3.1. A media discourse of the Russian-German ratios at the present stage

One of the important themes of today's international informing of the Russian mass-media - ratios of Russia and Germany. Among the European Union countries Germany it is considered one of with what Russia has the most friendly and fruitful ratios: «Germany is traditionally perceived as the long-term, major partner of Russia in Europe, and also as the country playing the leading part in formation of a foreign policy line of the European Union concerning Russia» (Dmirtieva, Makarychev, 2003: 124). After XX-th century shocks - two world wars - the countries have passed a way of search of mutual compromises and scrupulous embedding of two-way communications to a context of the European world politics. All these achievements are threatened, as today between Germany and Russia ratios in economic and in particular in political spheres have considerably worsened.

Impairments in the political sphere, shown in linguistic dynamics of a discourse of mass-media, cause a damage to the settled ratios between the countries and their people which had centuries-old experience of interaction.

Researcher S.V.Obolensky, studying an image of the German in Russian national culture, notices, that «contradictions and conflicts German and Russian at times divided the people», however thus Germany for Russian possesses the special status. It is the unique not slavic country from which at Russia throughout several centuries close contact not only on state remained, but also at household level (Obolensky, 1991: 161). The Second World War became «the lowest point in

Mutual relations of Germans and Russian throughout all centuries of their joint history »(Maksimychev, 2014: 17). During this period have reached
«The apogee mistrust and hatred», in representations of our people «the image of the enemy» which has received «distribution unknown until then» and «an unprecedented sharpness» (Kopelev, Herrman, 1995: 20) and which stirred subsequently to development of mutual tolerance and mutual acceptance of Russian and Germans (L.Z.Kopelev, I.F.Maksimychev, R.A.Medvedev, S.V.Obolensky, K.P.ShChepetov) has about each other prevailed. Volumes of researches «Vuppertalsky project» which go deep into a theme vzaimopredstavleny the people of Russia and Germany about each other on materials of authentic historical documents (chronicles, notes and reports of travellers, merchants, diplomats) (Kozhevnikova, 2012) are devoted a theme of overcoming of the stereotypes hypertrophied by war. And still the affinity of two people remains, despite the factors determined by change of political or economic priorities.

The spiritual and intellectual relationship of Russian and German of the people is marked by researcher R.N.Parhomenko. Considering evolution of democratic ideas in both countries, it compares them to other European states. Historically developed "static" representation about force as the guarantor of an order in a society, taken roots in Russia and Germany, the philosopher opposes to "dynamical" Anglo-Saxon understanding according to which valuable installations and preferences are relative, and organizujushchim as a principle acts pragmatical and effitsientnoe understanding of a policy (Parhomenko, 2014: 245). Today Germany, contrary to tradition as notices R.N.Parhomenko, was reoriented on "dynamical" samples of democracy: « The country leaders, and ordinary Germans, are under strong influence of ideas of liberalism of the Anglo-American sample, no less than in external and in internal policy of Germany strong dependence on installations and interests of the USA »(Parhomenko, 2014: 257) is looked through.


World outlook priorities researchers of a world policy see that «Germany is built closely in the euro-Atlantic structures»,

And «in these frameworks it develops the communications with Russia - and bilateral interaction, how much important it was, pales into insignificance»; «in Moscow, on the contrary, continue to think first of all categories of bilateral dialogue, hardly realising key of value for Berlin such organisations, as the European union and NATO» (Pauls, 2014: 37). The difference of approaches to dialogue which one side sees mediated by external structures, and the second - to straight lines, direct, becomes the reason of formation of a discord and even konfliktosti, that is reflected and in media texts.

Traditionally mutual perception of the people of Germany and Russia is studied by researchers not only on the basis of historical materials, fiction, but also by means of texts massmedia (D.K.Vayne, O.V.Zajchenko, N.V.Kovaleva, A.V.Ladygin, E.V.Chernenko). It is noticed, that the media discourse of last decades reacts to an "Anglo-Saxon" list in a German political discourse. Researchers of media texts pay attention to growth of quantity of negative materials about Russia in the German mass-media. So, E.V.Chernenko in the master's thesis pays attention to receptions of a language manipulation, on abundance of negatively painted lexicon in materials of German magazine "Spiegel" 1994­2004 which reproduces and propagandises unflattering stereotypes about Russia.

In research of variants predstavlennosti Russia in a media discourse of Germany, E.Sajko reveals factors which provoke occurrence of the negative information on our country on pages of German editions. These historically caused factors: 1) the inherited representations of "cold war», in particular, confrontation the West - the East; 2) mistrust to Russia as pravopreemnitse the USSR, fear before it. As consequence - leading political weekly journals of Germany "Spiegel", Focus "and" Stern "abound" metaforikoj expansion, hallows and unpredictability of Russia which sets the threat frame »(Sajko, 2013: 157).
Besides, the researcher underlines, the general tendency of the modern media industry consisting in orientation to negativism and sensations, is reflected and in the international journalism and, in particular, on informing on Russia in which occasion «in German mass-media excessive concentration on negative factors is observed, in a certain measure there are exaggerations» (In the same place: 164). Thus in editions there is no interest to «positive illumination», the publication about Russia is possible only at conformity of a material to a mainstream: «When there were explosions in the Moscow underground, all journalists have started to shout again, that Putin itself is guilty, because in the North Caucasus puts things in order force. I gave interview and if you start to say to them, that it not so, that there actually Islamic fundamentalism, do not print you. Discharge simply», - the author of article of the program director of Center Rossija/SnG of the German society of foreign policy of Alexander Rara (TSit quotes. On: Sajko, 2013: 161).

Thereupon especially actual there is a research of interaction of semantic positions of Germany and Russia in a Russian-speaking media discourse where dialogue of positions today, in the conditions of impairment of ratios in political sphere, gets properties mnogovektornosti, ambiguity. Within last several years «the German course is built taking into account public moods which, it is necessary to ascertain, have negative dynamics» (Pauls, 2014: 38), therefore, it appears, it would be interesting to consider linguistic dynamics of the Russian-German Russian-speaking discourse. The significance of such statement of a question is obvious and is shown in different aspects.

The discourse of the Russian-German ratios is among what wait «from jazykovedov for opening of laws of the life» (Revzina, 1999: 33). Feature of a modern condition of this discourse in its conflictness. It was marked and in articles of last years (see for example: (Voronenkova, 2016) (Pauls, 2014)). Our supervision over the modern
Condition of this discourse show, that in it texts - reasonings in which estimations of interstate ratios as a whole are proved are especially actively used narrativy, narrating about events of interstate interaction, and also.

Key contradictions which push together semantic positions of the states, are formed in such questions, as «legality/illegality of a mode in Syria», «performance/default of the Minsk agreements», «presence/absence of the Russian military men in Ukraine», «joining/annexation of Crimea», «historical memory/rusofobija». These contradictions, konstituirujushchie the infinite reproducibility (or, on M.Fuko, incalculable «repetitions, transformations and reaktivatsijami» (Foucault, 1996: 14)) an interstate discourse, in

Concrete media texts appear elements of the communicative situations considered in Chapter 1, and act as semantic extrema of interaction.

At is concrete-speech level mutual estimations and an estimation of the specified situations are expressed, in particular, in technics use demonizatsii which will involve reception metonimii («the Kremlin propagation», «Putin Russia», «the Putin vassal», «Putin invaders», «Proputin forces», «Putin hackers», «Russian threat»), renamings of events with privneseniem negatively painted lexicon («Olympic dopingovye games»), naveshivanija labels («the dictator - ekspansionist»), applications of historical analogies («the person who can be compared to Hitler»), etc. the Term demonizatsija is used also by authors of German media texts who try to characterise Russia and ratios with it.

More often the specified contradictions and technicians form a disputed discourse. However the material shows also possibilities of harmonisation within the limits of the Russian-German media discourse. We will address to media texts.


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A source: IVANOVA Lubov JUREVNA. SPEECH REPREZENTATSIJA INTERTEXT DIALOGICHNOSTI In the MEDIA DISCOURSE of the INTERNATIONAL RATIOS. The DISSERTATION on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. St.-Petersburg - 2018. 2018

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