children's popular scientific editions of Russia

Contrary to everywhere occurring public opinion, it is a lot of children's Russian magazines. For 2015 in territory of Russia leave 304 children's printing editions (Mail of Russia, URL.) From them less than half have popular scientific character.

Since 2001 and till autumn of 2008 the domestic market of printing mass-media showed good dynamics of development and the qualitative changes testifying to step-by-step transformation of the journalese industry of the country in effective business (the Branch report, 2010: 4). By data «Uniform interdepartmental information-statistical system» quantity 39

Editions for children and youth is in a condition of dynamical growth. So, on the statistican, for 2010 quantity of published children's magazines and other periodicals (including collections and the bulletins leaving periodically) for year reached 162 names. In 2011 this figure has increased to 189, and in 2012 has decreased to 149 names. In 2013 growth of periodic children's editions already to 191 is again observed. Unfortunately, the quantity Russian nauchnoyopopuljarnyh editions in direct ratio falls: in 2010 in territory of Russia 152 magazines, and for 2013 already 149 (Uniform interdepartmental informatsionnoyostatisticheskaja system, URL) were published.

Prominent feature of the modern period of development of the media market of Russia is diversifikatsija media actives within the limits of the large companies, pursuing the gradation aims on multimedia platforms of development of publishing business. The general favorable economic situation in the country to the middle of 2014 promoted the organisation of a wide ruler of mass-media by interaction with foreign strategic partners, and also uses of credit resources. The Russian publishing community for a long time considers new channels of communications as additional possibilities. For today astable economic conditions do not allow to do exact forecasts concerning development of children's journalism the next ten years. The State Duma of the Russian Federation approves from time to time in the first reading the bills mentioning activity of mass-media. Only on December, 17th, 2014 The State Duma by consideration in the first reading has rejected the bill of mass-media - «foreign agents», and on December, 26th, 2014 the deputy of the lower chamber of parliament of Russia A.N.Didenko has prepared the bill of entering of additions in the federal law "About mass media" which enters limiting on use of foreign languages in musical compositions on air of TV and broadcasting to 15 % (Hammers, 2014).


The media market in general, and a children's press in particular accepted by the State Duma and the bill approved by the Federation Council limiting the greatest possible share of the foreign capital in the authorised capital of the Russian mass-media to 20 % will seriously affect on September, 26th, 2014 on Russian. « If other is not provided by the international contract of the Russian Federation, the foreign state, the international organisation, and also the organisation being under their control, the foreign legal body, the Russian legal body, the share of foreign participation in which authorised capital makes more than 20 percent, the foreign citizen, the person without citizenship, the citizen of the Russian Federation having citizenship of other state, in aggregate or everyone, has not the right to carry out possession, management or the control expressly or by implication (including through under control persons or by means of possession in aggregate more than 20 percent of shares (actions) any person) concerning more than 20 percent of shares (actions) in the authorised capital of the person who are the participant (a member, the shareholder) the founder of mass-media, edition of mass-media, the organisation (the legal person), carrying out an announcement.

The establishment by the persons specified regarding first present article, any other forms of the control over the founder of mass-media, over edition of mass-media, the organisation (legal body) who is carrying out an announcement is not supposed, no less than over the persons who are participants (members, shareholders) the founder of mass-media in which result the specified persons get possibility expressly or by implication to own, operate such founder, such edition, such organisation, them to supervise, and also actually to define decisions made by them »(Mail of Russia. The law of the Russian Federation« About mass media, URL).

New norms are entered since January, 1st, 2016, and documents on owners and founders should be transferred in Roskomnadzor not later than February, 15th, 2017 Obvious consequences of the law there can be such factors as:


Crisis aggravation in the media market in transition of paper newspapers in a digital format, processes of reduction of frames, and also considerable outflow of the capital from the domestic media companies. In a segment to popular scientific and children's journalism such companies as “Sanoma Independent Media”, “The Walt Disney Company”, ID “Axel Springer”, ID “Conde Nast” will suffer.

T.F.Andromenko, the editor-in-chief of children's magazine "Murzilka" notices, that: «a condition of the children's periodical press in Russia same, as a country condition. Unfortunately, the children's periodical press lives in itself. Also lives how can. We live on means of subscribers. Them should be more. Unfortunately, even now we meet people who do not know, that« the Murzilka »leaves. The state does not help us» (Andromenko, 2014). Really, the lack of qualitative children's production is marked by many authoritative editors. The considerable share of the market of children's magazines belongs to private media holdings which are included into the European concern (e.g. «Egmont Russia»). For this reason many materials are translation, that any more does not allow to speak about their national specificity and high-grade moral education of young generation.

Unfortunately, the condition of the children's periodical press excites the Russian sponsors and investors as she is not a profitable part of media business a little. The Russian publishers do not observe in children's editions of advertising platforms, however world experience (including experience of the USA and Canada) opens features of use of the advertising areas in children's magazines and shows their efficiency on own example. By analogy to the western countries the Russian children's press has taken a full place in Internet space. Not less than thirty five Russian children's editions have placed the on-line versions: "Murzilka" ("Murzilka", URL), «the Young technician» («the Young technician», URL), "Fire" ("Fire", URL), "Pin-code" ("Pin-code", URL), "Klepa" ("Klepa", URL) and many other things. However the overwhelming majority till now not 42

Has electronic analogue - there are such editions which are not presented on the Internet even by an official site.

Unlike the USA and Canada Russia still is at the initial stage of development of the children's periodical press in a kind of "employment" by other specialised branches of journalism. The children's journalism while is poorly supported by the public and state organisations, there are no the developed Russian children's media holdings which are carrying out joint advertising of the products on all available media platforms, the lack of financing of a children's segment of journalism is strongly felt.

In Russia the children's educational editions even recognised as city administration socially significant, do not receive enough of the state grants. Children's magazine "Сибирячок" leaves at support of the Irkutsk regional organisation, magazine "Спасайкин" is issued thanks to official support of National antiterrorist committee. Some negosudarstvennye cultures and children's public integration supports release of magazines ("Svirelka", "Fire", "Murzilka", "Klepa"). Besides, the association of the children's and pedagogical press of St.-Petersburg has united some editions in 2011: « Fire "," the Bus "," On ways to new school », newspapers« Five corners "," Your family "and" the Kindergarten from different directions ». All editions set forth above get not guaranteed state support, and grants stand out under certain articles. Therefore average circulation of the noncommercial, qualitative children's edition - 20-25 thousand copy Noncommercial editions extend, basically, on a subscription; very few magazines because of a financing lack at retail arrive. Popular scientific magazine" Квантик ", for example, focused on a children's audience with 9 till 13 years is published since January, 2012, the magazine for inquisitive schoolboys» is positioned as «and devoted entertaining 43

To questions on the mathematician, the physicist, biology, linguistics, and other natural sciences. The low circulation - 3000 copies - is caused by practically full absence of advertising and reduction of retail points of distribution. Magazine "Квантик" extends on cities: Moscow, St.-Petersburg, Chelyabinsk. However to get the edition it is possible only in special shops (a network of shops «Educational literature», shop «science and medicine World», shop «New technical book», a network of shops «World of the schoolboy» i.t.d.) and in Internet shops, that considerably reduces a potential audience.

Deficiency of grants speaks as follows - for example, the deputy of the State Duma from S.Nastashevsky's Novosibirsk area considers, that «if we name ourselves the democratic country with free market economy the children's market should exist within the limits of a free competition without purposeful intervention of the state, which, supporting one editions, lays down them in unequal conditions with others» (Sergeeva, 2014).

Children's magazine "Murzilka" is published since May, 1924 the Declared audience are children with 6 till 12 years. The yellow hero in a red beret and a scarf, with the camera thrown through a shoulder, became an original symbol of this magazine which exists already more than ninety years. Magazine "Murzilka" is positioned as a traditional literary magazine in which on a level with classics of the children's literature products of modern writers are printed. «In magazine fairy tales, fantastic stories, stories, plays, verses are printed. Its main authors - modern talented writers, artists and classics of the children's literature. As more often authors of magazine readers» ("Murzilka", URL) act. Doubtless plus is that "Murzilka" has the electronic version. In the edition there are constant headings: « Flora and Fauna of a planet "," Achievement of science and technology in headings "," the Champion "," safety School "," We go to a museum "," Art gallery "," Gallery of arts of the Murzilka ». To
To regret, "Murzilka" throughout all history has not managed to be transformed according to preferences of the audience and in 2016 mismatches private requirements of a modern literary magazine - colourful, qualitative, actual for this reason the circulation of magazine does not exceed 60000 copies

The children's comic magazine «Cheerful pictures» began to be published since 1956 on a wave of "Khruschev's thaw» simultaneously with magazines «New world» and «the Science and a life». Edition circulation - 100000 copies, periodicity of an exit - once a month in format А4. On 40 pages of magazine stories have taken places, to lead, poems, an entertaining content in the form of rebuses, problems, schitalok, riddles, instructions on hand-made articles. The magazine concept has been revealed from this, that «small children for whom it intended, willingly consider the amusing and cheerful pictures accompanied by short witty inscriptions» («Cheerful pictures», URL) - that is the Soviet analogue of the American comics. «Cheerful pictures» leave at support of federal agency of the press on mass communications, and its main partner is the network of shops of the children's goods «Children's world».

Magazine "Fire" is intended for children of 9-14 years - that is, is monthly detsko-youthful magazine. The magazine purpose as its edition defines, - «to impart to children taste and love to fiction, to creative knowledge of the world round us» ("Fire", URL). Authors of magazine are known children's writers: V.Krapivin, E.Uspensky, L.Kaminsky, G.Oster, V.Voskoboynikov, A.Kurljandsky and other. In the edition 33 interchangeable constant headings, among which are presented: "Proverbs", "Sayings", «National signs», «Competition of young detectives», «Blockade of Leningrad», «the Big book of fairy tales», «the Sea newspaper», «the Corner of the cheerful registrar», «Verses on war», "Tolerance", «Voices of the disappeared worlds...» And many other things. Besides, magazine on
Extent of many years will organise ecological expeditions with participation of some young readers.

The Popular scientific magazine «Young erudite» with the declared audience «children from 9 till 13 years"("the Young Erudite», URL), is published since September, 2012 and leaves once a month in format А4 and volume in 36 pages. The magazine distinguishes variety of articles on themes: history, technics, electronics, space written substantially enough and deeply. In Russia, despite overwhelming quantity of the editions publishing materials on disciplines natural and the exact sciences, also take place to be editions of humanitarian directivity. "BUS" - the Petersburg children's historical magazine which it is possible to name unique in own way. « In magazine it is possible to find materials on history and culture of Petersburg, on vandalism and tolerance problems, about restoration of the Petersburg monuments and building of new buildings in Petersburg and Europe. In 2012 we have published lecture of one of the most known architects of the world of Santiago Kalatravy. But we print also articles of the young Petersburgers loving and studying the city »(Publishing house" Eclecticism ", URL).

Despite high enough quality of a published material, circulation of magazine which is financed by agency of travel "Eclecticism", does not exceed 3000 copies Most likely, this consequence of local directivity of magazine, absence of bright registration of a cover and a poor internal illustrative material, and also limiting of points of distribution by the Petersburg schools, the Internet and points for sale of rounds of agency "Eclecticism". Magazine edition, does not deny, that the historical edition "BUS" is the noncommercial project directed on education of young Petersburgers. The editor-in-chief of Petersburg children's historical magazine "BUS" I.E. Voevodsky believes, that «the magazine is in own way elite. In sense the source of serious knowledge» (Voevodsky, 2005: 40) is calculated on those readers who search in magazine not for entertainments, but food for mind.

The circulation of literary and art magazine for younger schoolboys "CHitajka" does not exceed 4000 copies Periodicity of an exit of magazine - once a month, and the volume makes 42 pages. As heroes of magazine act boy Chitajka and wise Sovenok - from number in number they travel on the fantastic world of the book, proving, that «Reading - the best doctrine"and"the Book - your sincere protection». Since 2008 magazine "Читайка" leaves with the book-loose leaf "Helps for parents". Constant headings: "Gallery of literary heroes","CHitajkiny verses and fairy tales","Cheerful histories". The low circulation also speaks distribution exclusively on a subscription and through the Internet. "KUKUMBER" - the illustrated literary magazine for children of 9-13 years, volume of 64 bands. « Our authors - remarkable children's writers and artists of Moscow, St.-Petersburg, Kazan and Saratov, the Eagle and Vladivostok, other cities and other countries. Here you will meet the names familiar since the childhood to your mums, and names absolutely new which will be known for certain by your children "(" Kukumber », URL).

Constant staff of the edition "Kukumber" totals 8 persons: the editor, the secretary, the translator/poet, the main artist, the expert in advertising, the technical director, the expert in frames, the photographer. Despite literary and art orientation of magazine, in staff there are no children's writers - "Kukumber" co-operates with a considerable quantity of writers and poets from the side. Also the edition administration is engaged in publishing activity since 2002 and extends production on libraries of schools and kindergartens of Moscow. However, despite high professionalism of employees and presence of own bookshop "podariknigi", magazine "Кукумбер" leaving of 10 times year, remains the noncommercial children's project with circulation not exceeding 30000 copies

The illustrated humanitarian educational magazine of a qualitative fantasy for children "the Silver arrow" is published by means of 47

The Russian children's fund. The magazine publishes the best products of domestic and foreign fiction and highly moral education of rising generation sets as the purpose. "Guiding star" is recommended by the Ministry of Education of Russia for program and home reading of pupils of 6-11 classes. The magazine is published since 1996 and became popular in schoolboys, teachers, librarians, parents. Organising committee of the All-Russia exhibition "the Press - 2002" has awarded magazine with the diploma "For a solvency and fidelity to the reader".

As to the Russian children's media holdings the publishing house "Karapuz" lets out some magazines for children subdivided by age criteria: "Rattle" (0-2 years), "Sparrow" (3-5 years), "Karapuz" (5-7 years). "Rattle" represents magazine about kids, according to edition: «about age of rattles, toddlers, cradles» (the Publishing house "Karapuz", URL). The evident material in the form of separate pictures, for the child of the declared age, is prepared by leading laboratory of the Russian Academy of education. "Sparrow" puts priority problems development of speech, dialogue, interest to the reading and writing and the account. "Karapuz" is the basic magazine of this publishing house for preparation for school; Each release is devoted a concrete theme - to training to reading and the account, preparation of a hand for the letter, development of attention, memory, thinking, speech. Authors of materials are scientists, members of the Russian Academy of education.

Accordingly it is possible to speak about some general tendencies in children's journalism of the countries set forth above. A considerable quantity of modern children's magazines often become continuation of known cartoon films. As examples it is possible to result the following: «It is played from Barbie», «Masha and a bear», «the Monster Find fault», "Smeshariki", "prostokvashino", "Luntik", «Mikki with the Mouse», "Tom and Jerry", "SHrek", "Wheelbarrows", "Planes" and other. These editions are characterised by recognised characters, an abundance of an illustrative material and, in the majority 48

Cases, a small amount of the text with low level of an informative component.

Despite a considerable quantity politematichnyh magazines, monotematichnye 65 % on 35 % from total of children's magazines continue to be in the lead in the ratio approximately. From this it is possible to draw an output, that the children's audience, in a counterbalance of the adult prefers to be limited to one narrow theme, obviously liquidating uninteresting subjects for itself.

Registration of children's magazine is one of key criteria at a choice children of magazine for reading. High circulations of magazines testify to it with bright external registration (probably with attraction of the recognised protagonist), and low circulations of the children's editions possessing an inexpressive cover (even in the presence of rich internal filling). Presence of an entertaining component is a necessary element of the maintenance of children's magazine for any declared audience and the chosen subjects. The volume of all set forth above us of editions fluctuates from 25 to 42 pages. 98 % of the children's magazines analysed in given research are published in format А4, leave with periodicity once a month or 1 time in 2 months.


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A source: TEPLITSKAYA Anna Arkadevna. CHILDREN'S POPULAR SCIENTIFIC JOURNALISM of Russia, the USA And Canada AS the FACTOR of HARMONIOUS DEVELOPMENT of the PERSON. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Tver - 2016. 2016

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