1.1. Mass-media as the factor of shaping of public opinion: the fundamental concepts of interaction of mass-media and an audience

Classical models of communications were based on a hypothesis about a dominating role of mass-media and unlimited possibilities of their influence on an audience. Within the limits of these approaches it was necessary, that translated images nekriticheski are perceived by individuals.
Similar representations were dominating in 20-40 of last century and have received the expression
In such theories, as «the theory of a magic bullet"or"the syringe theory», in the propagation concept. The idea of omnipotence of mass-media has arisen not casually, propaganda activity of mass-media in the First World War was the precondition of practical character: by means of leaflets, a military newsreel, radiobroadcasts, etc. mass-media influenced an audience almost with peak efficiency. As a result in representations of researchers the image of an audience as passive object of on-off modulation of mass-media which cannot resist to refined influence of propagation was folded. The theoretical precondition of idea of unlimited influence of mass-media were sights bihevporistov with a known principle: « Stimulus - reaction ». According to it effects represent specific reaction to specific stimulus. Therefore it is possible to expect and predict presence of close intercoupling between event and audience reaction. The message of mass-media acted in stimulus roles, and corresponding effects - as reaction. For that understanding as mass-media formed opinion of an audience, at the analysis of the given concept it is necessary to note two important points:
The behaviour of the individual was considered only as reaction on «stimulnyj a material», given by an environment (the in-house motivation was not taken into consideration);
The society with bihevioristskih positions represented set practically not coupled with each other "atomnzirovannyh" the individuals which behaviour is not mediated by complex social communications; accordingly, influence of mass-media was considered to the "straight lines" which do not have intermediaries which the individual to resist not in forces.
The effect of influence of mass-media on consciousness of the average person has been metaphorically equal to a bullet. The message gets into a brain and and
Transforms thoughts and emotions of the person to that usual people cannot resist. Hence, junction of the factor of potential fear with is artificial the established ignorance can be used in manipuljativiyh the purposes.
Probing of effects of influence of mass-media on an audience is in detail studied in classical today to the book of the American journalist of G.Lassuela «Engineering of propagation in world war» in which the governmental managerial process by public opinion is analysed. The formula of process of communications gated out by the researcher Who is bright from razhaet a sight at an audience as on object of influence «? What? On what channel? To whom? With what effect?» . G.Lassuel believed, that the propagation power is coupled not so much to the contents of messages, how many with in-house anxiety of people. If the life becomes unstable, disturbing. In these conditions can work even rough forms of propagation. He named Hitler malicious манипулятором.3 the Audience was considered Lassuelom as the passive formation blindly perceiving the message.
Proceeding from it, it compared the effects made by mass-media, to effect of "a hypodermic needle», as though injecting audience the necessary relation to the validity both the subsequent reactions and behaviour.
In the course of formation of a methodological and conceptual basis mediatsentrnrovaniogo the approach the major role U.Lippmana's work "public opinion" has played. U.Lippman has formulated for the first time the thesis that the most part of a social reality is outside of daily human life (beyond our reach), therefore it, basically, not in a condition to carry out verification of those data which
Reach it through mass-media, only therefore the ohm is compelled simply доверять.6 It will give mass-media pochtp unlimited possibilities on creation in consciousness of people «world pseudo-pictures». For orientation in the world inaccessible to us we resort to the help of mass-media where the information mostly carries obviously simplified, stereotippzirovannyj character. The person is not always capable to reach the mind «the essence» and to develop the relation to events occurring somewhere away, either too complex, or not mentioning our daily experience that is why with ease receives the schematical image of objects of "a complex configuration». The Rank-and-file member of a society is ready to give very few time and attention to an event in the world inaccessible to it. More often in such situation it uses the associative thinking, instead of loshcheekpm, therefore on-off modulations with words remain not noted. As a result round the complex social phenomena the complex of steady associations, «pictures in a head», stereotypes is folded. On the basis of the analysis of political campaigns of 20-40th researchers have come to belief, that mass-media MOiyr to be used by any interested social groups as instruments of mobilisation, belief. Lippmann considered, that over the press the rigid control is necessary and it is impossible to be limited to self-censorship of mass-media. The power of clever democracy - scientific elite which on the basis of a science separates the facts from fiction is necessary and makes correct decisions who should receive what messages.
The model of unlimited influence of mass-media on an audience has found reflexion in the "propagation" concept. She assumed, that mass-media are institute of expression of interests of the ruling majority, and the audience was considered only as object of political influence. Mass-media serve as a means legitimatsii tt to stability of the folded social order, propagation of a political and economic society organisation while the audience is only institute of expression of interests
cLippmann W. Public opinion. New York: The Macmillnn company! 945. P. 59.
The ruling majority. Thus, the audience was considered first of all as object of political influence. Mass-media serve as a means legitimatsii and stability of the folded social order, propagation of a political and economic society organisation while the audience is konformnoj to messages of mass-media. Thanks to mass-media in a society dominate the opinion and judgement hardware in which the state and ruling political party is interested. The "propagation" concept has been a little transformed by supporters of the Frankfurt school (M.Horkhaimerom, T.Adorno), it was a question not so much of a political propaganda, how many about culture propagation. In these approaches activity of mass-media is considered as directional on mass culture duplicating. Influence of mass-media on an audience is carried out by means of demonstration of prestigious consumption. Culture materials become the goods established for sale and reception of profit. Shown by a means of mass-media the culture of consumption nekriticheski is received by a society, values of a consumer society leave on the foreground.
The theoretical models constructed on principles of unilateral communications, changed in process of technical perfection of channels of communications p magnifyings of a variety offered an audience of mass-media sod One of the most visible opponents of ideas Lassuella and Lippmanna there was D.Djui. It opposed elite management of a mass communication. People should study to protect and to help with it to them owe formation. In its opinion, mass-media also should carry out functions of training of people to critical thinking, organizuja public discussions of different questions.
Ideas about strong influence of mass-media in the conditions of a mass society dominated till 1940th years. They found the acknowledgement in
To practice of a political life. The second stage of studying of character of influence of mass-media differs that researchers began to allocate factors. oposrs, feeling influence kommunikatora on an audience. A mass communication it agree concepts of this period influences an audience differentsirovanno, the structure of mentality of the individual and its social environment mediates influence of mass-media. As individually-personal lines of representatives of an audience are unequal and reference groups by which sights the individual and stimulating influence of messages appears various is guided differ. Empirical probings have been directional on studying of certain types of the person with a various degree of propensity to suggestibility. In the centre of attention of researchers the message, and set of mediating factors of social perception has been put not. The mass communication is not the fundamental source of the information (in particular, political which perception was studied by this group of scientists). The information of radio, the press etc. frequently gets to leaders of opinions and already then to less active groups of the population. These groups are public opinion oscillators. Opinion translation is carried out not mass-media, and the nearest environment of the individual or reference groups, leaders of opinions. The individuals who have been switched on in social groups, are in interaction, and the stimulus sent by mass-media of an audience, are mediated not only features of individual perception, but a social context. Researchers noticed, that mass-media strengthen installations existing at individuals more likely, rather than change or form the new. Two situations when the audience, is inclined to noncritical acceptance of the opinion translated by mass-media are possible:
"Factors-intermediaries" of do not show: there are no group sights and consequently the individual receives the sights dictated by mass-media without criticism, thinks uproshchenno, on a mask;
"Factors-intermediaries" loosen the settled sights and by that decline the individual to receive stersotipizirovannoe judgement, because of «an ambiguity situation».
Within the limits of the approach offered Lazarsfeldom and Kattsem mass-media influence with the greatest efficiency when appeal to the folded stereotypes and the new information support them, staticize under the influence of a new context. Protective mechanisms of human mentality sample in a stream of the information that which corresponds to primary predisposition of the individual, to the folded sights. Accordingly, possibilities of mass-media in public opinion shaping are limited: there is a minor alteration of existing sights, and more often "attachment" of existing belief to the new social phenomena and social objects.
«Such is a summary of concepts of the second period in their communication with a problem of shaping of stereotypes of mass-media. However and the given concepts called criticism in researchers. Here the fundamental directions of this criticism:
Division into leaders of opinions and passive recipients not constantly, gradually there are new leaders of opinions;
The further probings have revealed presence of some steps of a mass communication;
Leaders of opinions are not in the true sense words «manufacturers of ideas», and are their most active distributors;
Influence of mass-media can be and to straight lines, depending on complexity of the folded situation.
In 60-70th year researchers have strong doubts concerning possibility of mass-media to influence an audience that has led to that they began to allocate only the limited effects which render mass-media on an audience. Situations in which the attention and trust of an audience to messages of mass-media is boosted were studied, and action of factors mediating communications becomes a little significant. These sights have found reflexions in models: «establishments of points« agendas ";" spirals of silence "," dependence of effects of a mass communication »^.
Empirical probings have shown, that the greatest influence of mass-media render on an audience in informing sphere, in other words in an establishment of items on the agenda. The audience learns not so much about events, how many about a degree of their importance for today. Among a wide range of problems what receive the greatest illumination in mass-media, during a concrete time interval appear more familiar, and, hence, more significant. ' mass-media define not so much what to think, how many of what, such effect has received the name «an establishment of items on the agenda».
«The majority of people aspires to reduce such situations in which the individual is the unique carrier of certain sights when nobody divides its opinion» to a minimum. This socially-psychological feature of thinking leads to that people prefer to hide that contradicts the folded opinions of "majority", the sights translated in mass-media (as it is found already out what exactly mass-media will begin a bark the agenda). The opinions dominating during this or that moment, staticized in consciousness of individuals, are a direct consequence of the mass
Informations as the opinions which have been not involved openly in mass-media, do not express. A consequence of mass informing is that the opinions which are not receiving illumination in mass-media, are ignored and as the audience is afraid to state the judgements contradicting mass-media «the silence spiral» accrues.
The mass-media directional on the reference to wide] '] an audience, are interested in broadcasting of typical judgements, the mass-media focused on elite groups of a society, aspire to "find out" ignored themes, thereby, showing bolshy access and the control over the information, involving an audience ekskljuzivnostju informations.
In I.Chomski's concepts the audience gets to dependence on mass-media in the event that the society is in a condition of variations, conflicts and нестабильности.17 mass-media have the greatest influence on an audience if can realise as much as possible one of the main functions - to inform. Possibility of penetration of the opinions translated in mass-media, in consciousness of an audience is greatest in case of "ambiguity". Influence of factors of mass-media mediating communications is minimised in an "ambiguity" situation, level of critical thinking strongly decreases in an extreme situation.
So, under interaction of mass-media and audiences at the media aligned approach overcoming of information barriers of influence on an audience was supposed. As has established]! Researchers, news information blocks and illumination of extreme social events allows mass-media to influence an audience beyond all bounds.
Junction to sotsnalno-orientirvannomu to the approach is caused by considerable growth of a variety of channels of communications (occurrence of the Internet, mass availability of cinema, and also diversifikatsiej already
"Herman E Chomsky N. Manufacturing Concept. Tlie Political iSconimy of the Mass Media. London: Vintage, 1994. P. 27.
Existing channels: radio, the press, TV). On the other hand, financing of mass-media at the expense of advertising incomes, instead of at the expense of the state, also promoted variation of model of influence on an audience. Socially-orientirovanyj the approach assumes interaction of mass-media and an audience as partners, the mass communication at such approach is considered as bidirectional process. The audience is considered as the subject ' mass communication process. It is important to notice, that and an audience authors of concepts of the given approach consider interaction of mass-media in various aspects:
Interference of mass media and an audience which consequence is variation of channels of communications and the functions, which mass-media carry out to a society,
^ w IV
And potreonosti the audience;
Mutual understanding: a dialogue establishment between kommunikatorom and an audience on which communications are directional;
Simultaneous interaction of all participants of communicative process where materials of mass-media act as balance of interests of all participants of communications.
Thus it is a question that interaction of mass-media and an audience is mediated by state activity (actors of a political field), advertisers (actors of an economic field), kommunikatora and audiences (actors symbolical and cultural water).
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A source: SPITSYN Grigory Sergeevich. Quality print media of the Republic of Poland in the formation of public opinion about modern Russia. Thesis for a candidate of political science degree in specialty 10.01.10 (journalism). St. Petersburg 2008. 2008

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