gangsterism" and revolts is strongly exaggerated, among resisting to the power prevailed serednjaki and бедняки36.
The powerful contribution to working out of problems of agrarian history of 1930th has brought I.E.Zelenin. The researcher, being based on a considerable quantity before unknown documents, opens the mechanism of realisation of a policy «liquidations kulachestva as class», shows it «anticountry, openly repressive character». According to the historian, liquidation kulachestva «considerably advanced collectivisation, stimulating it economically (transfer to collective farms of means of production and property of the dispossessed economy) and psychologically (the factor of" last prevention »and elimination edinolichni - kov)» 38.
Raskulachivanie in the USSR and destinies spetspereselentsev Murmansk scientist V.J.Shashkov investigates. It enters new chronological frameworks of it
Process, allocating in it four stages: 1930, 1931, 1933-1940, 1945-1952 the Author truly considers, that the policy of continuous collectivisation and raskulachivanija became social and economic accident. Meanwhile, with the thesis offered it, that forced raskulachivanija opponents of a collective-farm system has not turned out and that raskulachivanie instead of three years was stretched on quarter of the century, to agree it is impossible. Repressive system as marks E.N.Herman, it is successful "enough» coped with mass "liquidation" objectionable in
40
To village ».
The theme of eviction of fists is in details presented in V.N.Zemskova41's works. It cites for the first time statistical data about number spetspereselentsev and their structure. A picture of heavy deprivations to which immigrants in North countries have been subjected, L.I.Gintsberg has recreated. It - both shortage of habitation, and children's death rate, and unsatisfactory supply by products, and mockeries of chiefs. According to the author, by means of deportations the power solved a problem of maintenance with a labour the remote regions of the country. That raskulachivanie was means of the decision of a problem agrarian perenasele -
43
nija, other researchers consider also.
The criticism of the Soviet concept of collectivisation and raskulachivanija is given V.M.Samosudovym in the monography «the Modern domestic historiography of collectivisation (1980 - the middle of 1990th)» 44.
A number of researchers studies separate aspects of the given theme. The taxation as means raskulachivanija is shown in works A.G. G aljamovoj, M.N.Glumnoj, V.A.Ilinyh45. Distortion of scales of mass death rate for hunger in 1933, nedouchyot human losses are revealed by E.A.Osokinoj46. V.B.Zhiromskaja is engaged in calculation of victims of political reprisals of 1930th Participation of special services in realisation of a policy in village investigate V.F.Zima, V.I.Mikheyev. To these authorities, according to authors, the central role has been taken away at carrying out of repressive actions. The first victim of political reprisals as considers A.N.sugar, was krestjanst - во49. G.F.Dobronozhenko opens concept "fist" and shows the methodology of the analysis of this social group. According to the historian that is necessary to refuse use of terms "fists" and «rural exploiters» as synonyms. According to its concept, "fists" - «it not sotsialnoekonomicheskaja group of rural bourgeoisie, and social group of peasants, podvergshajasja to discrimination and reprisals on sociopolitical motives» 50.
In the historical literature till now there is no uniform point of view about beginning time raskulachivanija. So, I.E. Carpenters, E.A.Kiryanov, A.N.sugar consider, that liquidation kulachestva has begun in the winter - spring of 1930 According to N.A.Ivnitsky, I.V.Chemodanova, O.N.Migushchenko, raskulachivat have begun still in the end of 1929 51
After rassekrechivanija in 1990th of the big document file stored in the central and local archives, has appeared essential istochniko - vaja base for research before a theme of resistance of peasantry of collectivisation ignored in the Soviet historiography and raskulachivaniju. Modern historians elicit the numerous facts of counteraction of peasants raskulachivaniju in different regions страны52. Having analysed forms and scales of country resistance, authors notice, that struggle of peasantry against the power had general character and was actively conducted in the majority of areas of the country. Historians have refused unilateral treatment of mass actions as kulatskih and have planned the new approach to their estimation. So, V.J.Shashkov writes, that in the late twenties not the fist declared war of the Soviet power, and the Soviet power declared war to a fist. Meanwhile, data on excitements of peasants yet full. As marks I.E. Carpenters, historians «still should analyse character of performances, their political orientation, specificity in various regions of the country, degree of participation in them
54
Separate layers of peasantry ».
Last decades on materials of separate regions of the country all new dissertational researches are carried out. Authors enter into a scientific turn new sources, mainly local archives, new aspects of a theme are designated, attempts of allocation of special lines studied событий55 are undertaken.
From the modern historians of the Central Chernozem region who are engaged in working out of a theme, especially it is necessary to note P.V.Zagorovskogo. It carries out for the first time complex research of the whole block of problems sotsialnopoliticheskoj histories of the Central Chernozem region in second half 1920 - first half 1930th, methods and consequences of collectivisation of agriculture, raskulachivanija are shown, political moods населения56 According to the author are analysed, the agrarian policy partijnogosudarstvennogo managements of the USSR contradicted interests of the majority of peasantry and has caused active movement of the protest. P.V.Zagorovsky has recreated for the first time terrifying picture of mass hunger. As the historian truly considers, in hunger in TSCHO in first half 1930th has resulted withdrawal of a foodstuff at peasants. In the research it comes to conclusion about transformation «administrative violence and mass reprisals in most upotrebimye for -
58
We of relations of the state to agricultural population ».
Preconditions and collectivisation realisation in the Central Chernozem region in 1929-1933, being based on the documents concerning the Tambov area, investigates S.A.Esikov. The author considers, that for the power raskulachivanie was means of overcoming of resistance of peasants. In its opinion, a result raskulachivanija was the accelerated formation «forced labour armies - armies of a cheap and mobile labour for industrial buildings, lesozagotovitelnyh works, development of uninhabited areas» 59. The historian studies reaction to events of 1930th of workers-dvadtsatipjatitysjachnikov60.
S.A.Esikova and V.V. Kanishcheva61's article is devoted criteria of definition of prosperity of peasantry. This question is till now debatable. As authors consider, it is necessary to consider influence of natural factors on well-being of peasants, and also to reveal, what ways separate economy have reached a prosperous condition.
The given problem is considered on materials of the Central Chernozem region and in a number of others работ62. Collectivisation and liquidation carrying out kulachestva in the areas which nowadays are a part of Lipetsk area, investigates E.A.Panova. In the work it comes to conclusion that indifference central and local authorities by a human life, specifies in criminality of the policy «liquidations kulachestva as a class» 63. O.L.Shashkovoj is shown the mechanism of carrying out of repressive measures concerning various social groups of the population of the Central Chernozem region, including peasantry. In its opinion, it has been caused not only presence of the confidential instructions proceeding more often from authorities, not possessing the legislative rights, but also distribution «double standards of political behaviour when many democratic principles admitted also and use of various ways of their actual non-observance» 64 was considered possible.
Research of some aspects of the given problem on materials of Borisoglebsky district TSCHO is begun by the author of the dissertation.
Interest to the Russian history of the period of 1920-h-1930th is shown also by the western historians. In studying of problems of collectivisation actively were engaged Edward Karr, Alec Nouv, Moshe Levin, Richard Devis65. In their works collectivisation is presented not only as an inevitable component of process of modernisation of the country, but also as «smaller of harms», fallen to a lot of village as a result of severe suppression by the state of mass country resistance in the early thirties. Since 1960th years the new direction affirms as a foreign historiography in sovetologii - school of social historians. There are researches about mood of agricultural population, about its mutual relation with the power during collectivisation realisation. In the centre of attention of scientists - a role and a peasantry place in agrarian transformations. Among works on the given problem it is necessary to note book SHejly Fitspatrik «Stalin peasants. Social history of the Soviet Russia in 30th years: village» 66. The author analyzes behaviour of the Russian peasantry, ways of its struggle against the state are considered.
The big public and scientific resonance was caused by work of English researcher Robert Konkvesta «a grief Harvest: the Soviet collectivisation and terror by hunger» 67. The author names criminal idea of collectivisation, and the created collective-farm system defines as the integral attribute of a totalitarian mode. In research the extremely rigid methods of realisation of collectivisation, catastrophic consequences of this policy are shown, in particular, hunger, mass discontent of agricultural population with taking root changes in a way of life, attempt of calculation of the lost Soviet citizens during agrarian policy realisation is made.
Andrea G ratsiozi has characterised relations between the power and peasantry in days of collectivisation as «the greatest country war». The author results a considerable statistical material: in 1930 there were 13 754 cases of peasants' revolts, i.e. ten times more than in 1929, besides, there were about 4 thousand certificates of individual terror, including 1 200 murders with which peasants answered an arbitrariness, chinimyj over them, more than in 7 380 cases disorders are directed against collectivisation, in 2 339 - against arrests or dispatch of "anti-Soviet elements» 68. Gratsiozi writes: «Growing resistance for certain became the primary factor which has convinced the Soviet management to hasten with emergency measures. Installation was on neutralisation of peasantry by destruction of its top (raskulachivanija) and associations as it is possible bolshego numbers of families in rather few large collective farms (collectivisation)» 69.
The essential contribution to theme working out has brought Lynn Viola. It opens role OGPU in the organisation and carrying out of mass deportations of peasants in the early thirties, shows interdepartmental struggle between OGPU and People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs. The author notices, that in the power structures which are responsible for carrying out of deportation, the chaos reigned. She explains the social protest of peasantry from positions not so much class, how many civil war in village. In its opinion, country terror allowed the power «to support a condition on - silstvennosti the state campaigns and to explain application of reprisals
71
To the peasantry ».
A number of foreign historians is studied by various aspects of a theme on regional уровне72. It is necessary to note known sociologist Teodora Shanin, the founder of new research tradition - reflective krestjanovedenija. Reconstruction of destinies of the Russian peasantry became result of its project. The autobiographies of the rural families which have been written down in seventeen regions of the country, allow to look at events of old years by eyes of eyewitnesses. These family histories are actually universal primary source for studying of collectivisation and raskulachivanija. The western scientists show the greatest interest to such problems, as reprisals against peasantry and activity ОГПУ74.
So, the domestic historiography of an investigated theme is presented by two components: the Soviet and Post-Soviet or modern Russian. For each of them the approaches in the decision of the scientific problems, the certain circle of questions which are of interest, the contribution to theme working out are characteristic. Despite ideologizirovannost the researches, insufficient objectivity in estimations, obscurity of variety of questions, as a whole it is impossible to belittle the contribution to working out of a theme of the Soviet historians. Their merit, first of all, that they have entered the big file of an actual material into a scientific turn, have created a reserve for new researches, for the decision of new problems and problems. And quality of a writing of separate works, scrupulousness and thoroughness of researches, scientific stylistics of a statement can and be an example for modern scientists now.
For last decades methodological approaches of researches have changed, there was a cardinal revaluation of events. In the Soviet historiography raskulachivanie it was considered according to marksistskoleninskoj the theory about class struggle as a necessary condition of socialist transformations spent in village. Modern researchers adhere to the uniform point of view, that historical necessity for carrying out raskulachivanija was not, that at liquidation kulatskih economy violent methods prevailed, that raskulachivanie has not resolved economic problems, and the essential loss as a whole has been caused to agriculture. All campaign on raskulachivaniju is represented as the greatest tragedy of the Russian peasantry.
Saved up by scientists of different generations, both domestic, and foreign, the luggage of results of researches is that base which will allow to recreate really objective picture raskulachivanija without any ideological pressure or a time tactical agiotage, carelessly on modern political realities. The historiographic analysis shows, that despite presence of the extensive historical literature on a liquidation problem kulachestva in the USSR, continuation of working out of the given theme on the basis of introduction in a scientific turn of a new document file, their deeper analysis and judgement according to the modern conceptual approach it is necessary. Till now not in details enough participation of local authorities in carrying out raskulachivanija is opened, methods and liquidation means kulatskih economy are investigated, mutual relations of the power and peasantry are shown, scales of repressive measures against prosperous peasants in separate regions of the country, including in the Central Chernozem region that does not allow to reach completeness of a level of scrutiny of a theme and as a whole on the country are established.
With the account of it the author puts forward the following research objective: carrying out consideration raskulachivanija peasantry in Borisoglebsk district of Central Black Earth area in first half of 1930
For object in view achievement following problems are defined:
- To shine activity of local authorities on the organisation raskulachivanija;
- To open forms and the methods applied to liquidation kulachestva (property confiscation, eviction in North country, moving on specially allocated ground areas);
- To show a role of bodies OGPU, militias, Offices of Public Prosecutor, vessels in liquidation kulatskih economy;
- To investigate protest actions of the country population, to define their reasons, the form, value;
- To establish scales admitted at carrying out raskulachivanija "excesses" and efficiency of the measures undertaken by the power, for their elimination;
- To analyse results of an initial stage raskulachivanija.
Object of research is the Russian peasantry during an epoch of radical reconstruction of a social and economic structure of village in the early thirties
The object of research selects liquidation process kulachestva in first half of 1930 in Borisoglebsk the district TSCHO, arisen in this connection power and peasantry opposition, results raskulachivanija.
Territorial frameworks of research include the former Borisoglebsky district of Central Black Earth area created in 1928 according to the decision of the Central Electoral Committee and SNK about formation in RSFSR of administrative-territorial associations of regional and regional value. Its structure included Borisoglebsky district and a number of volosts of the Tambov and Usmansky districts of the former Tambov province, Novohopyorsky district and a number of volosts of Bobrovsky of district of the former Voronezh province. For January, 1st, 1930 the district occupied territory in 16 506,6 square kilometres. Now the territory of Borisoglebsky district TSCHO is a part of the Voronezh, Tambov and Lipetsk areas of the Russian Federation.
The Borisoglebsky district is a typical agrarian region of Russia. On materials of the given region it is possible to investigate well the social and economic and political processes, played a key role in the further destiny of Russian village, to track the general tendencies of practical realisation of a policy of liquidation kulachestva as class, and also to reveal regional specificity of this process. To study the given region important and consequently, that it in the first years of the Soviet power has been captured by peasants' revolts. Followed find out, how borisoglebskoe the peasantry has concerned a policy "raskulachivanija" and as there was its further destiny. To be engaged in research has induced also that circumstance, that this region is poorly reflected in a historiography.
Chronological frameworks of research cover first half of 1930 the Bottom border January, 1930 when in Borisoglebsk district has begun mass raskulachivanie is. Research July, 1930, as, according to the decision of the Central Electoral Committee and SNK the USSR from July, 23rd, 1930, Borisoglebsky district as territorially-administrative unit, along with other districts has been abolished comes to the end. By this time raskulachivanie in district has already taken place. It is an initial stage raskulachivanija, the most intensive on rates of liquidation kulatskih economy. Studying of the given period gives wide representation about what methods carried out liquidation kulachestva as has concerned to raskulachivaniju the country population as this campaign as a whole was reflected in political conditions in village what were scales raskulachivanija in investigated region. At this time in a full measure problems and contradictions, the characteristic negative phenomena were showed, the ways of their permission most used by the power, elimination and suppression were designated. In work it is is short shined and the previous period - the end of 1920th, allowing to open development of a policy of liquidation kulachestva as class and a social and economic condition of Borisoglebsky district on the eve of mass raskulachivanija.
The methodological basis of dissertational research is made by historicism and objectivity principles. Materials in the dissertation are considered particularly-historically, in connection with other phenomena and events, relationships of cause and effect are shown. For theme disclosing general scientific methods (an induction-deduction, the analysis-synthesis) and spetsialnoistoricheskie (chronological, comparative, descriptive) were used also. For the comparative analysis on areas of district of quantity kulatskih economy, quantity of the economy originally dispossessed, recognised incorrectly dispossessed and restored, the computer drawing was used. Complex application of these methods promoted achievement of the greatest productivity of research.
Istochnikovuju the base of research is made by the published materials and archival documents which can be divided into some groups.
Laws and statutory acts of the central power by which the order of carrying out of liquidation kulachestva as class was defined concern the first group of sources. It, basically, already published материалы76.
The second group of sources is made by office work documents of official bodies and the party organisations of regional, district and regional levels. It is the big document file revealed by us mainly in funds G osudarstvennogo of archive of the Voronezh area and the State archive of political history of the Voronezh area. It is entered for the first time into a scientific turn. In the given group it is possible to allocate following subgroups: documents of organizational-administrative character (directive letters, telegrammes, positions, the instructions directed by party and state bodies in subordinate instances); the legal documentation (reports of sessions of presidiums oblispolkoma, okrispolkoma, district executive committees, the commissions, a bureau of district committees VKP (party meetings and plenums); business correspondence (relations, reports of officials); information documents (reports, messages from local links of the power); Accounting documents (reports, reports of secretaries of district committees, chairmen of the district executive committees managing regional financial departments, the secretary okruzhkoma, the chairman okrispolkoma, managing district financial department, the district attorney, etc. in higher instances). Studying of these very various documents under the maintenance has allowed to show comprehensively activity of local authorities on the organisation and carrying out raskulachivanija, most full to open the mechanism of all process raskulachivanija, to establish its rates, scales and results.
The documents reflecting political conditions in village are included in the third group of sources. These are information reports of district department
OGPU, plenipotentiary representation OGPU on TSCHO, information reports of regional, district administrative department, regional administrative branches, reports, reports, reports of judicial-investigatory bodies and Office of Public Prosecutor, materials of investigatory affairs, complaints of peasants about raskulachivanii. Only a few documents are опубликованными77, the considerable majority is revealed by us in funds G osudarstvennogo archive of the Voronezh area, the State archive of political history of the Voronezh area, the State archive of the Russian Federation and for the first time is entered into a scientific turn. From materials of investigatory affairs special interest for the given research questionnaires of arrested persons represent, indications of arrested persons and witnesses, the bill of particulars, the "three" decision. In complaints of peasants detailed data about pernicious consequences raskulachivanija for their families contain, the substantiation of injustice of repressive measures to them is given. The careful analysis of these documents has allowed to show the forms of counteraction of the country population most typical for given district raskulachivaniju, to recreate full enough and objective picture of the peasants' revolts which have occurred in district in January-February, 1930, to open their reasons and motives, character, a political orientation, tragical consequences for their participants.
Publications concern the fourth group of sources in local periodicals - the regional newspaper "Commune", in the district newspaper «Collective-farm truth», in "News" obkoma VKP () TSCHO. It raznozhanrovye materials: the plenum resolution obkoma parties, articles and performances of heads of the country, area, district, officials, letters of readers, the correspondence from places, publicistic notes and stories. On these materials changes in installations of the central power are well traced: from "blows" on a fist before struggle with "peregibshchikami". Publications in the press are the important addition to official documents as contain data on the concrete facts raskulachivanija, about concrete people, as podvergshihsja raskulachivaniju, and carrying out liquidation kulatskih economy. It gives to studied events bright emotional colouring that is important for reception of more objective and all-round representation about liquidation kulachestva as about difficult and inconsistent process.
Essential role conversations of the author of research with eyewitnesses of events, with relatives of the dispossessed have played also. Their memoirs contain the unique material so necessary for a reconstruction of a truthful picture raskulachivanija and deep judgement of this full dramatic nature of event.
Thus, we reveal, study and analyse a wide range is information the sated documents and the materials, allowed to solve the put scientific problems, in details and demonstratively to open an investigated theme.
Scientific novelty of dissertational research consists that for the first time on a basis both published, and the neopublished materials the problem of practical realisation of a policy of liquidation kulachestva as a class in Borisoglebsk district TSCHO in a complex is investigated. In work activity of local authorities on the organisation and carrying out raskulachivanija in detail reveals, dynamics of confiscation of property and its results is shown. The thriftless relation to the property withdrawn from fists, acceptance by various authorities of measures on suppression of infringements of the current legislation are in details shined such maloizuchennye aspects of a theme, as assignment of property dispossessed, at carrying out raskulachivanija. For the first time data about initial stage results raskulachivanija in Borisoglebsk district are cited, the scale of "excesses" in investigated region is shown. Data on results raskulachivanija in first half of 1930 and as a whole on TSCHO are specified. Research enters into a scientific turn earlier unknown materials about counteraction of wide layers of the country population raskulachivaniju. The forms of resistance most typical for given district raskulachivaniju are considered. For the first time the objective picture of the mass country performances which have occurred in district in January-February, 1930 is recreated the reasons and motives of protest actions of peasants Are defined. The estimation as to display of country solidarity and mutual aid is given them. Names of the first victims of political reprisals of 1930th among the country population of Borisoglebsky district are established.
The practical importance of research consists that results can be used by preparation of generalising works on history of the Russian peasantry, on history of the Central Chernozem region and working out of domestic courses on problems of the newest domestic history, and also in pedagogical activity. Article «Assignment of property dispossessed in Central Black Earth area in 1929-1930», published in magazine «history Questions», is included in the discipline program «Political culture of Russia of the XX-th century» in G osudarstvennom university - the economy Higher school.
Approbation of results of research. The dissertation is discussed on faculty meeting of the newest domestic history, a historiography and dokumentovedenija FGBOU VPO «the Voronezh state university». Substantive provisions, results and conclusions of dissertational research have found reflexion in 15 publications of the author, total amount 8 items of l., including in 3 reviewed scientific editions: magazines «history Questions","the Russian history», "Native land". The basic results of work have been offered by the author on scientific community consideration on international nauchnoprakticheskoj to conference «the Government and peasantry in the end of XIX - the XXI-st century beginning» (Kolomna, 2009), at XXXII session of a symposium on agrarian history of the Eastern Europe «Actual problems of agrarian history of Eastern Europe X-XXI centuries: sources and research methods» (Ryazan, 2010), at six regional scientific conferences: « The state and its citizens: centuries of cooperation and opposition »(Voronezh, 2009),« the Power and the people in the conditions of wars and social conflicts »(Voronezh, 2010),« the Power and a society: interactions and conflicts (Voronezh, 2011), «Capital and a province: history of mutual relations (Voronezh, 2012),« the State and a society: interaction and opposition (Voronezh, 2013), «the Power and a society: interaction and contradiction mechanisms» (Voronezh, 2014).
On protection following substantive provisions are taken out:
1. Raskulachivanie was the major component of a policy of continuous collectivisation of country economy. Without liquidation kulatskih economy the Soviet state could not carry out socialist reconstruction of agriculture.
2. The policy of liquidation kulachestva as class had no all-out support at the country population, its carrying out was provided with various authorities, including OGPU, militia, Office of Public Prosecutor, courts.
3. Raskulachivaniju in Borisoglebsk district resisted not only prosperous peasants, and and serednjaki and poor men.
4. Mass peasants' revolts have been caused by violent actions of the power concerning prosperous peasants and were expression of country mutual aid.
5. Raskulachivanie has led to partial loss of productive forces and means of production in village, to economic recession.
6. In the policy of liquidation kulachestva as class bases for numerous lawlessnesses during its practical realisation have been put in pawn.
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2
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g
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17 In the same place, with. 209.
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22
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23
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25
CHvikalov I.M. About formation of a socialist way of life of peasantry of the Central Chernozem region / Formation and development of a socialist way of life and the Soviet village. Voronezh, 1982. With. 96.
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27
Correspondence on historical themes: dialogue is conducted by the reader / sost. V.A.Ivanov. M, 1989; the Lesson is given by history / under. obshch. red. V.G.Afanaseva, G.L.Smirnova; sost. A.A.Ilyin. M, 1989; Historians argue: 13 conversations / under obshch. red. V.S.Lelchuka. M, 1989; Historians answer
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28
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25 Documents testify: from village history the day before and during collectivisation, 1927-1932 / under the editorship of V.P.Danilov and N.A.Ivnitsky. M, 1989.
30
Rogalina N.L.collectivisation: lessons of the passed way. M, 1989; Teptsov N.V.agrarian polic on abrupt turns of 20-30th years. M, 1990; Teptsov N.V.truth about raskulachivanii//the Centaur. 1992. № 3/4. With. 46-62; Teptsov N.V. In days of great crisis: collectivisation history, raskulachivanija and the country reference to Russia (USSR) under letters and memoirs, 1929-1930. M, 2002; Ivnitsky N.A.collectivisation and raskulachivanie (the beginning of 30th years). M, 1994; destinies of the Russian peasantry / under obshch. red. J.N.Afanaseva. M, 1996; Ivnitsky N.A.repressive of the politician of the Soviet power in village (19281933). M, 2000; Ivnitsky N.A.destin dispossessed in the USSR. M, 2004; Guschin N.J.Raskulachivanie in Siberia (1928-1934): methods, stages, social and economic and demographic consequences. Novosibirsk, 1996.
31
Rogalina N.L.collectivisation: lessons of the passed way. M, 1989. With. 121.
26 In the same place, with. 180.
33
Teptsov N.V.agrarian polic on abrupt turns of 20-30th years. M, 1990; Teptsov N.V.truth about raskulachivanii//the Centaur. 1992. № 3/4. With. 46-62; Teptsov N.V. In days of great crisis: collectivisation history, raskulachivanija and the country reference to Russia (USSR) under letters and memoirs, 1929-1930. M, 2002.
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35
Guschin N.J.Raskulachivanie in Siberia (1928-1934): methods, stages, sotsialnoekonomicheskie and demographic consequences. Novosibirsk, 1996. With. 101.
28 In the same place, with. 107.
37
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39
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53
Shashkov V. JA. Raskulachivanie in the USSR and destinies spetspereselentsev 1930-1954 Murmansk, 1996. With. 260.
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57
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58
Zagorovsky P.V.Sotsialno-politicheskoe agricultural population development tsentralnochernozyomnogo region of Russia in second half 1920 - first half 1930th: avtoref. dis.... dokt. ist. Sciences. M, 1999. With. 31.
57 Esikov S.A.collectivisation in the Central Chernozem region: preconditions and realisation: [monography]. Tambov, 2005.
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Altrichter Helmut Die Bauern von Tver: vom Leben auf dem russischen Dorfe zwischen Revolution und Kollektivierung. Munchen, 1984; Fejnsod Merl Smolensk under the power of Councils / the lane from English L.A.Kuzmin. Smolensk, 1995; Smolenshchina on pages of the American historical literature / under the editorship of E.V.Kodina and Michael Hiki. Smolensk, 2000; Stalinizm in the Russian province: Smolensk archival documents in perusal of foreign and Russian historians / under the general red. E.V.Kodina. Smolensk, 1999.
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Unknown Russia. The XX-th century: the almanac / sost.: V.A.Kozlov, S.M.Zavyalov. M, 1992; Tragedy of the Soviet village. Collectivisation and raskulachivanie. 1927-1939: documents and materials. In 5 vol. / T. 2. November 1929 - December 1930 / under the editorship of V.Danilov, R.Manning, L.Violy. M, 2000; Lubjanka. Stalin and VCHK-GPU-OGPU-NKVD. Stalin's archive. Documents of the supreme bodies party and the government. January 1922 - December 1936 / under the editorship of akad. A.N.Jakovleva. M, 2003; the Soviet village eyes to VCHK-WHOLESALE-NKVD. 1918-1939: documents and materials. In 4 volumes / T. 3. kn. 1 (1930-31) / under the editorship of A.Berelovicha, V.Danilov. M, 2000; « Top secret »: Lubjanka - to Stalin about position in the country (19221934). T. 8, ch. 2: 1930 M, 2008.
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A source: Timoshechkina Elena Mihajlovna. The dispossession of peasants in the Borisoglebsk district of the Central Black Earth region (first half of 1930). 2014

More on topic Introduction:

  1. in introduction
  2. INTRODUCTION
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. 10.1. Introduction
  5. INTRODUCTION
  6. approbation and introduction of results.
  7. Introduction
  8. Introduction
  9. INTRODUCTION
  10. INTRODUCTION
  11. Introduction
  12. Introduction
  13. INTRODUCTION
  14. Instead of Introduction …
  15. PRACTICAL INTRODUCTION OF RESULTS OF WORK
  16. 5. Attention strengthening to questions of legal introduction.