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the First chapter THEORETICAL BASES of STUDYING of INTERTEXT COMMUNICATIONS In the MEDIA DISCOURSE of the INTERNATIONAL RATIOS

Today in linguistics the attention to use of the language determined by social, cultural norms of speech activity in defined kognitivno and typologically caused communicative space, i.e. to studying of functioning of language in a discourse is peaked.

M.Fuko, defining raznourovnevost public discourses, marked existence of what underlie some number of new certificates of speech, their picking up, transforming or about them speaking which infinitely affect, are already told and should be still told »(Foucault, 1994: 60). Known linguist O.G.Revzina in this connection wrote:« So the understood discourse also should become a subject of linguistics of a discourse unlike text linguistics. It is new object for linguistics, and it is obvious, that else it is necessary to define methods of its studying. Investigated not as the insert between to "think and"speak", and as a unique language reality, the discourse waits from jazykovedov for opening of laws of the life» (Revzina, 1999: 33).

Studying of intertext interaction is based on understanding of speech as essentially case phenomenon reproducing in each concrete case produtsirovanija of the text "memory" of the previous texts, dialogizirujushchego with them. Researchers consider intertext communications as in art texts - in dialogue of literary works within the limits of creativity of one author or in muster of products of different authors (M.M.Bakhtin, V.V. Vinogradov, J.Kristeva), and in text displays of other functional styles - scientific, publicistic, officially-business, etc. (V.Z.Demjankov, L.R.Duskaeva, A.A.Kibrik, V.S.Tretjakova, V.E.Chernjavskaja). Really, the system of contextual threads penetrates dialogue of people
In different spheres of dialogue, creating «diskursnye formations» (on M.Fuko) and forming discourses. Thus, consideration of intertext communications needs to be begun with clearing of concept "discourse" as receptacles of text, prototext and other interrelations.

Properties of infinite interaction of statements were found out by M.M.Bakhtin, fairly having noticed, that speaking «not the bible Adam dealing only with virgin, yet by not named subjects, for the first time giving to them names» (Bakhtin, 1979: 274), therefore any text is turned as to last statements, alljuziven, otveten, and to future - assumes the addressee, its reaction and the subsequent answer.

As «is not present either the first, nor last word and is not present borders to a dialogical context» (Bakhtin, 1979: 373), intertext interaction vsepronikajushche. The Same thought was developed in the works by JU.M.Lotman explaining culture as a never-ending continuum of texts which have ability «to condense the information», «to get memory». Moreover, the text, on JU.M.Lotman, «finds out properties of the intellectual device: it not only transfers the information enclosed in it from the outside, but also transforms messages and develops new» (Lotman, 1992: 131). The increment of senses occurs at the expense of circulation of a certain initial message in the text as to system diverse «semiotics spaces» (In the same place: 151), and on the basis of dialogical interaction with earlier created texts the text «becomes capable to self-development» (In the same place: 153). As consequence, the semiotics considers each text intertekstom, that pushes to an output about a generality for actual cultural texts not only a certain pretext, but also general codes laying in its basis (R.Bart, J.Kristeva, Z.Derrida, etc.).

Studying of texts in their system communication, in ratios with Wednesday of their functioning is in the centre of attention of the French school diskursnyh the researches which representatives are P.Serio, M.Peshyo, M.Fuko. In the discourse analysis any absent-minded set

Statements will rearrange not on the basis of formal signs of the typological plan, and on base «ratios to a place of the certificate of the statement» (a sense Quadrature..., 1999: 28), that is any certificate of the statement it is inevitable kontekstualizirovan, that allows to isolate diskursivnuju a formation - «the general system of statements to which the group of verbal realisations» (Foucault, 2012: 221) submits. The understanding diskursivnoj formations as «principle of dispersion of statements» has given the chance to M.Fuko to define the term "discourse" as «set of the statements submitting to the same system of formation» (In the same place: 206) and dependent from same diskursivnoj formations. The discourse, on M.Fuko, is created by the limited number of statements for which probably to define set of conditions of existence (In the same place: 223). In

diskursivnoj formations system of statements - the discourse - exists on certain «anonymous, historical, always determined in time and space» to rules which have received the name «diskursivnaja an expert» (In the same place: 224).

M.Peshyo postulates interrelation of texts with external conditions of their creation and with a sociohistorical fabric so unexpressed - presuppozitsija, prekonstrukt - implitsitno influences the formulated. Thus, for understanding of a discourse, intertext interactions it enters the scheme «interdiskurs - intradiskurs - prekonstrukt» and specifies, that «the discourse is formed from diskursnogo vsegda-uzhe-zdes existing, that“ it speaks "always" to, out of, in the independent image ”and that“ not confirmed predikatsija precedes and dominates over confirmed predikatsiej ”» (TSit. On a sense Quadrature..., 1999: 34).

Today idea dialogichnosti all speech statements, shown including in intertext communications, in a discourse develop as foreign scientists (E.Veter, R.Vodak, T.A. van Dejk, M.Meyer, S.Ticher, N.Ferklo), and domestic researchers
(N.D.Arutyunov, L.R.Duskaeva, L.N.Majdanova, V.I.Karasik, E.V.Chepkina, E.I.Shejgal).

T.A. van Dejk pays attention on situational and kognitivnye the installations defining structure of the statement. He notices: «the discourse is the difficult communicative phenomenon including, except the text, also extralinguistic factors (knowledge of the world, opinions, installations, the purposes of the addressee), necessary for understanding of the text» (Dejk, 2000: 8). That is the researcher too sees correlations between culture as the text and concrete speech displays.

To similar position adhere also S.Ticher, M.Meyer, R.Vodak, E.Veter which, developing a technique of the analysis of a discourse, notice: «for the reason intertekstualnosti here basically there can not be an objective beginning and the end - any discourse is connected with set of other discourses, and to understand it it is possible only on their basis» (Ticher, Meyer, 2009: 47). That is a discourse in their understanding continuing traditions T.A. van Dejka, there is a product of interaction of the text and a context.

Among domestic researchers the serious contribution to hypothesis working out about raznourovnevyh intertext interactions was brought by N.D.Arutyunov, having made discourse definition as «the speech shipped during a life», as «the text taken in sobytijnom aspect; the speech considered as purposeful social action, as a component participating in interaction of people and mechanisms of their consciousness (kognitivnyh processes)» (LES, 2002: 136). Differently, the discourse incorporates the extralinguistic factors accompanying a situation of communications, and shows simultaneously both process, and result, and also proves in interactivity - «as a component participating in interaction of people and mechanisms of their consciousness» (In the same place: 136).

Giving definitions to the term "discourse" in branch researches on private questions of its functioning, scientific aspire to see the general speech sistemnost, by means of detection «diskursnoj formations»

To develop the general laws of development and an existing of any discourse. So, E.I.Shejgal, studying specificity of a political discourse, builds structure in which the discourse is thought as the system of communications developed in real and potential (virtual) measurement. Real measurement appears in a kind «fields diskursnyh events», current speech activity with the texts peculiar to it taken in interaction linguistic, paralinguistic and

Extralinguistic factors, and potential measurement is a semiotics space with blocks of case statements and texts and representations about typical models of speech behaviour (SHejgal, 2004: 13).

Dialogue and intertext interaction in L.N.Majdanovoj, E.V.Chepkinoj, L.R.Duskaevoj's works which study a discourse massmedia becomes the basis for construction diskursnoj sistemnosti. Dialogical interaction at level of intertext communications has considered, for example, and L.N.Majdanova who has found out interrelations between the journalistic texts creating «general and infinite dialogue» (Majdanova, 1994: 104), and has generated interaction typology

Journalistic texts: 1) tsiklizatsija primary texts (some parallel texts of one subjects form the metatext which was substantially more saturated, on sense not to the equal simple sum of initial texts); 2) dialogue with the primary text, reaction to the previous publication; 3) continuation of the complete text. Researcher E.V.Chepkina also underlines connectivity of a journalistic discourse and sees in intertekstualnyh communications a basis for interpretation of each text, as «intertekstualnost... Acts as a condition of understanding of each text separately, those codes in which frameworks it can be read» (CHepkina, 2001: 98).

L.R.Duskaeva has revealed sistemnost a discourse of printing mass-media by means of a category of dialogue and has developed typology of the newspaper speech
Genres, and also has noticed dialogichnost at macrolevel of journalistic products - within one newspaper band where texts on one theme make comments, interpret, deepen the first or discuss with it, forming intertext formations - «macrotexts which at reading the addressee perceives as dialogue between texts» (Duskaeva, 2004: 21). Leaning against M.M.Bakhtin's doctrine, the researcher has looked at intertext interaction as on dialogue of semantic positions.

Thus, it is possible to ascertain, that one of the central positions in the field of discourse research is structurization speech sistemnosti through search of intertext communications within a discourse.

How there is a studying diskursnoj sistemnosti? How scientists structure a discourse?

Studying of a structural skeleton of the speech genres functioning within the limits of this or that discourse becomes one of methods. So, T.A. van Dejk speaks about superstructure on which discourses are under construction and which represents the law of the organisation of the formal side of discourses. In turn, at lower level the macrostructure showing «the semantic maintenance of the categories entering into superblock diagrammes» (Dejk, 1984: 41) is allocated.

Other method of studying diskursnoj sistemnosti uses an initial method of research of files of texts - on language levels, that is through search of the frequency language units expressing the senses "necessary" to these or those discourse. So, N.Ferklo's critical discourse-analysis against macrosociological research of a discourse uses detailed studying of the text to reveal, «as diskursivnye processes lingvisticheski function in concrete texts» (Phillips, Jorgensen, 2008: 117). Domestic scientist JU.S.Stepan treats a discourse as special use of language which «attracts activization of some lines of language and, in a final case, special grammar and special rules of lexicon» (Stepans, 1995: 38-39).

In own way sees vnutridiskursnuju sistemnost B.M.Gasparov who puts forward the theory of language existence where specific speech sheaves - communicative fragments of speech - «speaking is capable to reproduce directly as ready whole in the course of the speech activity» and which «he directly identifies as whole in the statements arriving to it from the outside» (Gasparov, 1996: 118). Developing M.M.Bakhtin's theory about infinite dialogue of statements, the researcher explains, that language memory of the subject «comprises in semialloyed, is associative a mobile, fluid condition a huge margin of communicatively charged particles of a language fabric of different volume, the invoice, different degree of distinctness and completeness», namely: The separate word forms, ready verbal groups, sintaktiko - intonational figures, the whole ready remarks-statements, separate pieces of texts and the set phrases concerning various spheres and genres of language existence »(Gasparov, 1996: 104).

The western tradition of research of a discourse is focused on revealing of methods of domination and the discrimination which is carried out by means of language. Foreign linguists develop a technique of the critical discourse-analysis which should fix as the discourse under influence intertekstualnyh factors will be transformed, and also at intended abusing access to information flows. Differently, the critical discourse-analysis is focused on research of pragmatical features of speech through «concrete linguistic text analysis of use of language in social interaction» (Phillips, Jorgensen, 2008: 112).

In domestic tradition discourse research leans against achievements of functional stylistics which has set the fashion in studying of styles of speech - «socially realised speech versions possessing specific character, developed as a result of realisation of special principles of selection and a combination of language means» (SES,
2003: 581). Intrastyle heterogeneity of texts allows researchers to allocate in functional styles podstili, professional styles and genres. The special attention is given today to studying of speech genres in functional styles, as the number of speech genres as «typical forms of the statement» (Bakhtin, 1979: 267) which existence was proved by M.M.Bakhtin in the XX-th century, is greatest. Existence of genres and revealing new in various podstiljah promotes research speech sistemnosti and to the discourse analysis in various social spheres.

In our work we lean against typological understanding of speech and a discourse as intertekstualnyh, the case phenomena in language and the culture, developed by domestic scientists (N.D.Arutyunov, M.M.Bakhtin, L.R.Duskaeva, M.N.Kozhin, etc.). Therefore an analysis subject in a discourse we see intertext ratios which fix features of ratios between subjects of communications.

One of the sides in discourse research is its branch otnesennost - conformity to this or that sphere of dialogue. We will consider features of a discourse in sphere of the international dialogue.

The major part of a policy of any state today is interaction with other countries. The international ratios is «system of real communications between the states, acting and as result of their actions, and as some kind of Wednesday, space in which there is a world politics. Except the states, as subjects, participants of world dialogue various movements, the organisations, parties, etc.» (Bovin, Lukin, 1989: 58) act. The made definition helps to consider the international dialogue with positions diskursologii where the international environment is thought as a discourse (or interdiskurs), real communications - process and result of generation of symbols and texts in conditions interaktsii, and subjects can be as generalised (the state, party), and individualised. Really, today in studying
The international ratios has got popularity diskursivnyj the approach which becomes a methodological basis for studying of the international dialogue in the conditions of prompt development of communications and realisation of a role of language not only on interpersonal, but also at interstate level: «objects, subjects, the states, live beings, and material structures, get value and are allocated with identity through language» (Carta, 2014: 34). Foreign researchers (T. Diez, C. Carta, J.T. Checkel, J. Milliken, etc.) Adapt diskursivnyj the approach for various currents in the theory of the international ratios, as this approach promotes «to critical realisation of that limiting in researches and in the standard models of the analysis, which scientists in the work» constantly use (Milliken, 1999: 227).tak, for example, a discourse-analysis becomes a basis at use of methodological toolkit of school of social constructivism in it "strukturalistskom" a variant where the defining role in interaction of people is taken away to ideas, instead of to material factors, and designing of interests and identichnostej sees through distribution of these ideas (Makarycheva, 2006: 568).

Linguists the discourse of the international ratios interests from the point of view of its dynamics kontseptosfery (Soloveva, 2013), studying of specificity of scientific texts under the international ratios (Vdovin, 2010), lingvodiskursivnyh features of written diplomatic communications (E.A.weber, T.A.Volkova, O.I.Puzyreva, etc.). In this connection it is important to note existence of such phenomenon as the diplomatic discourse which assumes highly specialised dialogue of professionals of foreign policy activity, «possesses own strongly pronounced konstitutivnymi signs and is independent formation» (Puzyreva, 2015: 3). In E.A.weber's research it is allocated institutsionalnyj (professional) discourse and a personal (nonprofessional) diplomatic discourse,
Existing within household dialogue when «a problem of the participant of a discourse, diplomat in wide understanding of this word prevention or eliminatsija the conflict» (Weber, 2004: 35) is.

In our research the attention to language, it diskursivnym to displays in the field of the international ratios, presented in modern mass media also remains. We will consider, how the discourse of mass-media becomes environment for functioning of values and ideas of a discourse of the international ratios.

Interstate contacts are not limited to dialogue of professionals-foreign affairs specialists and as it is visible from definition, mention other spheres of interstate system: «the International ratios - a special sort of the public ratios which are beyond intrapublic interactions and territorial formations» (Tsygankov, 2004: 26). The international ratios form

institutsionalnyj a discourse which is carried out at social institutes which represent «set of persons, the establishments which are supplied with certain material means and carrying out concrete social function» (SHejgal, 2004: 42).

To define a place of a media discourse of the international ratios in speech system, we will consider possible tipologizatsii discourses. V.I.Karasik tipologiziruet discourses through spheres of dialogue and on the basis of sociological criteria - orientations of participants of a discourse in diskursivnoj to conditions, their statusno-role characteristics, a dialogue distance. In the work «About discourse categories» it allocates lichnostnoyoorientirovannyj (personal) and statusno-focused (institutsionalnyj) a discourse. In institutsionalnom following kinds are differentiated: «it is obviously possible to allocate with reference to modern society political, administrative, legal, military, pedagogical, religious, mystical, medical,
Business, advertising, sports, scientific and in large quantities-information kinds of a discourse »(Karasik, 1998: 191).

As the international ratios are carried out mainly within the state institutes, that, obviously, the discourse of the international ratios is subspecies of a discourse political. The political discourse as one of kinds institutsionalnogo a discourse today in the centre of attention of researchers as political dialogue is directed on extensive public layers, it possesses serious using force. In research of a political discourse in a domestic science are engaged E.V.Budaev, V.Z.Demjankov, A.P.Chudinov, E.I.Shejgal, linguistic works of such scientists, as R.M.Blakar, H.Vajnrih (U are abroad known. Weinrich), T.A. van Dejk, P.Serio, M.Ferklo, etc.

The basic intentsija political dialogue is a struggle for the power, thus «the political discourse serves as the tool of this struggle, and its basic functions (functional blocks) are aspects of display of this tool function» (SHejgal, 2004: 111). E.I.Shejgal

Allocates three predominating making maintenances of political communications: the formulation and an explanation political oppositions (orientation), search and rallying of supporters (integration), struggle against the opponent (agonalnost). This functional triad correlates with ontologic semiotics opposition of a political discourse "/another's" as orientation function allows to define «», integration function - to unite with them, function agonalnosti - to struggle against «strangers pro the» (In the same place: 112). All these processes are characteristic and for the international political dialogue.

The international political dialogue in this or that historical stage makes a set of actual senses on which basis there is a speech interaction of the states. Dialogue of the countries forms a specific semantic zone in the general context of the interstate
Ratios - the specific discourse will be organised, the general system of statements - «diskursivnaja a formation» in M.Fuko's terminology (Foucault, 2012: 221) is developed. In refraction to world policy sphere the understanding of a political discourse as «a method of verbal communications between subjects of sociopolitical mutual relations (including a writing of texts, their perusal and an exchange of them), connected with various political contexts» (Makarycheva, 2007: 19) is formulated also.

Researchers pay attention on oposredovannost of a political discourse mass media (V.Z.Demjankov, G.A.Naminova, E.I.Shejgal). Really, work of political institutes mentions wide public layers and consequently is in the attention centre massmedia, moreover, mass-media are full participants of political process. Political communications are not simply realised by means of media more often, but «mass-media actually are the basic environment of its existence» (SHejgal, 2004: 21). Thus the journalism does not remain an impartial repeater of texts of political dialogue, but influences and their sense as services interests of those or other political forces. Hence, it is possible to assert, that the political discourse owing to the public significance becomes defining at media discourse formation. And the media discourse in turn exists as communicative process where the exchange of senses between an audience and political actors (Sulina, 2014: 221) is made.

The political discourse inevitably influences a discourse of such participants of political communications, as national mass media, that is on a media discourse. The political discourse, «carried out at public institutes, dialogue in which is a component of their organisation» (parliament, the government) (SHejgal, 2004: 42), is realised in mass-media through texts in which «it is a question of the politician
And which author is the politician or, on the contrary, addressed to the politician ». (In the same place: 26). Mass-media are included in a political context and are participants of political communications (In the same place: 58). Thus, the media discourse understood as« thematically focused, sotsiokulturno caused rechemyslitelnaja activity in massyomedijnom space »(Kozhemjakin, 2010: 14), represents, under E.A.Kozhemjakina's remark, mainly intermediary activity. The media torus role in a public life belongs to a media discourse because its subject is not so much obshchestvennoyopoliticheskie processes, how many methods of their description, transmission of knowledge of them, and also information converting in senses (In the same place: 14).

The journalism, being tree-structured system of gathering, processing and information delivery, actively participates in a political life of the state. It is a necessary component of any political system, the tool of a political system of a society. Hence, also it functions according to inquiries of this system. Simultaneously with performance of functions on reflexion of an actual internal political condition of the state of mass media play a role and in achievement of the geopolitical purposes, carrying out and foreign policy in interests of ruling circles: « Geopolitical approaches when this or that region of the world spontaneously appears “a zone of vital interests”, serve as an ideological substantiation of foreign policy of some the countries. Naturally, without inspolzovanija mass-media here not to manage »(Mihajlov, 2004: 95). Thus, researchers fairly notice, that today mass-media appear as full not state actors of world politics in connection with their inclusiveness in the international political discourse (Fokina, 2013: 61). That is it is possible to assert, that journalism

The international subjects promotes realisation of foreign policy of the state, an establishment of character of the international ratios. Thus, according to the American journalist and the researcher of interaction of mass-media
And U.P.Stroubla's foreign policy, «the foreign policy is not formed by mass media. But in an information century it cannot be formed without mass-media» (Stroubl, 2001: 80).

1.1.

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A source: IVANOVA Lubov JUREVNA. SPEECH REPREZENTATSIJA INTERTEXT DIALOGICHNOSTI In the MEDIA DISCOURSE of the INTERNATIONAL RATIOS. The DISSERTATION on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. St.-Petersburg - 2018. 2018
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