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3.1. Special economic zones

the wide experience (both positive, and negative) the organisations of special economic zones of the various type which use would be very useful in our practice is Abroad accumulated.

special economic zones (areas), depending on their target orientation, represented on fig.

3.1, can be conditionally divided into four basic types:

Zones with special preferential, customs both the taxation order and the simplified procedure of the external economic operations focused on acceleration of inflow of foreign investments and activization of export-import activity. It. So-called, "free economic zones".

Zones (areas) of economic development (named in a number of the countries "enterprise zones"), created for stimulation of industrially-depressive and backward areas by an establishment of various privileges and stimulus for private investments (both domestic, and foreign) and realisation of the state and social infrastructure.

technological parks and the technopolises supplying at the expense of special territorial integration of research and development, and industrial production, and also on the basis of various privileges working out and introduction of modern technology, scientifically - technical achievements, new high technology kinds of production.

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4. Specialised zones on rendering of bank, insurance, information and other services with a preferential mode of realisation of these operations.

in a number of the countries (the Peoples Republic of China, Taiwan, South Korea, etc.) The complex zones providing use of mechanisms, characteristic for the several zones transferred above types are created. In the majority of the countries of the world the state operates market economy, using structural a skeleton from large economic structures.

there are basic distinctions in economic functions of large economic structures and small and average structures. The economic behaviour of large economic structures (KES) is characterised by a hypersensibility to effect sredne - and long-term tactical factors.

they automatically lower intensity of competitive relations to effective level as KES co-ordinate the policy, including price, with small and average structures as the large part of trade turnover KES becomes isolated on them. KES also has a hypersensibility to indirect regulating effects of the state by means legislative, budgetary and a monetary policy. KES carries out functions of the compiler of these effects on small and average structures.

as small and average economic structures react to short-term and local tactical factors exists basic distinctions between the economy engaging system of large economic structures and not engaging that.

the first type of an economy is considered more effective, than the second. For this reason it is represented expedient to consider construction questions

CLASSIFICATION OEZ BY THEIR TARGET ORIENTATION

systems of marketing logistics at creation SEZ.

At any treatment of concept of logistics, its specific problems the following admits:

forecasting of demand and production within the limits of current and strategic planning of activity of zones;

the complex decision of a problem of optimisation of processes of production, distribution, transport and service of consumers.

Questions on creation of a network of warehouse systems on service ranges, rational distribution of functions between the distributive warehouse centres and warehouses of consumers are thus solved;

identifications of trading areas on the basis of grouping of consumers and their rational attachment to production items;

definition of economically expedient scales and levels of forwarding service of consumers;

construction of model of logistical system for each concrete free economic zone and research of conditions of stability of its functioning;

a set of the scientific problems connected with creation of technological structures of automation of transportno-warehouse complexes in SEZ;

application of flexible systems;

optimisation of material streams;

integration of planning of production;

Certainly, the transferred problems do not reach a circle of the problems covered by logistics.

the marketing logistics represents the analysis, planning,

the organisation and monitoring of all operations on moving and warehousing,

connected with a stream of finished goods from the end of a line of products before production arrival on the market, and also the channels of distribution which are required for the organisation and maintenance of interaction between the company and its markets connected with them.

This definition opens two aspects of marketing logistics: functional, connected with passage of a material stream (this function usually is called as "physical distribution"), and institutsionalnyj, connected with a choice of the channel of distribution and management of it.

Effective fulfilment of these functions serves achievement of an ultimate goal of a market company strategy - the most complete satisfaction of consumers at the expense of availability of production necessary for them, i.e. delivery of the necessary product in the place necessary to them and during necessary time.

a nucleus of the concept of marketing logistics is the system approach to the management, assuming integration of all functional spheres connected with service of material streams, and the account of interdependence between them.

two basic groups of interrelations Are allocated: interactions of "behavioural" character between the organisations and the organizational structures forming the channel of distribution (i.e. Conflicts or cooperation between them) and interrelations between the basic functional spheres making so-called ' a complex logicians ": stocks, a supply with information, warehousing and packing, carriages.

the traditional structure of system of realisation of finished goods is characterised by availability of conflicts between the functional divisions (subsystems), arising owing to dispersal upravpencheskih

functions on divisions. Thus the management purpose - optimisation of activity of each of subsystems (mainly - minimisation of costs) disregarding changes of an indicator of efficiency of function of realisation as a whole, often conducts to its essential decrease.

the concept of marketing logistics is directed on overcoming and prevention of conflict situations. Administrative function centralisation gives the chance to harmonisation of the purposes of separate subsystems according to a company general purposes. ' Reconciliation "the disputed purposes is carried out on a basis of" a method of compromises ". Its essence consists in that. That changes of costs of each of subsystems are compared among themselves, and compared with change of the general costs of system.

influence of compromises on a system effectiveness is evaluated doubly: in - the first. From the point of view of influence on the general costs of system, and, secondly, from an item of their influence on volume of incomes of sale. The key moment of the concept of marketing logistics is transition from suboptimization at subsystem level to system optimisation as a whole.

in the foreign economic literature reflecting experience of creation of logistical systems, allocate following basic stages: statement of the purposes of system; definition of a current condition (by external and internal audition); creation and consideration of alternative projects of system; a choice of an optimum alternative of system, its introduction and the control over it. The concept of marketing logistics represents rigid requests to process tselelolozhenija. Each purpose should have qualitative both quantitative characteristics and a time interval which is taken away on achievement of the purpose. For statement of the purposes of logistical system "the method of missions" is used. Mission

predstaoljaet itself a complex of the purposes of the system defined for each kind of production and a market segment. Missions "cross" the basic functional spheres of system, defining thereby that contribution which each of subsystems should introduce for achievement of a general purposes of system. podtseli managements of the company in the general logic purpose defining strategy of system are aggregated top-level. It is allocated four basic directions of logistical strategy:

minimum general costs;

a maximum level of service of consumers;

short-term maximisation of profit;

the maximum advantage over competitors.

Each of these strategy contains two basic components: costs and service. Costs of designed system are compared to a degree of service of consumers for which it is calculated.

researches have shown, that dependence between a degree of service and costs is not linear. At the same time the degree of service is compared not only with a cost value, but also with the revenue position, acting from consumers. Character of the given dependence is defined by an indicator "elasticity of demand on a degree of service" (to similarly concept "epastichnosti demand under the price"). On the basis of such analysis general purposes of logistical system which are concretised and mortgaged in a basis of strategy of system are removed.

the analysis of a current condition of system allows to reveal potentially strong and weaknesses of existing system from the point of view of tasks in view.

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internal audition is conducted on each "mission". The analysis of structure of a line of products of the enterprise is simultaneously conducted also. Such characteristics of production as volume also it is volume-cost indexes, requests to packing and loading-unloading, an annual sales volume, seasonal changes of a sales volume, profitableness etc. make essential impact on structure of created system of marketing logistics that is especially important at the initial stage of creation SEZ.

One of the major elements of internal audition is the analysis of the costs connected with realisation of production. He allows to define a cost structure of system and to reveal the basic reserves of their economy. It gives the chance to the top echelon of management SEZ to make a choice between alternative projects of logistical systems.

the greatest complexity is represented by cost structure revealing, since In traditional practice of a cost accounting the aggregated indicators which are not giving to possibility to establish connection of costs of logistical system with fulfilment of specific targets are used. Therefore introduction of system of marketing logistics requires working out of essentially new concept of a cost accounting - "logistical costing", focused on an end result.

rapid development of computer engineering and information technology creates a basis for continuous perfection of logistical information system. However between a recognition "logistical thinking '* as a basis of administrative philosophy and creation of effective logistical system the long and difficult way lays. Foreign experience shows, that more productive is gradual introduction of logistical system on a course of fulfilment current operative and strategic

plans SEZ. This way allows to build"building"of logistical system step by step.

the last two decades of an expert of creation of economic zones has received a wide circulation, both in developed, and in developing countries. The greatest relation to that usually is meant at us concept "free enterprise zone", have free economic zones (SEZ). They can be divided on two groups.

the first are the zones which functioning, it is based on cancellation (popnoj or the partial customs duties and simplification (or cancellation) it is export - the import control over the goods acting in a zone and re-exported from it. In them warehousing of the goods, cargo handling operations, podrabotka and crossing of consignments is authorised. As a rule, such zones are limited by rather small territories and place in areas marine and the airports, on crossing of transport highways, in frontier points. Most often these zones are referred to as free trade zones, and also free ports ("porto - frankoi), transit zones, customs free warehouses, customs areas. Customs free warehouses and customs areas can form and at the separate enterprises (dot zones).

the First-ever customs free port of free trade - Gibraltar - has been open by Englishmen more 280 years ago. In pre-revolutionary Russia the status"free zone"the cities of Odessas had, Batumi, Vladivostok, and, last used a preferential mode of foreign trade activities from the middle of 20th years.

now free trade zones widespread in developed and developing countries. For example, in the USA is available over 120 zones

the free trade which turn-over constantly grows and reaches now about 4 billion dollars a year.

Second group SEZ are the zones which functioning is based not only on application of preferential trading and customs modes, but also on preferential financial and the taxation order, reduced prices and tariffs for infrastructural services, complex arrangement of territories, lettable to foreign and domestic investors. They are focused basically on production export and partially importozameshchajushchej production. Along with a manufacturing industry, in such laws can be encouraged and other spheres of economy (service, tourism, agriculture). Most often similar zones are referred to as zones of export production (ZEP). ZEP can take as rather small plots in the size in some tens or hundreds hectares, and extensive enough territories. For example, in the Peoples Republic of China the area of a special economic zone, makes 34,3 thousand sq. km. The population of an island Hainan - 6,6 million persons.

the First ZEP has been created in 1958 around Irish international airport Shennon. However the next years the greatest distribution ZEP have received in developing countries, including in "the new industrial countries" (Mexico, Brazil, Egypt, Mauritius, Barbados, etc.) And also in the Peoples Republic of China. In 80th years ZEP began to form and the East Europe countries - Hungary, Romania, Poland. Bulgaria.

in the beginning of 1990 in developing countries was about 300 functioning ZEP, more than 100 were in a stage of arrangement and more than 50 - at an according to plan-preparatory stage. In them it has been taken about 2 million persons (disregarding zones of the Peoples Republic of China and the East Europe countries).

it is expected, that to the middle of 2005 the number taken in these ZEP will exceed 3 mipliona, and the export volume will increase with 15 mprd. Dollars in 1989 to 45 billion dollars in 2005.

in Lithuania the Klaipeda free economic zone forming during six years on the area of 205 hectares has officially started activity. Chiefs Klaipeda SEZ, overcome a chasm of bureaucratic delays and successfully starting, hope to involve many foreign investors. In 2004 in a zone building at least two new factories which will create some hundreds jobs should begin.

creation Klaipeda SEZ has begun in 1996 after an adoption of law about zone bases. In 1995 the company Klaipeda group of development (Klajpedos vistimo grupe) which in 1997 has participated 8 international competition on management SEZ has been founded and became the winner of competition, then is reorganised in company on management of a zone.

the authorised captain of company makes 2 200 million US dollars. The largest shareholder - the American investment fund Baltic Fund 1 LP and the enterprise being under its management Baltic Fund Investment. Into company on management SEZ enters twenty seven shareholders, from them 25 - the enterprises and establishments of Lithuania. The government and the Klaipeda self-management invested in infrastructure SEZ 6 million lt. (2 million US dollars): Have laid a waterpipe, have installed electrical equipment, gas, postroipi the main road. The enterprises acting in a zone use tax privileges - from profit, the real estate, on roadsAnd and others. And preferentsijami investors used similar privileges in

free economic zones in Latvia, Poland, in our opinion, the majority of investors is attracted in a zone with the developed infrastructure and possibility it is fast and convenient to develop business.

the idea of creation SEZ in Lithuania was born in 1991, planned to create to Shaulyai, Kaunas, Klaipeda, however in the absence of legislative base the Government vynuodeno was to suspend the given project. For six years potential investors who could construct already a number of the enterprises are lost many, create hundreds jobs. However for this period of creation of a zone some tens laws, additions, amendments, the governmental orders and legal certificates which provide action Klaipeda SEZ till 2045 for the help of the state offered here investors in the form of tax privileges completely conforms the requirements of the European Union are accepted and does not exceed admissible level of the help.

having leased 3 hectares of the earth, to building rybopererabatyvajushchego factory Danish company "Espersen" which will produce half-finished products of a frozen cod has started. Investments into the enterprise will make 16 million lt. (5,4 million US dollars). Two more enterprises plan to build factory of packings for half-finished products, and on processing of articles of food. In a zone the territory is reserved for the Klaipeda centre of logistics. This zone meets requirements of an economy of the country, involves the new capital, introduces the investment in growth of economy of Lithuania.

thus, it is necessary to pay attention to foreign experience of creation and functioning SEZ especially. At correct statement of affairs SEZ do not become the territorial enclaves which are fenced off from other

of national economy, and turn to locomotives of economic growth of region and the state as a whole, playing for them a role original "windows in external mirm.

Investments into a combination to professional management in modern economic become a basis of increase of competitiveness of production, methods or controlling mechanisms various technological, economic, social processes. In industrially developed countries of the world by various estimations from 30 to 50 % of a gain of industrial production it is supplied at the expense of use of investments. Moreover, production revival in the countries, gone through economic crises, occurred, as a rule, through activization of investment processes.

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A source: BRYNTSEV Alexander Nikolaevich. FORMATION of the INVESTMENT CLIMATE In the INDUSTRY In the conditions of the FREE ECONOMIC zone. 2004

More on topic 3.1. Special economic zones:

  1. the contents 2 Introduction 3 Chapter I: Essence of free economic zones and their version 1.1 Essence, the purposes, problems and conditions of formation of free economic zones of 12 1.2 Versions of free economic zones and their classification 35 Head P: Formation of free economic zones in SRV 2.1 Market transformation of economy - a main condition of formation SEZ in modern Vietnam 62 2.2 Process of formation SEZ in Vietnam 88 Chapter III: Significance SEZ of Vietnam and way it is raised
  2. Conditions, preconditions and the basic forms of development of free economic zones in economic
  3. 3.1. Institutsionalnye and economic mechanisms of formation of free economic zones
  4. 3.1. Institutsionalnye and economic mechanisms of formation of free economic zones
  5. the Estimation of level of adequacy of a geographical position and economic conditions of Republic Dagestan to laws of formation of free economic zones
  6. Levitsky K.V.. Free economic zones and the tool of stimulation of economic activity (on an example of the Kaliningrad area) / the Dissertation, 2005
  7. Go Show-dzhi. FREE ECONOMIC ZONES AS the TOOL of MARKET TRANSFORMATION of ECONOMIC SYSTEM (ON MATERIALS of the Peoples Republic of China). The DISSERTATION on scientific degree competition kavdvdata economic sciences. St.-Petersburg -, 1998 1998
  8. Chapter 1 the Role of free economic zones in economic.
  9. Go Show-dzhi. FREE ECONOMIC ZONES AS the TOOL of MARKET TRANSFORMATION of ECONOMIC SYSTEM. ISSERTATSIJA on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. St.-Petersburg,
  10. Nguen Min Hoa. FREE ECONOMIC ZONES And THEIR ROLE In MODERN ECONOMY of Vietnam. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of the economic. Pyatigorsk., 2002