crisis of 1857 and its consequence

Industrial crisis of 1857 was accompanied characteristic javleyonijami: curtailment of production, falling of the prices, bankruptcy of a number predyoprijaty and mass unemployment. Its consequences affected even in 1861 - summer of this year, informing M.F.Raevskomu to Vienna Moscow novoyosti, Ivan Aksakov wrote: «Oh, this money! You cannot imagine, what lack of money in Russia! All our capitalists have not gone bankrupt nearly.

Kokorev slightly was not ruined» (Aksakov, 2004б: 232).

For economic editions of a boundary of 1850-1860 a crisis theme byyola the actual.

In 1858 in «the Economic index» any weariness, any weakness in all vital departures »after sluyochivshegosja last year crisis (the Economic index, 1858, № 76: 531) was ascertained«. The attention to stagnation of trade was paid: «This any neestestvenyonoe, a false situation: on the one hand - the big margins of the goods, on the other hand - any absence of trading movement at strong accumulation of free capitals» (the Economic index, 1858, № 76: 532). snizilyosja and our rate of exchange. Not only in Russia, but also in many regions of France owing to crisis complained of huge warehouses of everyones tovayorov which were not bought, in England «frequent bankruptcies have put to the country the big loss».

"Economist" also has not avoided a crisis theme: «September, okyotjabr and November of last year, - was time of a full heat komyomercheskogo crisis which the end of 1857» (the Economist has consisted, 1858, t. 1, kn. 3: 4). In a number of articles the reasons of this sad phenomenon are specified: «chrezyomernoe development of the extensive enterprises, abusing the credit, at last,
Not measured financial gamble »(the Economist, 1858, t. 1, kn. 3: 5).

A.Lamansky in article «About an eminence of the prices for the first vital poyotrebnosti in Moscow for last decade since 1847», noticed, that «complaints to constant increase of the prices especially appreciable since 1855, that is about three years all speaks about the dearness more and more increasing» (the Economist, 1858, t. 1, kn. 3: 3-4).

Crisis was felt, how is above already noted, in all countries: in France - a lack of means, «difficulty sniskanija means of livelihood","reduction gipotekarnyh loans (i.e. The hypothecary. - I.S.) »Etc. (the Economist, 1858, t. 1, kn. 3: 14-19). At England concerning crisis the economy more ustojyochiva, even despite long war with India in 1857-1858, marks N.S., the author of article« Last crises »(the Economist, 1858, t. 1, kn. 3: 19). In the United States there was a repetition of crisis of 1837, vyzvanyonogo excessive expansion of credit operations circulating banyokov which number has increased to 1400 (the Economist, 1858, t. 1, kn. 3: 19-20). However the strongest distemper in the finance, commerce and economy has brought kriyozis the Hamburg bank in 1857 (the Economist, 1858, t. 1, kn. 3: 20-27). And it is easily explainable: local production of Hamburg« hardly gives 5,5 % of all export; the small percent should be kept and from import for internal consumption at 200 000 inhabitants. It is clear, that all letters of credit of the Hamburg trade should rotate in the foreign markets »(the Economist, 1858, t. 1, kn. 3: 23). It is natural, that during crisis it is very difficult to calm and priyonudit to payment of foreign debtors, hence, payments osushchestvyoljalis slowly and irregularly.

At the developed situation special uvazheyonija action of Russian government which «has rejected nayostojatelno demanded release 30 mill paper money with vyyonuzhdennym a course deserved; has given up in the monthly delay asked at it by all debiterami» (the Economist, 1858, t. 1, kn. 3: 25).

The department of the finance has authorised the Senate to let out bills on the security of the goods and trading obligations for the sum of 15 million banko-marks. These meyo
ry promoted crisis softening enough: registration cash desk and 10 000 000 banko-marks, the sum occupied with the Hamburg government in Viennese natsioyonalnom bank «have rescued not one house» (the Economist, 1858, t. 1, kn. 3: 27).

In Russia business were not better: «now the industrial enterprises fall, in trade visible stagnation, and at all in general sovershenyonyj a lack of money» (the Economist, 1862, t. 5, kn. 1: 1. Department I).

Newspaper Kittary also shined crisis. In second number for 1858 it was noticed, that crisis in economy and the industry is rather natural: « Reduction of profit from the capital, with successes of a society, is one of laws political-economical which meets the indispensable appendix in miyore industrial and trading »(the Industrial leaf, 1858, № 2: 5). VesYOma it is important, that in a material the simple language states the mechanisms conducting to occurrence of crisis: at first - industry growth, increase priyobyli industrialists, an output of capitals abroad, recovering inostranyonuju the industry, the state loans, prosperity of the country which becomes the centre of the world trade; then, as consequence, - waste kayopitalov, increase in taxes. So the crisis history in England (the Industrial leaf, 1858, № 2: 5) which in 1852 has reached the apogee of well-being, in 1853 is described in« the Letter from London »- has expanded trade and has risen in the price for all goods, in 1856 abundance of capitals passed, and the industry was included into« expectation of new reduction of profit »(promyshyolennyj a leaf, 1858, № 2: 5). In 1858 crisis was in a heat. In № 4 soobyoshchalos, that banks have gone bankrupt British, Liverpool city, Western Scottish and many other things. It testified also about negrayomotnoj to the credit policy of bankers (the Industrial leaf, 1858, № 4: 3), according to the correspondent from England. Crisis has mentioned all spheres of a national economy: «1858 in the whole Europe, especially in England has sadly begun. TorYOgovlja it has been amazed by inactivity; bankruptcies followed one other continuous number; tens first class merchant houses declared seyobja insolvent. the factory industry found out to a soya
vershennyj stagnation; with bankruptcies of local banks, appear, the capital poyokinul them; the weight of the working population found employment , veyorojatno, half of factories have been closed also hundred thousand workers ostavayolis without business »(the Industrial leaf, 1859, № 4, 13).

Crisis has not avoided also Spain: «Now awful industrial crisis devastates the pivotal manufactory cities of IsYopanii. The Working class in Catalonia has become exhausted, factories in Barcelona zayokryvajutsja one for another» (the Industrial leaf, 1858, № 49: 193).

Many articles in «the industry Bulletin» in 1858-1860 also are devoted crisis which so is characterised Kamensk: «Crisis, zayokljuchivshy 1857, belongs to a number of the phenomena, apparently, inevitable in the trade world and which repeat Periodically , odinakoyovyj the result repeats in certain intervals, each time more widely being scattered, in proportion to increase of the manufactory industry and trade development» (the industry Bulletin, 1858, № 1: 41. Department «OboYOzrenie the industry and trade»). Crisis is ubiquitous: it gets into all classes of a society, becomes misfortune of everyone (the industry Bulletin, 1858, № 1: 41. Department «industry and trade Review»).

The Kamensk considered, that crises - an integral part of economic development, they «clear atmosphere","clear up commercial horizon», opyoredeljajut a solvency of people, «as after a storm moral, as after prazdyonestva passions, there comes the impassivity close to egoistical indifference, as precisely circle and in a circle of trading activity should concede passion to excessive care» (the industry Bulletin, 1858, № 4: 35. Department «industry and trade Review»). Article contained the convergence taken Kamensk from English magazine The Economist ("Economist". - I.S.) from November, 28th, 1857 that stagnation in trade still proceeds, but posteyopenno passes: «Holiday trade of Russia represents to England thus considerable reduction, almost on a half-million of pounds sterling, or too on 3 million rub serebr , which lishiyo
las our industrial rural industry »(the Bulletin promyshlenyonosti, 1858, № 4: 55. Department« industry and trade Review »). And by 1859 in England if only to exclude iron factories which were in perfect stagnation, the industry and trade funktsioniroyovali to the full:« In Manchester, for example, speak, trade any more was not for a long time in such strong position »(the industry Bulletin, 1858, № 4: 51. Department« industry and trade Review »).

Henry K.Keri, whose letters have been published in neskolnih magazine numbers, names crises by disaster, notices, that they in that and consist, as private persons, both banks, and the government are compelled to pay huge debts when all wait for payment, and anybody, or only the few, in soyostojanii to pay (the industry Bulletin, 1860, № 5: 113. Department "Science").

In first number of magazine of A.Gurovsky described other sign kriyozisov: bankruptcies of banks happening here and there, factories, trading doyomov resembled weak blows of waves after hurricane (the Bulletin promyshlenyonosti, 1858, № 1: 40. Department «industry and trade Review»). In «the industry Bulletin» the statistics of bankruptcies as in RosYOsii, and abroad is resulted. For example, in first number of magazine for 1858 «the List of the merchant bankruptcies which have followed in England between September and February, 1858» (the industry Bulletin, 1858, № 1: 25 is given. Department «the Part help»).

With crisis development in many countries of the West has practically disappeared kreyodit, that even more aggravated position of businessmen. The government of Austria even has offered a loan under maintenance of a city of Hamburg: «the Committee of burghers has been appointed for separation of this loan between houses, nuzhdavyoshimisja in the help», - wrote «the industry Bulletin» about possible podyoderzhkah the trading and industrial enterprises (the Bulletin promyshlennoyosti, 1858, № 1: 57. Department «industry and trade Review»).

The history of crisis resulted in business newspapers and magazines, on mneyoniju authors of articles, should be for our industrial class pouchiyo
telnym a lesson, it is necessary for businessmen to behave unusually circumspectly not to run into the same errors which were represented to them by foreign trade. Extreme care in ustyorojstve private credit institutions is especially necessary.

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A source: SURNINA IRINA ALEKSANDROVNA. PRIVATE BUSINESS NEWSPAPERS And MAGAZINES In CAPITALISM FORMATION In Russia (1857-1865). The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the Doctor of Philology. Moscow - 2018. 2018

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