In telejournalism authors adhere to classical model of classification of genres: the informational, analytical and dokumentalnohudozhestvennye. They are present At different relationships on a television depending on subjects of concrete transfer.

One of the main trends of a postmodernism - an interpenetration of genres in all art forms. Abrasion of genre boundary lines - process natural, but emersion of a certain universal genre (the text or a teleroller) can create additional difficulties in the course of material preparation. The genre is some kind of production engineering, the solution of a creative problem of the journalist. But in a case with a television of boundary line of its sampling are defined also by the spectator. So, the general trend of aspiration to brevity (it is difficult to modern spectator to perceive long telemessages) quite often conducts to devided out, practically tezisnomu to a narration. From here on a modern television the laconic offscreen text, short comments of heroes, dynamical installation are frequent.

The journalistic genre is the is formal-substantial unity, helping to find the creative solution of an author's problem, the form of determination of relations of the author with the validity. Just as in art sphere one genre replaces another, and in each interval of time those or other genres dominate, on a television types of telecasts also are caused by the general vector of development of crop. The television crop in its wide understanding is formed by all screen stream - in all genres. There were cases when the small plot in news was capable to make serious changes in behaviour of a society, to call rough process of discussion: for example,

The message on Vlad Listeva's murder, (1995), or the message in night news about Victor Tsoy's  destruction (1990).

The transfers devoted to concrete day, event or the validity phenomenon, frequently address to documentary-art group of genres, as to the most "free" form of expression of thought. Dokumentalistika as much as possible truthfully and in details reflects a daily reality, meaning under documentary programs the formula of the validity consisting of signs, where each sign separately and all of them as a whole - reflexion of concrete vital processes. These signs-shots on the shield are resulted in system, is direct sootnosimuju with the validity. Being among the most difficult journalistic products, documentary transfers, are on a joint art and publicistic, possess the combined properties. They are plastic, subject to prompt and cardinal changes in production engineering and a creation technique. Documentary genres constantly change owing to synthesis of elements of various genres of journalism and art. mnogolikost and plasticity dokumentalistiki allows modern writers of cultural-educational programs is most high-grade to realise creative problems.

Investigating modern approaches to construction of an image in documentary teleprograms, we can speak about so-called «Effect of presence» fact. The palette of forms of documentary films is extremely various:

1. Sobytijnaja the chronicle, videoletopis (the shootings created not for operative news logs, and for history). Quality of such records very important as in due course they can become a basis of telecasts and generate representation about cultural phenomena (work of the director - of documentation officer Dzigi Vertova).

2. Video fixing of the information for the special purposes (scientific shootings, militian reports, video observation). Such documentary records are used in the capacity of inserts in news plots, analytical investigations or the criminal chronicle. From a recent time on television channels have appeared and became popular enough. For example, sessions from a court hall: "Jury" (NTV), «Court goes» (the First channel), «Judicial passions» (DTV). The format of such programs is approached to documentary video fixing, but completely them to rank as the given class it is impossible, as the given transfers are builted under in advance generated scenario.

3. Author's journalism. For example, programs and Leonid Parfyonov's documentary films. The information of its transfers is personified, style is recognised. In different programs of author's journalism expressive means play an individual role in information supply.

And. M.Shesterina offers classification of author's journalism [86]. Author's programs of a cultural-educational direction on target directivity share on 2 groups:

1. Thematic. Such author's programs are builted round the main theme. The author / the presenter of the program is aimed as it is possible to open a theme more in detail and more deeply. (NTV television channel) refers to to such type of author's programs, «Histories in details» Sergey Majorova (television channel STS, 2003-2009), «Kozyrev Live» (television channel "Rain", since 2012) «Oksana Pushkinoj's Female sight».

2. Problem. The programs builted round an actual social problem. For example, «the Special correspondent» Arcady Mamontova (television channel "Russia"), "Recently" Leonid Parfyonov (television channel "NTV"), "Obvious-improbable" Sergey Kapitsa (television channel "Crop", 20102012, television channel TVTS, 2002-2006).

On subjects cultural-educational programs can be divided on 5категорий:

1. Crop: «Not dull classics» Sati Spivakovoj (television channel "Crop");

2. A policy: the "Postscript" which is conducting Alexey Pushkov (television channel TVTS);

3. A science: "Obvious-improbable" Sergey Kapitsa (ORT television channel);

4. The person: «Night flight» Andrey Maksimova (television channel "Crop");

5. Household subjects: «Remove it immediately!», conducting - Tasha Planing (television channel STS).

The documentary telejournalism can be presented different genres of screen products, but more often authors resort to the several cores:

• the Television sketch («Russia from the first person» - television channel "Russia", etc.). A teleportrait of people («the Female sight» Oksanas Pushkinoj (NTV), «Last 24 hours from a life...» ) Or a double portrait («Mother and the daughter»). In a portrait sketch three participants - the hero, the author and the spectator co-exist, between them there should be warm friendly relations. Creating a portrait sketch, we simultaneously transfer ourselves, the vision of the world and perception of the interlocutor. To what to us the hero will seem, and how the journalist will present the hero to the spectator, depends also the relation of an auditory to the hero of the program. Never it is necessary to forget that the chamber and the shield always «integrate emotion» the person. Many-sided nature and depth of the person uneasy to transfer on the shield. More often authors concentrate on some most remarkable qualities of the hero or that matches to a theme and helps to open idea of product. In documentary programs of the hero it is possible to show in natural conditions - behind work or dwellings. Sometimes authors address to a performance of events and episodes from a life. All details getting on the shield, become "speaking", get new senses. But it is necessary to remember that without "casual" details the program will remind statement and it will be wrested from «live medium». "Unnecessary" or "superfluous" attributes (with which too do not need to be abused, distracting from the basic maintenance) create «a stream of a daily life» on the shield. A tonality of the image, a hum - components of creation of an image of the hero of the program or a film. The musical emulsion carrier, style of supply of the information - all is problems which should be solved to the author of the cultural-educational program. To find the interesting television hero uneasy. Even possessing the unique qualities, not each hero can possess sufficient extent of charm to involve an auditory and to be able to speak neshablonno.

• the Analytical teleprogram of cultural-educational subjects is presented on the shield in the form of the journalistic investigation, the special reporting, the comment: «Agency of special investigations» (the Fifth channel), «Confidential designs» ("Crop"), "However" (the First channel).

• the Documentary film or a short story - «the small story which entirely has been finished shooting on a film. Its maintenance are original events. The documentary short story differs from chronicle plots of television logs or"Latest news"an emotionality and the uniform accurate drama plot merging all episodes entering into it. In a documentary short story there is no place dry hronikalnosti, in it it is impossible to do without the art conjecture opening a life of the original


Heroes ».

To settle all assemblage of documentary genres it is impossible: they change, continually there are new, experimental genres:

- On a joint of game and not game cinema;

- By combination of several genres teledokumentalistiki;

- At crossing of genres cinema, literary and musical (transfers «One-storeyed America» with Vladimir Pozner and Ivan Urgantom (the First channel), «Petersburg. A place and a time» ("Crop"), "Jam-5" ("Crop"), "Voice" (the First channel).

Spectators perceive documentary programs not as

Independent television product, far from a daily occurrence context, and as set of the real facts of the validity. Excessive "prichesannost" can ruin a vital basis. The documentary film should develop not so much under laws [87]

Dramatic art, how many under laws of the most objective reality.

The Aksiologichesky aspect in dokumentalistike is predominating. It is important to author to notice in the hero and to transfer on the shield the most noble of traffics of human soul. Heroes of documentary transfer - it is not simple the persons who have been gated out from crowd, they are the present heroes of our time. The game cinema on the essence is opposite dokumentalistike. But there are cases when journalists resort to the help of actors. Usually production scenes use for an illustration of those acts which occur in a life irregularly: it can be criminal event, emergency, memoirs of the childhood. Ways of the story about the real hero in the documentary program can be divided on some



1) Real events are transferred by means of a play of actors with attraction of the story of real heroes. Usually this way use in situations when the person on ethical or moral reasons to show it is impossible (the juvenile criminal or, on the contrary, a victim of a crime; seriously ill patients people);

2) Actors play roles of real heroes as much as possible approximately to real events with attraction of a newsreel and other deeds. Such way is applied, for example, when the hero recollects events which occurred for a long time, for example, in the childhood. In L.Parfyonov's design the author tells «300 years of a Russian press» about historical events in which in transfer the actors transferring a manner and spirit of a certain time participated;

3) the Real hero is represented by the real hero (reportazhnaja shooting, a method of restoration of the fact, a shooting method «the latent chamber», by means of provocation or involving of the hero to a play). As an instance of such supply [88 [89] Ivan Urganta and Vladimir Pozner's design «One-storeyed America», consisting in travel of contemporaries on a way laid once by Soviet writers Ilfom and Petrov can act. Travelling notes of present travellers have appeared in many respects excellent under the form of supply of a material. Inhabitants of the geographical point chosen by leaders became heroes of each transfer. Such "real" heroes could is better to tell about a native city, to transfer an aerosphere and local colour and to authors of the program, and television public.

The direct appeal to the spectator - the important feature underlining the dialogical nature teledokumentalistiki in which the communicative effect of an inclusiveness in the teleprogram is provided. The dramatic art and poetics of a concrete documentary film are caused it

Existence within the limits of the concrete television program.

Certainly, the documentary film acts in film under the scenario, in it there is a plan, the concept, direction. mnogoslojnost, multifigurativeness

teledokumentalistiki "opens" a film for an auditory and gives the chance to the spectator to ask, muster, domyslit the information.

Distinctive feature of documentary cinema (so, and dokumentalistiki) is the coexistence in an organic unification documentary and art, informativnosti and figurativeness, a science and art. The author of television programs creates a new reality, other, distorted world embellished by subjective imagination. The documentation officer - a fact conductor, the author of as much as possible truthful reflexion of the validity. The journalist transfers to the spectator the information which acts as life "mirror", reflects the facts of an objective reality. The judgement of these facts falls outside the limits, for film frameworks. Therefore some teledocumentation officers refuse the author's beginning in films, do not use in-process widespread reception «81апё up» (the journalist in a shot) and practically do not resort to the help of the offscreen text (the program «Letters from a province» on television channel "Crop"). This method of work in many respects helps to create the most volume image of a geographical place about which there is a speech in the program.

The documentary journalism, being on an art and publicism joint, stays in constant search of an embodiment on the shield. The fact in documentary teleprograms finds figurativeness: the artistic image is created by means of deeds and a performance of historical events.

Today within the limits of television journalism it is possible to speak about a dominance of so-called teledesigns - cycles of programs which can merge various genres in the structure. In an information abundance such designs brightly depositing on the general hum are claimed by an auditory. Recently the dialogue component of the programs narrating about the phenomena of cultural sphere aloud becomes more active. And it is not casual. According to many researchers of media sphere, the archetype of "user" is replaced recently with an archetype of "creator". The spectator wishes to feel participating in process of a birth of the program. That is why on air there are many dialogical transfers of cultural-educational subjects. The basic genres here the following:

1. Conversation. «White studio» (television channel "Crop"), "Pozner" (the First channel), "Anthropology" (the First channel);

2. A round table. «Dzjadko 3» (television channel "Rain");

3. The Talk show. "Apocryphal story" (television channel "Crop"), "Cultural revolution" ("Crop"), «Hundred questions to the adult» (TVTS).

In a number of dialogue programs the interactive component is used. «Psychological a component of interactive forms of journalism has got tipoobrazujushchee value. Traditional for a mass communication« the effect of presence »attains limiting values and builds up into« effect of participation ». It already other mental condition. The person does not absorb data, and operates with the information. Also that is basic important, it is individual activity» [90]. Spectators have possibility directly to influence a situation of development of a theme in the program (calls to studio, voting, at program disposing in a network - possibility to enter polemic with the author or the participant of the program and also to discuss a theme and to share emotions. « Reportazhnost and documentation - necessary conditions in which there is any product on the teleshield. Theorists of a television wrote that kamernost teleshows leads to falling of "the fourth wall» much, assumes the direct reference of the actor to the spectator, that is the moment of a play out of an image, publitsistichnost. But that any teleproduct should be an organic part of the program is even more important, that is dare counting on that one convention did not reject another, to possess style «fabric compatibility» with deeds, the chronicle, the reporting »[91]. Reflected on interactivity already in the early sixties. At that time concerts under requests were the most interactive. But there were« Blue sparks »- rudiments present interaktitvnosti (stories about participants, their messages about certain successes in-process, in creativity, in home life and the new verses of poets addressed to it, modification of new songs, etc.) All components mixed up in one program, it was especially curious to contemporaries to look such television exhaustions.

Today the television more and more actively switches on an interactive component in cultural-educational programs: something has remained from the television past, other began to develop most intensively and was converted to new forms of verbal and nonverbal expressiveness of a telenarration.


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  6. In detail-thematic directivity children's nauchnoyopopuljarnogo editions
  7. 2.1.3. About programs for MD modelling: programs LAMMPS and “CSEG”
  8. Financially-legal features of government programs and the federal target programs directed on economic and social development of the radical small people of the North, Siberia and the Far East
  9. § 1.2. A parity of institutes «underwater cultural heritage», "cultural heritage" and «a natural heritage»
  10. studying of a speech genre in linguistics
  11. models of the description of a speech genre
  12. a genre originality of editions
  13. concept definition «a speech genre»
  14. characteristics of a speech genre
  15. § 1.2 Speech genre sociopolitical debate and its modelling
  16. author's genre forms