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§ 5. Use of the property withdrawn from fists


The partijno-state management of the USSR considered liquidation kulatskih economy as a necessary condition of realisation of socialist transformations in village. The property confiscated from fists should promote the organisation and strengthening of collective farms.
According to the decision of the Political bureau of Central Committee VKP () «About actions for liquidation kulatskih economy in areas of continuous collectivisation» from January, 30th, 1930, it was transferred by district executive committees as a payment of poor men and farm laborers in indivisible fund of collective farms with full repayment of debts to the state and co-operative bodies. Collective farms were obliged to provide full having sat down the earth transferred to it and delivery to the state of all commodity output. The withdrawn inhabited constructions should be used for social needs of the Village Soviets and collective farms or for a hostel entering collective farm and farm laborers not having own habitation. Shares and contributions dispossessed in co-operative associations were contributed to fund of collectivisation of the poor and батрачества292. As it was marked in the decision of the Central Electoral Committee and SNK the USSR from February, 1st, 1930 «About actions for strengthening of a socialist reorganisation of agriculture in areas of continuous collectivisation and on struggle with kulachestvom», the confiscated property kulatskih economy «should be transferred in indivisible funds of collective farms as a payment of farm laborers and the poor men entering collective farm».
According to narkomzema the USSR, by July, 1930 in the country it has been dispossessed over 320 thousand country economy and it is told in indivisible funds of collective farms of the withdrawn property to the sum about 180 million roubles, that, according to the Soviet historians, was the considerable contribution to collective-farm building. M.L.Bogdenko, for example, wrote: «Confiscation kulatskogo property and transfer to its collective farms were one of major factors of organizational strengthening of collective farms during the first period of continuous collectivisation. It is possible to judge value of this measure to that the percent of the property expropriated from fists as a part of indivisible funds of collective farms to summer of 1930 has reached on the average across the USSR 34,4» 294. M.A.Vytslan, N.A.Ivnitsky, JU.A. Poles considered, that collective farms, having received the withdrawn property, «thereby
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Financially became stronger ».
The confiscated means of production, according to I.J.Trifonova, «it was necessary to transform into the tool of consolidation of collective farms and creation of a new social and economic system in village for this arising system required in huge financial and material and technical support of the socialist state» 296. The historian wrote, that the confiscated means of production and other property «took an appreciable place in a fixed capital of collective farms». «Kulatsky property, - the author underlined, - have received over half of all collective farms, and in indivisible funds separate of them its share reached 25-40 %» 298.
The means of production received as a result raskulachivanija, as a part of indivisible funds of collective farms of Central Black Earth area, under P.N.Sharovoj's statement, had also «considerable weight» 299.
Having noticed, that «kulatskie economy have reduced manufacture volume, having transferred the exploiter activity in sphere of gamble, usury and transforming the basic productive funds in funds of personal consumption», she concluded: «ekspropriatsija means of production at fists and transfer to their collective farms not only have kept productive forces of agriculture, but also have provided with it the best application both in social, and in relations of production» 300.
However by consideration of the first results raskulachivanija in the winter and spring of 1930 as marks N.A.Ivnitsky, it is necessary to pay attention on «one circumstance: though transferred to collective farms confiscated kulatskoe the property made considerable percent to a total sum of the indivisible capital in collective farms, nevertheless its relative density in comparison with cost kulatskogo property in 1927 was small». So, in TSCHO the share of the property of the dispossessed withdrawn and betrayed to collective farms made 15,1 % of its cost in 1927 According to the researcher, it «speaks not only understating of cost of the withdrawn property, but also that by 1930 economic capacity kulatskih economy as a result of carrying out of a policy of restriction and replacement has been appreciably undermined», and that, «that kulachestvo by the moment ekspropriatsii has tried to reduce the property, translating it in monetary fund». In TSCHO in indivisible funds of collective farms it has been transferred, on
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N.A.Ivnitsky's to calculations, 46 % available in 1929 kulatskogo property. Meanwhile, for reception of objective representation about use of the property of one statistical data confiscated from fists insufficiently. It is necessary to know, how practical application of the withdrawn property has been adjusted.
Let's consider, how have disposed of the property selected at fists in Borisoglebsk district what of it have found application.
Okrispolkom on February, 20th, 1930 has specified to all chairmen of district executive committees, to the chairman of the Novohopyorsky City Council, tax inspectors (1, 2, 3 and 4 sites) immediately to realise in necessary volume the property transferred in collective farms kulatskih economy behind which shortages flowing or former years, «for a covering of all shortages under taxes in spite of the fact that at least it collective farm already inventarizovano, i.e. is taken on the account» 304 are registered. If the collective farm agrees to reserve this property with payment of its cost it was necessary to estimate and transfer property under the certificate, having obliged collective farm to extinguish shortages. The confiscated property should be realised through the socialised sector or by its transfer for needs of the establishments consisting on the local budget. Agricultural stock, working and grocery cattle, houses and outdoor constructions followed transfer, auction or without the auctions to the state and co-operative organisations (to artels, collective farms, state farms, consumer and credit cooperation, official bodies and the enterprises). For an estimation of the property transferred without the auctions, the estimated commissions were created: at district executive committees as a part of representative RIKa managing financial department and the representative of ground department, at the Village Soviets as a part of the chairman of council, the representative of committee of country public mutual aid and the representative of regional financial department.
Sales of property from the auctions should be made regularly, but not supposing on the auctions «kulatskie elements» and secondhand dealers. Described in kulatskih economy seeds were transferred to collective farms or committees of country public mutual aid on the procuring price. If the structure or other property was necessary for schools, hospitals, agricultural stations and other establishments consisting on the local budget it was transferred to them under an indispensable condition of payment of its cost for the account of the means provided under the budget for these needs or from means of self-taxation. Payments for the property sold to the state enterprises, the co-operative organisations and local establishments, after its transfer should be brought for the account of budgetary appropriations or performance of estimates on self-taxation, in repayment of shortages.
Heads of areas had to reveal immediately all structures and property and to realise them. They also were recommended to agree with state, co-operative and public organisations about purchase by them, both already withdrawn, and able to be aloof, property. State, co-operative and the public organisations not having own structures and other property necessary for them and using them as rent at private persons, paying quite often considerable sums of a rent, could get structures and property in the property for the account of the sums of a rent and other means. It was impossible if to realise structures them followed transfer to municipal parts RIKov and city departments of a local economy it is gratuitous with drawing up priyomoperedatochnogo the certificate. After assignation to department of a local economy
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The shortage sum was written off from the account of the defaulter as collected.
District zdravotdel, believing, that in process raskulachivanija will be many released premises, has suggested to fix them under a day nursery, platforms, emergency stations and rural аптеки306.
The special decision about use of dairy cattle district operative "three" on a management of preparation and carrying out of spring sowing as a part of the vice-president okrispolko - ma Djakova has taken out on April, 16th, 1930, a member of Presidium okrispolkoma, the secretary okruzhkoma Kolesnikov and the representative oblispolkoma Vasileva. District executive committees and the co-operative organisations were obliged in week term precisely to establish quantity of the cattle withdrawn from fists, and the cattle got by suppliers for collective farms, but being in individual economy, and also to reveal in the area collective farms to which could transfer this cattle. Collective farms, considering the possibilities of the maintenance and care of cattle, were obliged to create herds of the large sizes (about 100 goals). It concerned, first of all, the collective farms which are close maslosyrzavodov. If in settlement was not available
Collective farm which could contain large dairy herd, cattle followed pre - 307
To give to collective farms of other settlement within one area.
It is necessary to notice, that instructions on the same question, given by various bodies of the district power, contained at times inconsistent orders. So, in the telegramme of the chairman okrispolkoma Klyuyev, addressed on July, 6th, 1930 to all district executive committees, it was specified, that at cleaning of winter crops kulatskih economy it is necessary to be guided by the following: 1) winter crops of the dispossessed economy sent for limits of district, are transferred to collective farms as the contribution to indivisible fund, in the absence of collective farms - krestkomam with transfer of cost of winter crops in collectivisation fund; 2) dispossessed, but not deprived by a plot in the given village, use winter crops,
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Handing over all commodity surpluses as the firm task to the state. Okruzhkomom VKP () other instruction on June, 6th, 1930 has been given, that all winter crops of the dispossessed and not restored economy are transferred to collective farms or KKOV (to committees of country public mutual aid -
E.T.) 309. It, certainly, should cause misunderstanding as they should arrive in regional heads. The secretary of Arkhangelsk district committee VKP (CHumakov and the chairman of district executive committee the Hit ditch, for example, on July, 9th, 1930 have addressed in okruzhkom and okrispolkom with the request to give an explanation, than by it to be guided at use of winter crops of the dispossessed economy: the instruction okruzhkoma about withdrawal of all winter crops at those who is dispossessed, or Klyuyev's telegramme according to which winter crops should be selected only at those dispossessed who is sent for district limits. Area Aleshkovsky's management also specified, whether to give winter crops on minor children of the sent fists if these children are returned back in a place of a former residence. From Rusanovsky area on July, 12th in okrispolkom the telegramme of the following maintenance has been directed: «Explain receive winter crops kulatskie the economy allocated with an allotment it is established -
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Ache for them to norm ».
Detailed instructions as it is necessary to use the confiscated property, the regional management gave. So, the bureau of the Verhne-Karachansky district committee has obliged on January, 19th, 1930 party cells and representatives of a district committee immediately to execute the instruction from January, 16th about an establishment of protection of the socialised stock, seeds and the property selected at fists from members of collective farm, communists, members of the Komsomol, having warned, that for possible arsons fists of property of collective farms «will bear first of all responsibility of a party bureau of cells and representatives, as not taken measures to protection». On January, 25th a district committee bureau has specified to all party cells and representatives of a district committee immediately to make the full and exact account of all property selected at fists, to organise protection and to define the necessary
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Warehouses and premises.
The regional commission in structure Evsina, Litvinova, Pishchugina, having heard on January, 28th, 1930 the report of the secretary of Verhne-Karachansky party cell Morozova on preliminary results raskulachivanija and having noticed, that the confiscated property «is in a chaotic condition, is scattered on the various
Places, do not have protection, there is no account owing to what larceny is possible, loss », also has disposed to spend« the exact account of all aloof, to estimate and strictly to establish protection ». Under the"three"decision"first of all"it was necessary to provide with aloof premises all Soviet and public institutions, other houses to occupy poor men-collective farmers, thus 60 % of the confiscated structures followed transfer to the possession collective farms and 40 % in municipal fund of district executive committee. To district executive committees followed check up a condition of the houses transferred to collective farms, to spend their inventory and an estimation, to track safety and ремонтом316.
In the letter addressed to all party cells, "three" has given concrete recommendations about the organisation of the account and savings of the withdrawn property:
«For the account of all aloof economy at fists and property to allocate from 5-7 people the authoritative commissions which to charge all to describe, estimate, put to a thread seals and before sale to store under reliable protection.
Thus to attend all property to define in corresponding such premises that nothing decayed, not merzlo, did not spoil, it was not harmed. All cattle urgently to pass through vet. sanosmotr. To track regular milking of cows, behind feeding of cattle and its normal maintenance. To track safety of small premises and valuable constructions, vigilantly watching for all possible kulatskimi sorties, kulatskimi groupings, stopping
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It is resolute by ».
The confiscated property should be used so. The best houses urgently to occupy under administrative, cultural and educational establishments, the Village Soviets, boards of collective farms, likpunkty, log huts-reading rooms, red corners, schools, drugstores, tea, boards of consumer societies. At meetings to inform the poor on resettlement in released kulatskie the houses which have been not occupied with establishments, requiring premises bednjatskih economy under the statements submitted to the commission. Remained unoccupied houses temporarily to attach for storage to the next economy and to party members, Komsomol, having obliged them periodically to check a condition of structures. Outdoor constructions, threshing barns, barns, wood, boards to use as a building material on the socialised farmyards, preliminary taking all wood on the strict account and having provided its storage in warehouses. All working horned small cattle and young growth to transfer to collective farm, and blood stallions - rajkolhozpolevodsojuzu for their use on sluchnyh points. Bees till the spring to leave on a place, having charged care of them to experts-beekeepers from collective farmers. Meat, a wool, a skin to hand over for money rajkolhozpolevodsojuzu; food cultures, a rye flour - to procuring points; wheat flour to hand over in consumer societies, having reserved a part for a children's day nursery and children's playgrounds. The rye, an oats, millet, a sunflower and other cultures to fall asleep in the socialised seed fund of the Village Soviet, the rest to hand over for money in procuring points. Fodder, hay, summer, rye straw to transfer in collective farms. Values: gold, silver, the Nikolaev coins, the gold and silver things, all kinds a pocket watch - immediately to translate with the reliable person on storage in regional credit association. Co-operative books to hand over in board of a consumer society for replacement appearing on them to the sums for poor cooperation. A potato, a beet to pour in warehouses, suitable for storage, a potato to "reserve" as a seed material. Money and bonds of loans to check in a savings bank into the collective farm account, and money in the subsequent «to turn on repayment of shortages and spetssredstv». Vegetables, honey to hand over in a consumer society for sale for money. Mills, maslobojki and other enterprises followed transfer to collective farms which have been obliged them immediately to start to use. Collective farms received also agricultural stock. The clothes, footwear, dresses, a manufactory, and also furniture - large and small - were transferred for sale in a consumer society. Fire wood followed use for needs of local establishments and collective farms, and also for rendering vozmezdnoj the help bednjatskim to economy; container were transferred for using to collective farms. The commission on the property inventory had to disassemble and overestimate all confiscated subjects at the valid cost for their faster realisation and sale. As a result of realisation of the confiscated property all available for kulatskimi shortage economy under state taxes, gathering and spetssredstvam, planned to selection under the area plan, should be completely extinguished. Under "three" instructions by February, 5th, 1930 on places all these problems have been obliged to carry out and okoncha -
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telno «to cope with raskulachivaniem».
However, as documents testify, in the organisation of use of the confiscated property to local authorities longer time was necessary to be engaged, than was planned. So, on February, 4th, 1930 a bureau Verhne - the Karachansky district committee with participation of all representatives of a district committee and secretaries of party cells again accepts the decision to accelerate the account, an estimation of all property confiscated from fists, having extinguished quickly available zadolzhnost for kulatskimi economy to the state (shortages etc.) And to adjust rational use in collective farms of all aloof. On February, 14th a bureau has charged to party cells «to take all dependent measures to the strict account of property, to its full estimation and rational use in collective farms, resolutely stopping any abnormalities with use of the given property». On February, 24th the bureau of a district committee were made by the decision to list 25 % of cost of all selected property in fund of the poor for a covering introductory and the shares which are due from collective farmers-poor men, not less than 25 % of the confiscated bread to allocate for irrevocable material aid to the poor, 50 % of cost kooperirovannyh the sums dispossessed to translate in fund of material aid to the poor.
Similar orders were given by heads and other areas. So, the bureau of Novohopyorsky district committee VKP (), sitting on February, 4-5th with participation of secretaries of party cells and heads of brigades on collectivisation and raskulachivaniju, has specified to establish «personal responsibility for full and rational use of all property and means of production, aloof from fists and transferred to collective farms (not supposing sharing) in the basic indivisible funds and cooperation of farm laborers and the poor». According to the decision of Presidium of the Novohopyorsky City Council from February, 8th, 1930 of the house, live and dead stock, fodder and all property of the dispossessed persons connected with agriculture, it was necessary to transfer to collective farms, having extinguished this property shortages registered behind dispossessed economy; at home, live and dead stock, fodder and all property of the persons who have been not connected with agriculture, followed accept to city council.
The bureau of Mordovian district committee VKP () has obliged on February, 7th party fraction of district executive committee to withdraw kulatskie shares in co-operative societies and to contribute to industrialisation fund, to deprive of an economy of fists of crops and to transfer them in inviolable fund of collective farms. Also it was offered to give the instruction on the careful relation to the selected property and cattle on the Village Soviets. Check of use of the confiscated property was charged rajkolhozpolevodsoju -
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The storage and sveklosojuzu.
In Tokaryovsky area party fractions of district executive committee and rajkolhozpo - levodsojuz should under the decision of a bureau of a district committee from February, 10th provide with "appropriate storage» the withdrawn property and cattle, «having got rid of all available cases of the thriftless relation» to property from the Village Soviets and heads of collective farms, conducting strict to it учёт326. The district executive committee presidium has decided on May, 25th, 1930 selected kulatskie houses to use for obespe -
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chenija premises detploshchadok, structures and a material, withdrawn «for shortages of taxes», - for construction of school of 1st step in Mikhailovka. The regional financial department was entrusted «to pull together in RIK all sums of self-taxation, doprichislennye on doprivlechyonnym kulatskim to economy, for use
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Them for needs of regional value ».
Meanwhile, instructions of higher instances not everywhere were carried out. In some Village Soviets Verhne-Karachansky area as it was marked in the circular of regional administrative branch from January, 24th, 1930, buildings for storage of the withdrawn property have not been prepared, it fell down bezrazborno, one economy from another did not separate, that complicated acceptance by its commission. The chief of the Russian Open Society wrote in an information report from January, 25th on February, 5th, 1930: «Cases of the purchase of things by fists it is not observed. In the majority of a thing are got serednjakami and the poor. The property is bought with enthusiasm, with words:« it is enough them
To live, have lived on another's neck and we had a sleep on soft, and now the work voz -
1
myom back ». In a report of the Russian Open Society from 6 on February, 9th, 1930 it was informed, that realisation of the withdrawn property passes fast rate, the basic buyers are the poor and serednjaki; in village Vasilevka the property is bought by the poor and« with enthusiasm bury bourgeoisie »; some inhabitants Top Karachana to buy large things (the furniture, a coat) because of revenge of fists are afraid, and Nizhne-Karachansky peasants, on the contrary, have been convicted of gamble. Having bought property in Vasilevke, they sold it then in the market in Bottom Karachane. That the withdrawn things were sold in Verhne - Karachansky area serednjakam and the poor, reported on March, 9th, 1930 in regional Office of Public Prosecutor and district attorney G utsev.
In Aleshkovsky, the Mordovian and Novohopyorsky areas, as it is specified in the Inquiry okruzhkoma VKP () about a spadework on a spring sowing-time and the collectivisation made on January, 30th, 1930 on materials of district committees and their representatives, raskulachivanie «on occasion occurred without drawing up of the inventory of alienated property. Absence of the strict account of the confiscated property is confirmed also with such facts. For example, meeting of candidate group VKP (area Aleshkovsky's 3 Aleksandrovsky Village Soviets on January, 30th, 1930 has obliged the chairman of Village Soviet Galtsova« to get the most exact account of all withdrawn property at fists, in a root to stop any thriftless relation to the confiscated property, and in particular to cattle ». In Elan-Kolenovsky area separate workers« rolled down to selection of invaluable property and a steel on a way of its squandering ». The district committee bureau has decided on February, 2nd to turn «special attention» to the account of the selected property, having charged to party fraction of district executive committee "quickly" to give detailed instructions сельсоветам336. Partjachejkam, in the representative of a district committee and to the Village Soviets it was forbidden to be engaged otborkoj invaluable property and squandering of the property withdrawn from fists. It
Should go "first of all" on a covering registered for ku -
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Debts varnishes, and other part under certificates to be transferred to collective farms. However the given instructions, and also an instruction on revaluation of the confiscated property have not been executed. In this connection the district committee bureau has obliged on February, 21st district executive committee fraction «to spend immediate concentration of all confiscated and konfiskuemyh means and bonds in RIKe». The estimation of the withdrawn property and in Zherdevsky area Mismatched the validity. It not all has been transferred collective farms, therefore the district committee bureau has specified on February, 23rd to make an estimation of all kulatskogo property and immediately to transfer selected in fund колхоза339.
Similar infringements in Borisoglebsk district had mass character. In the letter okrispolkoma, addressed on February, 22nd, 1930 to chairmen of district executive committees, it was marked: «Till now in areas there is no responsible person for correctness of the account and property withdrawal. The instruction on putting on of responsibility for the property account on zavrajfo on a number of areas is not executed (Borisoglebsky, etc.).
The Office of Public Prosecutor on places in week term has not checked up the given instruction, has not excited suit for plunder and the thriftless relation to the confiscated property »340. Okrispolkomom has given to chairmen of district executive committees categorical instructions:« It suggested to take last time urgent measures to prevention of disgraces. Guilty immediately prosecute. telegrafno in day of reception of the present inform a surname of the account of property responsible for streamlining »341.
The analysis of documents has allowed to establish, as the property confiscated from fists was practically applied. In Novohopyorsky area, for example, according to a report for February, 10th, 1930, the most part of aloof houses has been occupied by farm laborers and the poor, and a part - cultural-economic establishments. In Rusanovsky area, as reported on February, 18th in okruzhkom VKP () the secretary of a district committee Kostyuks, all withdrawn property is transferred the collective farms, houses released from fists are engaged in the poor. In village Kirsa - novka Verhne-Karachansky area all «the selected cattle contains in the perfect order», collective farmers «carefully look after it» 344. In verhne - the Karachansky Village Soviet the collective farm has received 41 house confiscated from fists, 22 horses, 27 cows, 43 heads of small cattle, 28 966 rbl. 85 copeck for sold имущество345. In the Mordovian area in village Chernjaevke the house of fist Zvonaryova is transferred «under school», in village Borisovke «two kulatskih houses are used under a log hut-reading room and a red corner» 346. In village the Mazourka of Peskovsky area have dispossessed 37 economy, all their property has immediately been withdrawn and transferred in again organised collective farm. Large inhabited constructions of fists are occupied by collective farm, in three houses red corners, a reading room and club are equipped, and in some are installed bednjatskie the families which did not have habitation. In Shchuchensky area to a commune "Truth", under the decision okrispolkoma from February, 10th, 1930, in the indivisible capital the engine in 30 horsepowers, confiscated from a fist of a city of Borisoglebsk of Ivan Samojlovicha Sujazova was transferred.
However not everywhere the confiscated property was used properly. So, in the inquiry of information department OGPU from May, 17th, 1930 it was noticed, that the withdrawn property in most cases «was not considered a little enough, and in many cases was squandered», that often local workers and rural active workers went on "sharing", that in a number of places the assignment facts were fixed by workers of the confiscated property, that the extremely negligent relation to the confiscated property, to its storage and expedient realisation »was universal«, that sale and distribution of means of production «under the extremely lowered quotation» therefore there was a full depreciation imu - щества349 was widely used. The similar negative phenomena were marked and in Borisoglebsk district.
In article «Disgraces in Gribanovke», published in the district newspaper «Collective-farm truth», are named, for example, such facts of mismanagement: «In Gribanovke it is spent raskulachivanie 18 economy. Representatives have aimed to dispossess simply and have not thought how to use the property selected at fists. 18 kulatskih at home stand empty, kulatskie agents have broken in some of them ovens and have beaten windows, and now agitate:« here look, that do ». Protection of these houses is not present.
Anybody has not taken care and of the confiscated cattle: he wanders on court yard on 20 gradusnom a frost; on a frost the bast baskets of eggs confiscated golovotjapami »were lost.
The author of article did a conclusion: «Similar disgraces in use of the property selected at fists are favourable to a fist: they allow it to prove uselessness raskulachivanija and to agitate against it. It is necessary to organise reasonable use of property and to punish golovotjapov-authorised, to -
350
torye suppose such phenomena ».
In I-м the Peskovsky Village Soviet of Peskovsky area from 56 kulatskih the houses transferred to collective farm, «only one is occupied by the poor man - a member of collective farm, the others or are empty or are handed over various persons and establishments under apartments (without conditions and contracts)». In the report of district supervisory commission rabochekrestjanskoj the inspections, addressed on March, 10th, 1930 in regional RKI, obviously unilateral explanation is given non-use of the confiscated residential buildings: «the employment Question kulatskih at home poor men becomes complicated refusals from their party. At collective farm inspection« Red Sand »the case of refusal of the burnt down poor man-active worker from the empty house given to it because of fear of a new fire is established. A similar sort separate cases specify that the collectivised weights insufficiently still have acquired process of liquidation of the whole class occurring simultaneously with collectivisation and operate under constant fear of possibility of measures from the party
352
Dispossessed ».
In our opinion, the unwillingness of poor men to be installed in houses of fists, first of all, testifies that deprivation by the power of prosperous owners of own habitation was perceived by labour peasantry as a robbery of another's good and consequently was not approved.
Have not thriftily concerned in a number of areas and the confiscated cattle. In Zherdevsky and Tokaryovsky areas as representative Kogan informed, «as a rule, everywhere carry on kulatskih horses, and the peasant mounts and speaks« anything, will run about, you kulatskaja », anybody of nothing a beret from tens different representatives which carry on villages and which should pay». Care of the withdrawn cattle as it is specified in an information report of Shchuchensky regional administrative branch was bad, in Preobra -
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The female Village Soviet.
About the given problem also the newspaper «Collective-farm truth» time and again wrote. So, on the average and Bottom Karachane Verhne-Karachansky area «horses and dairy cattle in public farmyards contain untidily, valuable ovsjanaja straw goes on a laying instead of the rye; in the cow sheds there are no windows». In article «to Result in a full order the selected cattle», printed on February, 21st, 1930, such details were informed on the maintenance of animals in village Top Karachan: «the horses Selected at fists and a cow are in an ugly condition. To gr-well to Shipilovu I.M. having 2 horses, have put 8 more, all of them stand knee-deep in a dirt, casual persons look after them and it is thus very bad. In a court yard to Savelyev V. E have driven 8 horses and 8 cows, leaving and the maintenance for which are in the same way bad. Construction of stalls and feeding troughs verhne-karachantsy have just started» 356.
More evident representation about conditions of the maintenance of cattle gives the certificate made on March, 21st, 1930 after survey of six farmyards of collective farm vetvrachom D.I.Strebkovym and the chairman of board of Verhne-Karachansky collective farm of a name of the 12 anniversary of October. Checking have established, that on two court yard there were 36 horses, premises and care of them satisfactory, but grooms carelessly concern treatment of horses. Medicines for them, appointed vetvrachom on March, 15th, till March, 21st yet were not are taken. The young growth of large horned livestock (25 goals) contains in very bad conditions, inaccurately and untidily. The cattle is partially polluted by a dung of pigeons. From 24 pigs 2 male pigs and 8 pigs contain in one shed, animals lay in strong vzrytom, crude manure. The forage gives to pigs in two absolutely unsuitable troughs standing in the street, about them the big dirt. During feeding the big male pig strongly beats other pigs. Pigs contain separately. At the moment of court yard visiting checking pigs ate a dry sunflower oil cake. In a copper water with an oil cake small amount has been made. Three days of a pig are fed with one oil cake when nearby «in the dispossessed shed» there is a lot of flour. Absolutely it is few for pigs of a forage. Small pigs 5-6 week age are fed too with one oil cake. They look bad, are hungry, one pig with podsosnymi pigs too is hungry, in dummies there is no the milk, sticking pigs are beaten. Sheep and goats (65 goals), lambs (31 head) contain tolerably, top dressing of lambs is adjusted, but the stern in a stock for one days, the account okota is not conducted. A forage for the hens which number of goals is not known, at a premise sover -
359
shenno is not present.
In connection with the critique «to Result in a full order the selected cattle» all farmyards in Top Karachane on March, 25th, 1930 surveyed in the presence of a member of board of collective farm of a name of the 12 anniversary of October N.E.Eremina the instructor rajkolhozpolevodsojuza A.F.Shvekova. By it it has been established, that «lacks as regards calfs and cows and pigs» are eliminated, and «in the rest» the certificate made vetvrachom Strebkovym on March, 21st, 1930, "has completely proved to be true" 360.
In the Inquiry on a condition and work on collective-farm building in Borisoglebsk district TSCHO from the July, 12th, 1930, made okruzhkomom VKP (), following facts of mismanagement are specified:
- «There were squandering cases podeshyovke kulatskogo property, a negligence in its preservation, the inability is rational to use it in interests of collective farm and this a summer residence of trumps in hands of fists in their struggle against collective farms».
- «Till now kulatskie constructions are not transferred collective farms» (Pike), and «the horses belonging to collective farm, are in RIKe» (Mordovo).
- «The Kulatsky property is not transferred to collective farms, and (Elan-knee) is squandered with/councils».
Abnormality such when «for a feeding up returned restored from raskulachivanija to economy of cattle to collective farms do not pay is observed also therefore collective farms suffer the big losses and to it the soil for discontent» (Mordovo) when «the gardens selected at fists in the beginning have been transferred collective farms is created, and then are selected from them and transferred produktpererabotke» (Mordovo) 361.
Having noted the big falling of a livestock of cattle in district and bad conditions of its maintenance, okruzhkom VKP () informs and on such cases: «the cattle Selected at fists rozdan on separate bednjatskim to economy (Pike), in Slastyonov - skom collective farm (Pike) to receive a cow, separate collective farmers (Rusanovo) have sold the cows, and on the obtained money bought up property dispossessed» 362.
District the management stated quite objective estimation to use of the property confiscated from fists: «To arrived in the indivisible capital of collective farms kulatskomu to property not everywhere have approached thriftily, not completely having used it for creation of strong economic base in kolho -
zah »
Studying of materials has allowed to find out, what measures were undertaken by local authorities for suppression of such mismanagement. The secretary okruzhkoma M.I.Kolesnikov, addressing to meeting rajpartaktiva, passing on March, 4th, 1930 in Borisoglebsk, has openly declared, that the cattle selected at fists, «is in the most thriftless condition» and that «with it the most resolute struggle should be led, separate beshozjajstvennikov it is necessary to dismiss and prosecute directly». He has critically expressed and non-use of the confiscated structures: «Time we have selected the house it is necessary to use economic now it» at a fist. Having noticed, that the peasantry «quite correctly is indignant with such thriftless relation to the selected property» and that «separate beshozjajstvenniki should be made answerable», the secretary okruzhkoma has offered: « In this business it is necessary to work to bodies of Office of Public Prosecutor and court, good, probably, separate slovens you will not learn, as it is necessary to manage ».
Kolesnikov has given concrete instructions to regional heads as it is necessary to use the withdrawn property: «property of fists All selected and transferred in collective farms should be well considered, not supposing mismanagement... All dairy cattle selected at fists, should be in the socialised stables. It is necessary to create dairy farms from this dairy cattle and to oblige collective farms a considerable part of milk and oil from these cows to hand over in our co-operative and state organisations. Separate collective farms have found time kulatskih to tell cows in individual using that is absolutely incorrect.
All houses selected at fists, should be used first of all for public institutions, and it is obligatory with the sanction with/council and RIKa, namely: for boards of collective farms, log huts-reading rooms, for a day nursery, kindergartens and other cultural establishments. Separate houses can be used for farm-labourer's houses-communes. Time we in connection with raskulachivaniem have withdrawn the farm laborer from a fist it is necessary for it in collective farm to create corresponding conditions. In separate collective farms where it is possible, in these houses-communes to organise public catering »364.
Let's consider, how this problem dared on places. The bureau Verhne - Karachansky district committee VKP (), for example, has specified on March, 4th to all party cells and to district executive committee fraction to take measures to streamlining of use of the property selected at fists, «conducting resolute struggle against mismanagement and wastefulness». narsude Sigitovu it was entrusted to Party member to organise by March, 20th in collective farms companionable courts and to spend with them regional совещание365.
The meeting partaktiva the Zherdevsky area, taken place also on March, 4th, 1930, in connection with the revealed cases of plunder of the property withdrawn from fists has made responsible for its safety the chairman of a commune, secretaries partjacheek and on party members for purchase of it имущества366.
It has not been shown «sufficient Bolshevist persistence to the exact account of the property which has arrived from ekspropriatsii at fists, and its transfers to collective farms» from the party partjacheek and separate representatives and in Rusanovsky районе367. Having noted it, meeting of a party active with participation of 78 persons including the communists sent from Moscow, Voronezh, Bo - risoglebska, Tambov for carrying out of a spring sowing-time, has solved: « All confiscated property at fists should be carefully, is written precisely down in levy of execution and under these inventories should be immediately transferred under certificates to boards of collective farms in the indivisible capital, at all not supposing any squandering, delivery of things to somebody in time using and so forth There where it has been admitted, immediately to return all things and on guilty to impose penalties up to the legend to court ». On March, 5th a district committee bureau has charged district executive committee fractions« to check up immediately a condition and use of the property expropriated at ku - varnishes »369. On March, 15th on a bureau discussed conditions of the maintenance of cattle in the Ternovsky Village Soviet. And partchasti boards of Ternovsky artel it was entrusted to representative of a district committee to settle a question on forages in the two-day term, "otherwise" all working and grocery cattle which has arrived from raskulachivanija through ZHivotnovodsojuz, and also and other property it will be offered to district executive committee fraction to transfer constructions to other collective farms.
The bureau of Tokaryovsky district committee VKP () has charged fractions of district executive committee and rajkolhozpolevodsojuzu to solve on March, 20th «a question on use kulatskih horses and cattle in places where collective farms to spring sowing» will not be definitively issued. The cows selected at fists were In Elan-Kolenovsky area in «the sprayed condition, and frequently and in homelessness», therefore the district committee bureau recognised on April, 14th as expedient to concentrate them in one place and to create a dairy farm. In Zherdevsky area in connection with disintegration of some collective farms kulatskoe the property began bezuchyotno to pass vselsovety, committees of country public mutual aid and "ugly" to be used. «Ugly position» the representative okruzhkoma Fists has reported on April, 21st on it on a district committee bureau. polevodsojuza it was entrusted to party fraction of district executive committee and fraction by May, 1st, 1930 To consider all property, to find out, it is in whose conducting, and draught force, cattle immediately to distribute on collective farms and «to order business» with the rest
373
Property.
On careless the relation to the property withdrawn from fists paid attention also a regional management. So, on April, 21st, 1930 oblispolkom has directed to all districts the following instruction: «Under available data in a number of areas the beer families confiscated from fists, are till this moment under the lock... Also are not exposed from omshanikov, that threatens with full  destruction of a bee. On the instructions of Shape Presidium give order RIKam about immediate transfer to nearby collective farms of the apiaries confiscated from fists and not transferred by it till this moment». Carrying out this instruction, Borisoglebsky okrispolkom on April, 26th has given to district executive committees corresponding the decree -
nie
Meanwhile, in rajnah districts were elicited the new facts of mismanagement. Acceptance of measures for their elimination still was actual. So, chairman Aleshkovsky of district executive committee Brotersky at visiting of the Pavlodar Village Soviet has established, that 17 horses confiscated from fists were used by nobody. The district executive committee presidium has offered on May, 6th rajkolhozpolevod - to the union and managing regional ground department to take these horses and to distribute them on колхозам376. In week term to make the exact account of the withdrawn property has specified to financial department and the Presidium of Verhne-Karachansky district executive committee sitting on May, 7-8th. In Rusanovsky area arrived from dispossessed draught force and selhozinventar as it was marked on May, 17th on a district committee enlarged plenum, were distributed between collective farms already in the course of sowing, that «substantially detained rate of a sowing-time
378
On collective-farm sector ». In bezuchyotnom and a thriftless condition there was a property and the houses selected at peasants for default of the plan on grain-collections and belonging to Aleshkovsky to district executive committee. The district executive committee presidium has charged on July, 2nd to a member of district executive committee to Zhukov and regional technician Starikovu by July, 10th to make inventory of this property and constructions with their measurement площади379.
The persons who have admitted mismanagement, were exposed also to criminal punishment. In Verhne-Karachansky area as district attorney Gutsev reported on March, 9th, 1930 in regional Office of Public Prosecutor, have been made answerable under item 111 UK the chairman of board of collective farm «Name of 12 years of October» Wide and a member of board Glotov that «threshed, but nevejanoe millet in number of 40 poods was held in the street opened under snow by the whole month, an oats not molochen, the agricultural stock is scattered in the street under snow, without the supervision, to the horses of sterns withdrawn from fists was given thriftlessly and last dragged -
380
sja underfoot bundles ».
In Borisoglebsk area, according to the chief of regional administrative branch from March, 28th, 1930 in okradmotdel, under court boards of two collective farms that concerned the property confiscated from fists "thriftlessly criminally" have been given. The chief okradm - department has reported on April, 6th On this fact also on a regional management.
As a whole local authorities of Borisoglebsky district were engaged in the organisation of use of the property confiscated from fists for a long time. The relation to the withdrawn property, first of all, to structures and livestock, not everywhere was zealous, and application rational and effective. It was shown and in absence of strictly account of the confiscated property, and in its inadequate protection, and in bad conditions of storage and the maintenance, and in non-use to destination.
The measures taken by the power on suppression of such mismanagement, including criminal punishment of ranking officers, were insufficiently effective, they did not eliminate possibility to suppose it and further. In our opinion, mismanagement was inevitable, as was generated both fast rates raskulachivanija, and great volume of the withdrawn property. As a result the part of this property has been irrevocably lost.
The conclusions extended in a historiography about considerable the contribution of the confiscated property to strengthening of material resources of collective farms by materials of the given district on proves to be true. In Borisoglebsk district at 5 517 economy have withdrawn property for the sum of 3 163 145 roubles. Meanwhile, to raskulachivanija 3 949 kulatskih economy owned property in cost in 29 531 000 rbl. Thus, only 10,7 % of cost of the property of fists have got to new owners. This essential difference speaks not only the bad account of the confiscated property and the underestimated estimation, but also that its part has deteriorated, destroyed, took away. It is obvious, that such small volume of the property which has got to collective farms, could not play a considerable role in strengthening of their material resources.
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A source: Timoshechkina Elena Mihajlovna. The dispossession of peasants in the Borisoglebsk district of the Central Black Earth region (first half of 1930). 2014

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