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2.4. Lexico-semantic and kognitivno-pragmatical aspects of the use of anglicisms in structure of a mass media discourse

The end XX - the beginning of XXI century can be characterised as time of intensive distribution of English language. Today English language - language of the international organisations and conferences, scientific publications, Internet communications, online conferences, international law etc.
As result of scale distribution of English language in the field of information technologies and intercultural communications the borrowed lexicon serves in language-recipient.

Presence of anglicisms at dictionary structure of borrowing language - result of direct intercultural communications between two people. «Anglicisms serve as a historical development product where all stages of changes in a human society of language-source and language-recipient are reflected. Intercultural communications are realised in the course of interaction of representatives of various cultures in which frameworks occurs not only language (loan of lexical units), but also a cultural exchange (behaviour models are adopted, a way of life, stereotypes). The West is present At consciousness of Russians as a certain psychological factor, the mental phenomenon appearing in three aspects: the West as a mode, the West as prestige, the West as propagation» [Bolshakova A.J., 1998, 8].

Thanks to close cultural contacts to the English-speaking countries in the last some decades in Russia were generated favorable linguistic conditions for acceptance of a considerable quantity of anglicisms and alien culture which accustoms carriers of borrowing language together with lexical units that leads to erasing of borders between «» and "another's". The Heavy use of anglicisms generates qualitatively new linguistic situation at which use of one English term replaces with itself the whole syntactic design. In language mass media szhatost and raised informativnost the text is of great importance, therefore anglicisms have taken a strong place in modern mass-media. Words speaking another language, getting to youth language, gradually assimilate, adapt to sound system of Russian, submitting to rules of Russian word-formation and
Word changes, to some extent losing lines of the non-russian origin.

Scale distribution of anglicisms confirms the fact of their active functioning in speech of young generation. The similar conclusion became possible thanks to the spent analysis in sphere of the use of anglicisms in structure youth to weight

Media discourse. Really, anglicisms not only in a considerable quantity enter into language, are fixed in it, popularised in space of ordinary communications and in language of youth printing mass-media, but influence and speech activity of the individual, perception and information interpretation. Senses which the speaking correlates to language structures, operating with language innovations, are frequently indistinct for the producer of the text. Kognitivnye the structures containing knowledge broadcast through mass-media, often are not quite defined by a producer of the text that is shown in discrepancy, diffusions of a word meaning (establishment, an underground (th), dedlajn, the short list, a sreen-shot and many other things) and creates uncertainty of the statement («56 % of users already proguglili itself. And you?» [You already them poguglila?//Dzhoj. 2014. - №1. - January. With. 41].poetomu interiorizatsija a validity fragment in consciousness of the recipient it is not carried out: uncertainty of the statement does not allow the recipient to generate adequate structure of knowledge as the scheme of processing of the new information and consequently, can render dezorientirujushchee influence on consciousness of the individual.

Thus, «loans, being translators of fragments« the stranger »world pictures including it aksiologicheskoj component, can direct to a certain extent informative activity according to that knowledge which is concluded in a word meaning as to informative structure» [by Muravekaja I.A., 2013, 134].

Modelling in language is the powerful tool of studying and the description of process of occurrence of new units. According to E.S.Kubrjakovoj, «all neologija should be shined as a science about means and methods of language fixing and reprezentatsii new experience of knowledge of the world by the modern person, as a science studying principles kontseptualizatsii and kategorizatsii of world ON-LINE, hic et nunc, here and now» [Kubrjakova E.S., 2004, 15].

Mass-media in many respects define a direction of updating and kognitivnyh structures, promoting fastening, easing or replacement of already existing structures and formation absolutely new. Differently, «mass media, sensitively reacting to the changes occurring in defined lingvokulturnom community, fix them in produced media products and by that influence formation new kognitivnyh structures of representation of a reality» [Rogozina I.V., 2008, 124].

Research of anglicisms within the limits of the kognitivno-pragmatical approach is caused by that loans form the personal ratio to used language characters and simultaneously serve for information interchange and, the main thing, participate in formation of new knowledge. Each discourse represents not only information, but also an emotional exchange which consists in intention to affect the addressee of the information. Any statement is formed by the sender in a certain situation and with definite purposes. The pragmatical aspect is expressed in an establishment and contact maintenance, influence rendering on the addressee of the information that is realised in studying of the mechanism of speech influence, research of speech of the sender and the addressee, their interaction in communications. Kognitivnyj the approach ensures creation and transmission of knowledge of the surrounding validity.

Active use of anglicisms in Russian-speaking texts of youth magazines shows aspiration of a mass media discourse to manipulate consciousness of the reader and to promote creation of a certain picture of the world. «Today the perception the person of world around in the big degree depends on to what represent the mass media world. The analysis of theoretical sources on problems of interference of a discourse and culture confirms importance kognitivnogo aspect in studying of functional features of anglicisms in massyomedijnom a discourse» [Tolstikov L.V., 2011, 151]. Mass media is a source kognitivnyh models, and in it the big role of loans.

Thus, the modern mass media discourse represents itself as the tool in own way co-ordinating social development of the person-carrier of given language. Being means for transmission and storage cultural and socially significant information, loan simultaneously represent means with which help the concepts in many respects defining a method of human thinking are formed, process of perception and validity reproduction. Loans are the certificate of concrete influence on the addressee of the corresponding information, i.e. the reader.

Kognitivnye and pragmatical characteristics of a mass media discourse allow to speak about anglicisms as about an integral part of mass media. Anglicisms in a mass media discourse as an element of a mass communication not only carry out informative function, but also reflect a socially-pragmatical position of the author and the publisher.

The use of anglicisms is caused by pragmatical features: preservation, change pragmatists is observed

The borrowed lexical units depending on structure massyomedijnogo a discourse. Anglicisms as separate lexical units do not affect the addressee of the information, but in aggregate with
Other language means, communications conditions, the purposes and installations of the sender of the information, background knowledge of the sender and the addressee of the information reach influence function. The pragmatical aspect of research of anglicisms reveals law of use of anglicisms of purposeful influence on the addressee of the information in a mass media discourse.

Research of anglicisms in structure of the language validity of mass media within the limits of lexico-semantic and kognitivno-pragmatical aspects at semantic, word-formation and pragmatical levels allows to mount the following:

1) degree of lexico-semantic adaptation of the borrowed lexicon as component youth slenga on pages of the modern youth press means the word-formation and semantic development which realisation has direct dependence on discourse structure;

2) semantic development of anglicisms is expressed in expansion of semantics of the borrowed lexical unit, and also available internal loan;

3) word-formation activity of anglicisms depends on discourse structure: on the basis of a borrowing basis there is a word formation, concerning various parts of speech of language-recipient that allows to allocate chasterechnye features of the use of anglicisms.

Semantic development of anglicisms of a mass media discourse is expressed in expansion or narrowing of value of the borrowed lexical unit. The most part of loans from English language - nouns as their transfer to Russian is not connected with structural changes. These anglicisms are borrowed in Russian simultaneously with their grammatical integration («Five years ago I was in New York under program Work &travel...» [D.

Love on distance//the City of the young. 2014. - №1 (24). - May. With. 38].

However English adjectives and verbs also enter into Russian-speaking speech. Analytism of English language and sintetizm Russian conflict at loan of these parts of speech. Grammatical values of Russian are expressed in a word while in analytical English it occurs at the expense of a word order, to intonation, syntactic words.

E.V.Petruhina notices, that «from bases speaking another language nouns with suffixes-nik-chik-/-shchik-ets-/-sheep - are actively formed,-ist - - izm - the use of derivatives is characteristic for texts of mass-media (compare offshornik, the Internet server, PR sheep, spamshchik). Models with suffixes-stv (and-ost are productive; the number of the remedial nouns formed by means of a suffix-atsshch ()/-izashch () grows, passing a verbal step, for example, a western - a westernisation (« process of change something on an image of a western »). In an education sphere of adjectives the greatest activity is shown by suffixes-sk-ov-/-ovsk--n-; interaction with the borrowed bases and verbal suffixes, except-irova - also-ova-and -» [Petruhina E.V. became more active,

Internet resource: http://www.portal-slovo.ru].

The considerable quantity of the borrowed verbal anglicisms is used in computer sphere or in professional slengah. The given loans are not Russian words though they have their formal signs (terminations). In this case we have direct loan of English verbs in Russian with certain transformations (joining of verbal suffixes), inherent in synthetic Russian: dialit, postit, rendirovat, spidit, fleksit, hedeerit («the Best method to stop insults - zabanit the unpleasant opponent» [Onlaine fignt mode on//OOPS. 2013. - №5. - May.

With. 44], «at first you bluff, and time of the naked truth» [//Dzhoj then comes the First joint night. 2014. - №3. - March. With. 42]), etc.

«At loan of English adjectives also there is a joining of Russian word-formation suffixes. Loan of adjectives in bolshej to a measure is observed in youth slenge: littlovyj, jangovyj, fajnovyj, vajtovyj and pr». [Clerks A.I., 2012, 11];

4) anglicisms depending on structure of a mass media discourse

Get additional pragmatical values:

Economy of speech efforts, high level ekspressivnosti («Guys, SUPER! She eats a potato fri. Also looks smartly! - and washing, estimate, yesterday has gone with me on kvadrotsikle. Squealed from delight! Such high!» [Man's love//Dzhoj. 2014. - №3. - March. With. 32]) etc. the Direct certificate of escalation ekspressivnosti the modern speech getting into functional styles of the youth press, is distribution of such phenomenon of speech, as language game that is typical for a modern Russian mass media discourse;

5) realisation of pragmatical aspect of anglicisms in the youth mass media text frequently occurs in the conditions of their use in the initial graphic form and without transfer, direct dependence of use of anglicisms on the set communications is observed. Steady combinations speaking another language in structure of the Russian-speaking text often do not change the graphic shape: «SOS» (English, the international distress signal), «.libo to deduce them in a plane of a reality with far-reaching plans, or successfully"to bury"in abyss SMS.» [Orastejan F.Ljubov on distance//the City of the young. 2014. - №1 (24). - May. With. 39]. But «can gradually assimilate accepting language by a transliteration: a weekend (English weekend - a weekend), sekondhend (English second hand - were in the use, second-hand things)» [Karabahtsjan E.K., 2011, 249], «Unless total look, made of 50 tones grey, which we as
Time we prepare for March number »[Warmly, even more warmly, hotly!//Dzhoj. 2014. - №2. - February. With. 3];« National fleshmob. Thousand people worldwide have written the Total dictation. The love to the native language definitely gets stronger »[National fleshmob//the City of the young. 2014. - №1 (24). - May. With. 28].

Thus, the loan word on an adaptation way passes some stages - from the use in the text in its primordial spelling (and in oral speech - phonetic) and the grammatical form before loss neprivychnosti for the native speaker and the use on equal with other dictionary units of the native language. Thus, as a rule, the word speaking another language is registered in an explanatory dictionary. For example, «the English-speaking combination mass media at the initial stage of penetration into Russian-speaking texts functioned in the language-original schedule, today it is possible to meet the use of this combination to a various writing Cyrillics: mass media, weights of media, massmedija. Some words speaking another language or their combinations never become the fact of other language, it can be interfered, in particular, by sound shape, for example a know-how» [to Karabahtsjan E. K, 2011, 250];

6) Transnationalization of various kinds of human activity leads to creation of uniform international fund of new language units, an example of that can be functioning of such international neologisms-abbreviations, as Hi-Fi, Dvd, VKR, CD­ROM, DVD - ROM, OSи t.d («On two USB-modems have put drawings on old and new technology» [Magic of an ultraviolet//the City of the young. 2014. - №1 (24). - May. With. 34];

7) Complication of an image of the world and representation reprezentatsii a pattern lead to condensation of the information and increase in quantity of products derivative kompressionnyh word-formation models. It is a question of such method slovoproizvodstva a secondary nomination, as abbreviatsija in
Its any forms initsialnoj, slogomorfemnoj, acronyms. The increase in density of an information field is the reason of that a various sort of an abbreviation become productive lexical units of a secondary nomination. Owing to scientific and technical progress there is a considerable quantity of the new phenomena and the realities demanding a nomination the reduced lexical unit can be which optimum method.

8) the use of anglicisms in youth speeches as most active native speaker is directed on an establishment and maintenance of contact in the course of communications, at the expense of language and language characters there is a formation of norms and rules of behaviour of the carrier of borrowing language through cultural specificity of "language-donor";

9) anglicisms reflect complexity of structures of knowledge standing up for by them, are defined lingvoekologiej language and in turn define it. On the other hand, lingvoekologicheskaja the situation depends on language contacts and as their consequence, - borrowed language units with which occurrence in etnolingvokulturu new information structures are introduced or undergo modification already existing;

10) anglicisms form not only a sight at world around and system of values, the prisoner in kognitsijah "language-donor", but also type of thinking on the basis of attitudes, culture and a way of life of carriers of "language-source".

L.E.Bessonov is noticed, that «by the active use of lexicon speaking another language in speech culture of a society, doubtless interest and the tolerant ratio to loans at native speakers allows to define communicatively-pragmatical mechanisms of actualisation of the wide use internatsionalizmov» [Bessonova L.E., 2012, 459].

Lexico-semantic and kognitivno-pragmatical adaptation of anglicisms directly depends on mass discourse structure that forms distinctive and characteristics of functioning of anglicisms.

So, according to the analysis of the given material to distinctive lines of structure of the language validity of a mass media discourse concern:

- The use of anglicisms for a designation of realities of "language-donor";

- Preservation of ekspressivno-emotional stylistic expressiveness of anglicisms;

- Adaptation of anglicisms by language-recipient is not always connected with language necessity for the name of new subjects or the phenomena, sometimes development of anglicisms is caused by economy of speech efforts that promotes preservation and increase of communicative definition, and also fonetiko-phonologic, morfologo-syntactic and lexical features of borrowing language;

- Formation of words-hybrids on the basis of English and Russian morphemes with preservation of an original writing of English morphemes;

- Formation of lexical units on word-formation models of English language by means of English affixes in language-recipient;

- Change of semantic value of anglicisms during functioning in borrowing language;

- Conformity of anglicisms to lexico-semantic features of a discourse of borrowing language.

Thus, results of the carried out research can ensure deep perception and understanding of anglicisms not only in the course of dialogue of carriers of borrowing language, in the conditions of intercultural communications, but also in structure of the language validity of a mass media youth discourse.

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A source: Velim Elena Sergeevna. LANGUAGE FEATURES In STRUCTURE of the MODERN YOUTH MASS MEDIA DISCOURSE. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Tver - 2015. 2015

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