1.1. The basic lines of oral national creativity

Russian folklore began to be formed at the beginning of development of ancient slavic cultures. Sources of its formation have been connected with archaic cults, myths, customs and ceremonies. Our ancestors understood, that the life moves on once and for all set circle [11].

Feeling the unity with the nature, they idolised forces of the nature that has found reflexion in ceremonial forms of folklore, the mythological legends giving full representation about a pagan picture of the world, and also ancient national fairy tales, riddles and proverbs.

With Christianity acceptance in Russia essentially new layer of spiritual culture of Russian people that was expressed in the epic epos impregnated with spirit of unity and power of Russian earth in church chanting, princely teams glorifying feats and national heroes began to be formed.

Having absorbed in itself centuries-old experience of national cultural tradition, oral national creativity in the modern world is reflexion of history, views and ideals of Russian people about what A.N.Tolstoy has eloquently told: «Russian people have created huge izustnuju the literature. It was advantage and mind of the people. It stanovila also strengthened its moral shape, was its historical memory, filled with the deep maintenance all its measured life flowing on customs and ceremonies, connected with its work, the nature and honouring of fathers and grandfathers» [12].

In existing definitions of folklore various aspects are accented, but the steadiest is the following: «the folklore is an oral poetic creativity of wide broad masses» [13]; «folklore - special

The synthetic art form uniting art of a word, music

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And the executions, shown differently in different genres ».

The first definition is connected with revealing of creative aspect of the people finding expression of the spiritual representations in the oral speech form. In other definition - synthetical character of artistic realisation which possesses the huge emotional potential which is far beyond especially language form.

The term "folklore" (folk-lore) - for the first time in 1846 was used in the works by English historian William Tomsom. The Literal translation is meant by""popular wisdom",« national knowledge »and defines various displays of national culture. From here and the characteristic use by the Russian researchers of such formulations of folklore, as« live olden time »and« national poetry ». In the name« oral creativity of the people »is underlined verbal character of folklore though some researchers in concept of folklore put any national creativity: dances, music, national crafts.

Folklore - the difficult, synthetic art directly connected with a household aspect of life of the people, its beliefs and customs. It is a subject of studying of different sciences: philology, histories, sociology, ethnography. In the course of studying of folklore researchers consider it in all variety, writing down not only verbal products, but also fixing ethnographic features, details of a country life, etc.

Russian folklore differs a bright originality that is connected with long history of formation of our cultural heritage. Its national originality was showed already at early stages of formation. In process of development in it social subjects, freedom-loving spirit of the people, closely connected with the historical past (for example, legends on Razin, Pugacheve, etc.) gradually appear.

Being based on centuries-old popular wisdom, the folklore differs depth of artistic images, their truthfulness, experience and force of the creative generalisation, making related it with literary works. At the same time it has the specific features: traditional character, sinkretizm, anonymity, variability and improvizatsionnost.

The concept "traditional character" with reference to folklore is considered basic as it underlies the type of national culture, and also definitions of all key elements of folklore: a traditional life, the national environment, the collective language person, and the most folklore tradition. The folklore products which are passing from father to son «pass through a considerable layer of national understanding», otshlifovyvajutsja popular wisdom, getting the status of a national cultural heritage. Traditional character - one of key concepts for expression of essence of oral national creativity. The folklore develops and lives only in the standard tradition, entering with it in various interactions.

The folklore is based on principles sinkretizma, that is absence of accurate genre differentiation, especially characteristic for the period when oral national creativity was at a formation stage when the poetic word mixed up with household requirements of people, and its art value was not comprehended yet. Early national creativity first of all has been connected with practical activities of the person, world around knowledge. Residual forms of a condition neraschlenennosti have remained in ceremonies, plots and other genres of late folklore in the form of connection of several art components: words, singing, gesture, dance. Subsequently

Various arts have overcome a condition of primitive unity and were allocated in itself.

Folklore products are anonymous. Nobody knows, who has combined folklore products and who has expressed secret expectations of the people. On V.G.Belinsky's expression, «the song from generation to generation, from generation to generation also passes; it also changes in due course: that will truncate it will extend will alter will connect it to another pesneju... And here songs leave poems which the author can name only the people» [14 [15] [16]. The author in folklore products «drops out of the poetics of folklore; it is not necessary from the point of view of product structure». In folklore texts there can be an executor, the story-teller, but in it there is no author whom sometimes it is difficult to present because of depth and figurativeness of folklore products.

Any folklore product exists in a considerable quantity of variants. Variability is closely connected with traditional character. A variant - each new execution and interpretation of folklore product. Folklore texts have the dynamical nature. During execution of the same product various features are shown. It is connected first of all by that texts of oral national creativity were not fixed in written form. Being transferred by word of mouth, wandering in time and space, they found new forms of existence. Variability - the universal characteristic of folklore covering all its parties: poetics, stylistics, genre and subject features.

Characteristic property of folklore product is also improvisation. It is directly connected with variability of the text. Improvisation is inevitable in the course of creation and execution of folklore product. During improvisation «the plan suddenly, quickly, without preliminary preparation clothes in the art form or simultaneously there is also a birth of the plan, and its artistic realisation». Most distinctly improvisation finds out itself in lamentations and plachah. It has found the reflexion also in pesennyh genres,

Legends and other folklore genres. It is necessary to notice, that variability of folklore product never conflicted to national tradition and remained in corresponding art frameworks.

Improvisation is directly connected with such feature of oral national creativity, as individuality and kollektivnost. Folklore products - not author's creativity, and synthesis individual and collective has begun, dialectically interconnected among themselves. Folklore creativity is made out in the complete and finished product only in the course of the collective creativity reflecting interaction of many persons and generations. In consciousness of broad masses they are reality expression, and also national ideals, expectations, aspirations and feelings.

Generalising the aforesaid, it is necessary to underline, that the folklore has the constant properties, providing to it stability and stability in different cultures. In this connection it is possible to give of a word of known specialist in folklore V.P.Anikin: «the Folklore is a traditional art creativity of the people. It equally concerns as to oral verbal, and to other

To the fine arts, both to ancient creativity, and to new,


Created during new time and tvorimomu today ».

Folklore creativity is a well of popular wisdom, the moral code defining mutual relations between people. It is possible to name folklore the practical philosophy giving answers to difficult vital circumstances and councils in various spheres of a life. In any sense folklore products are a key to the decision of some psychological questions and situations. They reflect all spheres of a national life, its morals and the spirituality, all palette of human feelings: for pleasure and happiness to grief and a grief. From the point of view of a science, the folklore is a phenomenon which deserves special studying and an attentive estimation. The emotional charge of folklore provides at its carrying over to the advertising form internal

Participation of an audience in atmosphere of already familiar products which are carrying out function of identification of known senses, ancient times remaining in culture.

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A source: Kuzavka Ekaterina Nikolaevna. FOLKLORE In MODERN RUSSIAN ADVERTISING (ON the EXAMPLE of MONTHLIES). 2015

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