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THE PROBLEM OF QUALITY OF THE TELEVISION CONTENT IN THE FIELD OF CROP

The world telejournalism has for the last years made the present breakthrough in speed and ways of an information transfer. Development of network mass-media and expansion of possibilities of "dialogue" with an auditory mean special rules of communications.

Authors even more often address to difficult forms of construction of a material of all genre groups. Despite wide technical possibilities, the spectator discontent with quality of a modern teleether occurs. The palette of spectator discontent varies - from simple irritation before full failure from a television in favour of the Internet. "Stream" conveyor »teleproducts generates also critical moods in relation to a creative component of a television aether: spectators consider, that a television as a whole and its many genres degrade» [70]. The spectator inquiry about qualitative journalism becomes all oshchutimee.

If to address to statistics, the rating of highly professional designs in the field of crop (programs and documentary films - winners of creative competitions in the field of journalism) is low. Television channel "Crop" programs make in a rating of 1-1,5 % from total of viewings. Practically constantly in ten the most popular on program television channel "Crop": «Romanticism of a romance», «Geniuses and villains» and "Selectors". But even their share makes no more than 4 % from the general viewing time. If to look as a whole at «humanitarian programs» Russian television, the greatest rating at television channel "NTV" "Low gear" programs, «the Miracle of technics with Sergey Malozemovym», at the program of First channel "Presently" and at television channel "Russia-1" design «About the most important thing».

Programs of cultural-educational directivity on the modern shield in many respects carry out not so much educational, how many the informational and entertaining functions. Expressive means sometimes do the program entertainment and captureing, forming thus rupture between valid and broadcast on the shield. Instances of is art-publicistic images meet in sketch and sketch genres, in documentary films and subject programs. Tryings of creation of an image at level of the informational and analytical genres while are experimental. Infrequently thus it is possible to keep the boundary lines installed by a format.

Earlier journalistic genres in many respects defined the expressiveness means, which authors used in a concrete format. Today in communications by technical transformations, expressive means are used in dependence not so much from a genre or a format, how many from creative potential of the journalist, its tastes and author's style. Such trend is passed round not only to programs kulturnoprosvetitelskoj subjects, but also a television as a whole. Information personification is a necessary component. Razmytost genre boundary lines it is frequently caused by the individual and subjective beginning in the television statement. TV reporters have blogs and own pages for which those who wishes to gain data from concrete sources subscribe. In a situation when the accessible information becomes more and more, the spectator requirement for its concrete definition, profound studying of a theme and the good analysis is quite natural. Visual expressive means, of course, help the author with the solution of its creative problems.

Listed in the circuit design №1 (With. 79) expressive means existed throughout history of development of a television. At the present stage essential changes in use of expressive means are observed. The prevalence of this or that expressive means on the shield quite often defines a program or film format.

Shot - primary constructive film-making and assembly unit [71]. The shot composition is defined by installation of shooting, the installation foreshortening, a relationship of a hum, the first, second plots, details etc. is observed Today change of boundary lines of the shot - transition of relationships of the parties of a shot from 3:4 to 16:9, the shot becomes longer. In a wide format with high-grade image Full HD and Ultra HD it allows to increase the square of the shield of monitors and television receivers (High Definition Television) to apply stereoscopic picture production engineering (3D), allows to look at the shot maintenance differently. Panoramic shots, addition colours ("colouring") of a black-and-white film help to create «effect of presence», not only to approach the spectator to installation, but also it is literally to "entrained" it in a narration. As soon as the television had a record possibility, journalists tried as it is possible to "depart" further from studio and «speaking goals» in a shot, introducing «a real life» on the shield. Studio shootings, undoubtedly, less zatratnye and technically more simple in modification, but the modern format gives the chance to see a life in those paints which surround us in a reality. In this connection even studio transfers authors try to "decorate" with inserts in the form of reportings, plots, etc. So, in the program "However" Michael Leontev uses fragments of the Soviet films which switch attention of spectators, underline any thoughts of the author, and sometimes add new semantic aspect and even form implied sense. For example, in one of exhaustions on a theme of the Ukrainian Maidan and desire of Ukraine to get to Europe (2013) shots from a film "Cinderella" of 1947 where the kind, generous fairy-magician (Russia) speaks to the small Cinderella (Ukraine) are switched on: «Be refunded to 12, and that...». Or about the same Euromaidan, about a problem of financial readiness of Ukraine to enter EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY (exhaustion on November, 24th, 2013) - the citation from a film «the Window to Paris":" The road to you was difficult and full of deprivations. The cold and hunger chased our delegation within several days. Drawing through you the friendship arm, according to principles of socialism and proletarian internationalism, we urge you to pay our taxi ». Turning on in the analytical program of fragments of feature films - a postmodernism sign. The combination of modern shots and the adapted fragments from old films at all does not divide a film into parts, and on the contrary, underlines an urgency of perpetually themes.

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Natalia Utilova gates out some ways of intraframe installation to track with the chamber behind traffic of the character:

• «Continuous following for the character on a long shot. Reaction of spectators, in the core, is defined by change of surrounding circumstances. Thus the character is uninviting. Pace of a scene rather slow. However it is possible to diversify such shot: changing a composition or a panning long shot, it is possible to gain this or that emotional painting».

In the program "On foot" leading Michael Zhebrak (television channel "Crop") narrates about historical monuments and ancient streets of Moscow. The operator follows the story-teller, not losing sight it. But the main things all the same there are those monuments and monuments which surround the journalist. The average plot of the leader against urban landscapes can last two, and sometimes and more than two minutes. The chamber does not change coarseness, but thus remains dynamical at the expense of new and new ex-terriers. Shooting by "the flying chamber» creates sensation of traffic, followings behind the story of the leader, long plots do not seem torqued. The author dilutes a walking tour with ancient photos of a front of that building about which the guide tells. This photo slowly dissolves, and before spectators there is a modern panorama, in other colours and contrasts. Unconditionally, such reception of expressiveness emotionally decorates a video series. Spectators can compare, as was "to" and that became "after". [72]

• «Continuous following for the character on a close up... The Foreshortening creates this or that tincture. Thus agency of surrounding circumstances minimum».

In such style of shooting work Niki Strizhak «Boris Grebenshchikova's Senses» - to the sixtieth anniversary of the musician (27 is executed. 11. 2013). The chamber as though constantly watches the hero, tries to glance to it in eyes, to make out his soul. The author practically is not present in a film, all work is under construction on Boris Borisovicha's statements, on its thoughts and replicas. The sensation is created, that development of act of a film is subordinated to real act. Therefore there is an impression of some spontaneity and unpredictability of events of a film. Dynamics of work is supported at the expense of change of foreshortenings, sometimes shots are erected end-to-end without coarseness change.

• «Following for the character from a close up to the general. Pace of a scene changes with composition change» and «following for the character from a long shot to large». Authors of a documentary cycle resort To the given way of demonstration of the hero «Tomorrow (television channel" Crop ") will not die never». In the program the main theme is the science and people who develop it. In such sequence authors also build episodes: at first show the separate fact or a situation, and then the person which can tell about it more in detail. In exhaustion «the First century from nanoworld creation» which is devoted innovative workings out in area nanotehnology in Russia, heroes the Russian scientists act. For example, Anatoly Ivanovich Mamayev - the Doctor of Chemistry, the professor. He has devoted all scientific activity nanotehnologijam and not only oscillates new ideas, but also embodies them during a life. The author, telling about the hero, at first shows circumstances in which it is: Long shot - shots at the wheel the car, road for work, laboratory where discoveries are made. Only in monologue the operator shows the hero largely in a shot. The plot is broken in by close ups of employees which work in Anatoly Mamayev's firm. Sometimes the hero is removed by the operator from a back (shots when it comes into laboratory, goes to the vessel), thus at spectators the sensation of expectation increases. The episode with the vessel is shown in transfer not casually, the author behind a shot makes comments: «In heavy times the air drain in which Mamayev found forces to become exclusion of a sad rule, there was its vessel. Perhaps, thanks to it Mamayev also remained afloat». The author applies such way of expressiveness to transfer character of the scientist, which physical work of building of own vessel combined with intense mental work in laboratory.

• «Switching of the chamber from the character on that place where he is aimed».

If to use the given way as reception of expressiveness of the program, it is possible to raise dynamics of a telenarration, and also a long time to keep attention of the spectator. It will be interesting to an auditory, what for the character goes to this place. Authors of a documentary film «With a firm sign on the end» (2009) where leader Leonid Parfyonov, being in a shot, constantly stays on the move use such reception. Plots in which it is dynamical both the character, and the chamber, constantly occur intermittently with shots of that place where the leader follows. Leonid Parfyonov some times appears in front of the chamber in different foreshortenings. In words in a shot: « The introduction «in the morning - in the newspaper, in the evening - in a couplet» marked out efficiency kupletistov, keeping up with news but very few people knows, that in the evening in the newspaper; and edition - it, as theatre: will get out by the night on form peak, and then cannot calm down », - the leader appears with different coarseness, but Leonid Parfyonov from below in the foreground that speaks about relevancy of a figure speaking and importance of its words is removed.

• «the Chamber leads the character a little and arrives to a place where the actor is aimed, but a little bit earlier». Such character of shooting is used by authors of the program «the Hero of a place with Peter Vail». The chamber watches a narration of the author, but leads the hero as if hurries it a little. Peter Vail is often removed by the operator in a profile that gives to a shot the big dynamics and expressiveness of traffic. Panoramic tracking of the chamber in the program is broken in by inserts: photos, pictures, superclose ups - all it does a video series by more expressive.

In connection with repeated martempering of quality of screen "picture" preferences in one more visual means of expressiveness - coarseness of the plot are defined. The high permission of a picture allows to transfer beauty of details even on the long-range plot. According to the new possibilities, many teleprograms and television movies actively use:

• Long-range and panoramic plots. In a documentary film «the American dream» on the First channel (2012) authors resort to repeated panning of the American landscapes and motley urban streets. The picture of high definition allows to observe small details and to feel an aerosphere which surrounds story-tellers. Dynamics in a shot is created not only at the expense of the maintenance of a picture with bright, constantly flickering publicity boards and sign-boards, but also by means of chamber traffic.

• Macroshooting. Journalists and reporters often resort to macroshooting reception in those areas where it is practically impossible to manage macroshooting: in programs about animals, about plants, culinary transfers. In some programs macroshooting is used as reception of creation of an image. In a documentary film «the Vologda motives» on television channel "Crop" detailed (superlarge) plots use in the capacity of a graphic metaphor: shots with the Vologda colours, with a flitting moth or wings of the butterfly-cabbage white butterfly are replaced by shots of a lace with similar motives in modification of the Vologda skilled workers.

• Shooting by the high-speed chamber. The plots which have been removed by such technics, are looked unusually. Splashes in waves, a wave of a wing of a bird or traffic of an insect, fire flame etc. Such shots can be a beautiful illustration to the program or a documentary film. They usually carry out aesthetic function, practically always are production, therefore in a modern aether meet in television advertising more often.

Light - one more visual expressive means which any modern transfer today does not manage. Show of the hero with use of colour illuminations of a hum: thus light allows to present the character against an interior. Creation of a special aerosphere, for example, shooting in dark studio: the program «Meetings on Journalism faculty» (television channel «the Forum 36») - conversation in quiet, chamber circumstances. Participants of the program are thus flashed on only, the studio conversation passes in an aerosphere of confidential conversation, there is a sensation something mysterious, sincere, secret - that is hidden in darkness. Or, on the contrary, in absolutely flashed on room: the program «White studio» (television channel "Crop"). The White in many countries including in Russia, it is considered colour of purity, and conversation in such studio occurs "frankly".

Installation shooting is connected with the same means of expressiveness in a day and night time. Modern lighting facilities allow to spend record in insufficiently lighted places and to a dark time of days. So, program exhaustion «the Rain Reporting» (television channel "Rain", 2013) «an illumination Epoch: on trees for billion» it is more than bulb than on half consists of night shootings of New Year's light ornaments of capital. Here light in itself becomes expressive means and "draws" a shot on which with the aesthetic point of view sweetly to look. Additional illumination for record of interview to the hero in a night city also allows to achieve the high-grade image when the hero will "co-exist" absolutely harmoniously in a shot with naturally lighted installations against the speaking.

There are cases when a flash spotting with a daylight illumination use for show of "negative" events, for example, fires, eruption of a burning mountain or disorders in streets, night illumination increases extent of tragedy of event.

Visual expressive means, as a rule, work in aggregate: a shot, light, a foreshortening etc. Their interacting is defined on preparatory (stsenarnoj) stages of work of the author, the director, the operator more often. The author of the scenario and the director, film actively discussed in due time "Sculptor Michael Anikushin" (t/o "Shield" 1981), told: «In a film about Anikushine we had an integral composition of the graphic solution. We will tell, the hero among sculptures, in a workshop, conversations with it, etc. is should act in film without any light, is pure reportazhno. And all sculpture acted in film differently, with so-called art light. In this sense the episode of night conversation of sculptures» is especially characteristic. In the end of a film they as though revive, start to "talk" among themselves, and then «get out on morning walk» across Leningrad

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And again disperse in places, on dadoes ».

Colour as expressive means often acts today in a modern teleether. M.M.Plisetskaya, the national actress of the USSR: «If to speak about ballet here colour has huge value. We will admit, in very bright, brightest tones there should be a first certificate« Quixote », and from« Swan loch »it is necessary to show an adagio in soft, pastel tones».

On a television in one transfer can combine black-and-white and polnotsvetnye shots. Monochrome shots authors are aimed to transfer a certain historical epoch or refer to fragments is black - [73 [74] white films, ancient photos. In one of program series «More than love» (television channel "Crop") about Konstantin Simonov and Valentines Serovoj's novel with the "decoloured" modern shots (the story about wedding dresses) - such reception is attained by an interleaving of modern shots of old black-and-white record odnomomentnost narrations. The offscreen story does not interrupt because of impossibility to show event shots about which the author narrates. This moment is filled with the new, production video series stylised under olden time.

Serial transfer «Big family» (television channel "Crop", 2014), devoted to the 80 anniversary of the national artist of the USSR and sculptor Zurab Tsereteli, registered in a museum which walls have been to the bottom covered by its pictures - exclusively bright. At film exhibitions the monumental sculpture which has been removed by the average plot against the bright sky was shown also. Participants of transfer have been dressed in black-grey-brown, but the protagonist, TSereteli, was in a red waistcoat and a long red apron - a unique bright stain among public. It gated out it among visitors. Apron presence spoke that it all time draws, interrupting act only at answers to questions. About its creative exclusiveness spoke all gathered. Joseph Kobzon: «it is not believed, that one person could make all it and so to make!» Grandson Zurab: «He is a king, and all of us round it - chessmen. Our problem to guard it that it was easier to it to create».

The transfer colour score «List Lapina is unusual. The prohibited platform» (TV-centre, 04.01.14). Speech in it goes about an inhibition of performances on a television of the best executors of the Soviet variety songs. The chairman of the State Committee by vision and to radio broadcasting in actors was irritated with all: the short skirts open by a decollete, traffic on a scene, too sonorous voices... He declared to Executors of lyrical songs: «Now not your time! Either sing the civil lyrics or leave!»

About it tell left in expatriation Larissa Mondrus, Nina Brodskaja, Aida Vedishcheva, Irina Brzhevskaja, Vadim Mulerman.

All of them have continued concert activity in America and Europe. The story of actors about a today's life is removed against bright landscapes of cities where they live now. Their prohibited in the homeland of a song are shown on it is black - to a white film, thus as a shot frame the emulsion carrier on which all time bright stains of all colours of a rainbow flare serves. They as though symbolise thought that talents cannot be kept locked up, and simultaneously bring spectators to unfavourable result: to a full victory of a political song over the lyrical. Behind a shot words of the leader sound: «If their songs remained with us, instead of have gone to exile, we would live today a little differently».

Installation of plots of this transfer is interesting and unusual. From the point of view of the installation theory, it is made absolutely correctly. N.I.Utilova in the book «as expressiveness means» writes Installation: «We always perceive colour on sectors - from the brightest, saturated, contrast and we remember it as emotion. The more strongly emotion, the nasyshchennee sensation from colour, the more contrastly the scene transition, the is stronger sensation from colour change. Colour« blows »serve as datum points in scene transitions».

The combination of various combinations of visual elements makes the basic style of a television narration. «In screen practice of boundary line of the story and show are frequently conditional. Descriptive elements are present almost at any narration, and, on the contrary, the description, being developed in a time, finds in a certain measure sobytijnost, connected at least with subjective sequence of author's perception». Visual components are widely enough applied today in programs of cultural-educational subjects. But besides listed above the natural expressive means connected with camera skill, with development of technical possibilities there is [75 [76] development of other television receptions, in particular - connected with installation. Here it is possible to gate out various trends in different television components.

At many transfers on historical themes of the recent past of our country there are shots about sending of people in the reference, to penal servitude, their heavy work on a tree felling, behind a Polar circle, on Belomorkanal. Behind a shot the hero (or other storyteller) tells about tragedy of one family, but it seems to the spectator, that shown shots touch that family about which there is a speech. Authors of transfers of different genres use such reception, but "refund" in the past does not do without archival records. In one of programs of a documentary cycle «G enii and villains of a leaving epoch» (television channel "Crop") - about the American founder of motor industry of Henry Ford, - the author narrates about his life. In childhood history on the shield there are old shots with the American farmers, a railway station. In shots with a steam locomotive which became «the brightest shock 12-tiletnego to Henry», we see casual people and we can assume, that among this crowd carriages have our hero. Then the boy show close up, at all against the railway or passenger depot, and on the modern shots stylised «under olden time».

Conscious arhaizatsija makes a being of screen embodiments of style the "retro", reviving an epoch perceived as the past, but still living in memory of people. By the way speaking, it entirely keeps within chronological frameworks of existence of mechanical memory - the written down sounds and images. And from here - natural combination on the shield of real lines of the left life with "repetition" of its old technical ways zvukozritelnoj rust-preventive treatment. It becomes sometimes the deed of the matching period. So muster between day present and in the afternoon past leads to complication of screen structures [77]. In the capacity of an instance it is possible to result transfer «More than love. Love Orlova and George Aleksandrov» (television channel "Crop", 06.01.14). By Black-and-white shots are illustrated trip Aleksandrova with Eisenstein to America, play Orlovoj - the ballroom pianist at a cinema of mute cinema, plots from her life to a meeting with Aleksandrovym, etc. These inserts give to a narration documentation and dimensions.

The colour score for today is actively applied by authors as the expressiveness effective remedy, capable to create a certain aerosphere. In programs on machining and video editing already there are inline strainers with the certain set parametres of colour, saturation capacity, tone, an exposure etc. In the course of installation the author can choose not only a certain tincture of video, but also to reverse colour of a picture. To such reception modern journalists, as colour - an effective remedy of creation of expressiveness of a documentary image quite often address. On colour we can sometimes define a television movie genre: in documentary transfers the considerable quantity of archival records is used, therefore black-and-white shots or colours sepii (tinctures brown) can be the predominating. In dark blue tone night episodes, cold tinctures in mystical scenes - such as happen in the program «Fight of psychics» are usually coloured. In cold dark blue tones the studio or other platform during tests of participants, but words of the leader in a shot - in warm tones, for example, against prospectuses of Moscow with the big stream of cars is usually shown. Comments of separate participants of the program also are shown in warm tinctures. By means of colour authors opposing as, for example, in some exhaustions of the program «Fight of psychics» the simulated situation and a real life are opposed can be expressed.

Colour in programs not only creates mood, but also reinforces any certain emotion or brings in additional sense. In a documentary film «Samuil Marshak. The ordinary genius» (television channel "Crop", 2010

Year), is told about accident in a family. Younger daughter Natanel has tipped on itself a samovar with abrupt boiled water. This scene is dramatized and coloured in brown-red tone. And after that episode on offscreen words: «In two weeks after death of the daughter, on November, 20th, 1915, Marshak writes to Ekaterina Pavlovne Peshkovoj:« Now I and poor Sofia Mihajlovne would like one: to be given all by soul any

To hard work, help business unfortunate and made destitute. More all we would wish to help children », - the author uses production shots where the work table is shown, stacks of books in black-and-white colour, as well as a life of spouses, - decoloured after tragedy.

At a dawn of universal colour telecasting the national actor of the USSR I.S.Kozlovsky in interview to the correspondent of the log «» spoke the Soviet radio and a television: «it seems To me, that a question on a combination of colour both black-and-white TV very important and serious. In a combination of these two aspects of a television also there is that golden mean. Even in big game and music programs, undoubtedly, this combination will be good to be looked. In colour transfer black-and-white shots will underline most important points, and from it at all will not be rjabit in eyes». Assumptions of the actor were justified. Now rare historical transfer does without black-and-white inserts. Such photos and shots are used as original deeds of history while the present is presented in colour.

Transfer «More than love» Valentine Serova and Konstantin Simonov (television channel "Crop", 02.01.14) was conducted by the son of poet Alexey Simonov and daughter Simonov and Serovoj - Maria Simonov. Alexey told about the father, Maria - about mother. Both were characters «from today», hence, have been shown in a little muffled colour. Therefore black-and-white photo-and film materials were easily erected with plots of leaders. Installation end-to-end "recovered" Simonov's executed by the author the verses, obezzvuchennye plots from [78] films Serovoj successfully illustrated nazvanye the daughter of a character trait of the actress. The story of the grand daughter of marshal K.K.Rokossovsky Ariadny about love Serovoj for its grandfather (zolotovolosaja beauty Ariadna has been removed brightly lighted by sun beams) was the brightest on colour a film fragment. Concerning this not taken place novel there were many conjectures and disputes, but the son of the poet has confirmed: « This all-consuming feeling has remained at it for all life ». The gold hum of an insert as though symbolised unearthly love. Valentina remained a symbol of that, that« was able to wait, as anybody another », - Alexey Simonov has added.« She is a person very modest, never would began to achieve », - sister Maria has confirmed.

K.E.Razlogov notices, that in telecasts if they are art and art criticism on a material,

Educational on functional directivity, the basic accent can be displaced either towards a historicism, or towards the present. «So individuality of the actor from the factor accompanying... Turns to a dominant when transfer or a film are specially devoted it

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To creativity ».

In a television movie "Paul Luspekaev" (1978, the director V.Makedonsky) the portrait of the actor is created literally from the scraps of the film which have kept fragments of its theatrical and television works. "Mosaic structure" of structure here is realised in installation of scenes from unique large (and last) P.Luspekaeva's works in Vereschagin's role in a picture «White sun of desert». In the program from other films with its participation and, perhaps, the main thing - records of rehearsals and movie tests in which the actor has shown a measure of the talent even more than shots are switched on in other of the roles executed by it. Thereby the film became for a wide auditory the unique form of existence of exclusive fragments on art quality thanks to which we can judge non-realised potential of the talented actor. [79]

«Mosaic structure of structure was manifested and in an interleaving of episodes documentary and« documentary-game », that is in a combination of the layers which are as though on a different longitudinal separation from an unconditional prototypical reality (here principles of fragmentary and deep-seated constructions again co-operate)». We can observe the given reception of expressiveness in many television programs. One of such - «Historical chronicles» Nikolay Svanidze (television channel "Russia-1"). The journalist shows also documentary fragments, and walks, for example, against well-known «at home on quay», and on a visit to descendants of the heroes comes.

In very reserved colour gamma the three-serial film devoted to the 95 anniversary of writer Daniel Granin «Direct conversation» (television channel "Crop", 01-03.01.14) has been shot. Black-brown tone of clothes, furniture, the book on racks did not distract from the themes of the conversation which has been marked out in a caption: I. About a debt and honour, II. About a city, III. About the literature. The monologue of the writer does not interrupt during 35-minute conversation, stated thoughts separate from each other as though «visual paragraphs» which are original "shtorkami", and along with dim-outs, rolls they are classical ways to separate one image from another. As notes N.L.Gorjunova in the book «Is art-expressive means of the shield», «scene transitions are original punctuation marks in screen language» [80 [81]. The author adds expressiveness of the program show of thrashing in warm yellow tinctures a typewriter key, and sometimes and their driving mechanism (for example, after the story how the author has rescued poetess Olga Berggolts from punishment of employees of People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs - the hint was very clear).vo the second part the narration was accompanied by the black-and-white photos which have flown for an instant of old Petersburg serving by acknowledging of that «G orod is builted suddenly for Russia, is unexpected for Europe... Foreign builders came willingly as it gave for work empty places, it was necessary to break nothing. The assemblage of small rivers demanded the special architectural solution, but the city was gained by the uniform. Something it is similar to Venice, reminding quantity of water, but it is any not Venice. Paris, Berlin, Moscow were overhauled and overhauled, and Petersburg both was, and exists».

Aspects of Petersburg disappear, when the author starts conversation on today. Again keys of an old typewriter acting from a gloom become text thrashing. Granin passionately says that it would be desirable to keep everything that is. «To keep! The moratorium such to declare! Build, but do it not at the expense of a historical material!», - he addresses to rulers of destinies of history and to simpl Petersburgers. «Build in the centre! We will use another's beauty! Go to new regions and create there masterpieces. You have created these new regions - ugly, standard, not Petersburg, but such which can be somewhere in Vladivostok, Khabarovsk, Novosibirsk and so on».

The image of passionlessly knocking machine in section «Urban dwelling» underlines thoughtlessness of orders of the officials deciding destinies of historical monuments. And the writer already speaks about other - about thousand the communal flats which have remained from past years, names this rule distress of a great city and gives advice how to make convenient for people the Petersburg suburbs.

In last part of a television movie where there is a speech about the literature, otbivkami there are the texts taped on the machine approaching against each other, obviously, underlining many-sided nature of activity of the writer: self-education, reading of the classical literature, gathering of deeds, work on the text.

Tatyana Agafonova, the author of a film «World Ulanovoj» (t/o "Shield", 1981), on a question: whether «Has helped you with the solution of your creative problem

Specificity of the teleshield? »- has answered:« I Assume, yes. Comprehending world Ulanovoj, we were aimed to kamernosti, to silent, confidential intonation, - and it just to close television art. And here, I think, it was helped at all by consciousness of that she can see herself, remained alone with the shield.

It seems to me, that the television sometimes takes too a great interest in so-called close up, forgetting about delicacy... And that the shield, having approached to us G alinu Ulanovu, has not destroyed that legend which all life accompanies it »is especially expensive me in a film.

The interesting combination of colour to a play of long-range and short-range plots distinguishes a documentary serial «School in New Light». The first two series (01, television channel "Crop"), are devoted a kindergarten and the first six-seven class-rooms of the American school. Children - dancing, playing, going in for sports - are removed by the long-range plot so are completely visible a long-range yard, stadium, basin. A picture very bright. Sometimes the chamber snatches out the average plot any episode, for example, girls dance four together - at the smallest not all is gained, senior sees it, wipes to the babe of tear and shows, how it is necessary to carry out traffic. Such episodes serve as illustrations to the story of the principal about collectivism and mutual aid education. Series about younger school completely are conducted by teachers. For four series tell about study of the senior schoolboys and students. Long shots here - only is architectural-landscape aspects of the best schools and country universities. As a whole close ups predominate. Act not only teachers, but also pupils, students. It is a question of sampling of a course of life, about difficulties of receipt in high school and studies there. Constant change of a hum of conversation visually illustrates a variety of a life of the American pupils.

The most appreciable change on a modern television is considerable abbreviation of average length of a shot. At first supershort plots [82]

Were applied in installation of musical clips and preview trailers (because of a short format and high cost of a broadcasting time). Now clip installation is one more consequence of postmodernist consciousness. It is often applied in modern formats of telecasts, including in programs of cultural-educational subjects. In a multiseries documentary film «One-storeyed America» (the First channel, 2008) at the expense of clip installation is created dynamics of certain event. For example, a jazz concert in the New York club (1 series) or an exhibition of cars near San Francisco (11 series). With abbreviation of duration of a shot varies and temporitm a television narration. The narration short assembly phrases can lead to incompleteness of sense of the statement either an astable image, or not complete, illogical plot. Using clip installation as expressiveness reception, it is possible to diversify a graphic number and to "modernise" old films as journalists of NTV television channel in a scraper of documentary films «the Best city of the Earth» - the multiseries design about a daily life of capital of 1918-1985 where each exhaustion has been devoted any significant event in Moscow have made. Dynamically mounted shots counted for a modern auditory, possess lines of a paradigm of a postmodern. The increase temporitma a television narration, even at machining of archival records, cannot entrained the spectator in an aerosphere of a past time. The spectator simply has not time to feel "spirit" of a film, but dynamical style of a video content approaches it to modern type of thinking, to present rate of perception of the information. Therefore the programs of cultural-educational subjects counted for more senior generation, keep slow temporitm telenarrations (television channel "Crop" programs, «the Techno 24», «the Science 2.0», etc.). And clip installation and a bright, dynamical video series is applied to younger spectators (the program of television channels "РенТВ", «NTV","the Rain», etc.). In connection with change temporitma narrations journalists leave from difficult forms: at verbal level it is manifested in use of simpl phrases and offers, at installation level - in dynamism, klipovosti, at composition level in mosaic structure of the blocks builted by an associative principle. Here it is possible to consider as a successful instance television channel TVS program under the name «Public people». Authors find special forms for creation of an image of heroes. In one of exhaustions (2002) which has been devoted Russian variety and opera singer Nikolay Baskovu, on offscreen words: « From dialogue with show business singer Baskov regularly vents all negative on plastic idols and boxing pears »in a video series shots from secular receptions Baskova which flicker on the basic shots of holdings of the singer in an exercise room are switched on. In the given instance the combination of visual components absolutely different in the maintenance speaks about opposition and struggle of the protagonist. In the ending of a scene of Basques unintentionally drops, and behind a shot at the journalist the thought that« imagined bigwigs of show business have proved, that even if they from plastic and rubber sounds, to struggle with them - business rotten ». In the given instance rate of offscreen commenting of the journalist much below speed from which shots were replaced, that in a combination created average temporitm narrations.

At cultural level under the influence of media resources there are changes and in sphere of arts. This trend on theatrical platforms where even more often there is a shield on which the sketch in a context of a theatrical narration is broadcast is most appreciable. Performances of musicians can be accompanied by the teleplots visualising mood of a musical composition or a concrete plot. «New production engineering forms a basis for destruction of traditional territorial structure of the media market, washes out boundary lines between various types of a content. They

«Economy of impressions» promote development. At the Voronezh chamber theatre the premiere of documentary performance «Day of a city» (rezh on January, 30th, 2014 has taken place. Michael Bychkov). Statement has been created from monologue of real inhabitants of Voronezh. Images of actors are as much as possible approached to a modern auditory. It is difficult to name theatrical suits that, in what actors have been dressed: on them there were daily clothes, the minimum make-up. And the text of actors per se and under the maintenance practically did not differ from those histories about which tell each other at a meeting. Sincerity of representation of theatrical characters is amazing: the gipsy, the worker, Voronezh "noblewoman", the old woman, the invalid and his mother. By public it is recognised practically every image, and in each of them the spectator can see itself or acquaintances. Statement reminds a documentary film where before spectators there are absolutely different interlocutors, everyone - with the drama. All stories are merged by musical fragments of songs about Voronezh. Throughout all performance on a scene background photos with urban landscapes vary. The installation principle, a principle of mosaic construction, klipovost - all these television receptions of expressiveness has found the embodiment in art language of theatre.

Programs of a cultural-educational cycle are present at a content of television channels of different type of an announcement. The big share of transfers kulturnoprosvetitelskoj subjects is in not radio sector, that automatically expels a part of an auditory which has no access to media resources and-or other types of an announcement (a cable, satellite, mobile television), and after all it is powerful sector of an auditory. At perception of programs of a cultural segment at spectators strong emotional reaction in access time of authors to certain psychological meta programs is possible. And the reference to these meta programs promotes interiorizatsii new knowledge in cultural sphere: [83]

• Meta program "People" is directed on revealing of the individual

Qualities, disclosing of not ordinary person. In the narration centre - the concrete person who has affected this or that event in the field of crop. Through its destiny, its thoughts, its acts are broadcast sotsiokulturnye to worth. On television channels such meta programs are realised more often in studio conversations where the visitor personifies the carrying agent of cultural values, staticizing at the spectator transfer or identification processes. The scale of the person of the hero forms also level of perception of worth broadcast to it. To such type of programs it is possible to refer to «White studio» (television channel "Crop"), "Shower" (television channel "Rain"), "Pozner" (the First channel). Meta program "People" is detected by us and in portrait documentary films and telecasts: «Who such this

Kusturitsa? »(The first channel),« Andrey Makarevich. The changeable world »(the First channel),« Evgenie Tarle. The science to survive "(" Crop ») and many other things. The monologue of the hero or its dialogue with conducting becomes the basic constructive element of an embodiment of this meta program on the shield. Process of personification of the information, characteristic for a modern convolution of development of crop, provides adoption from an auditory.

• Meta program "Worth" is directed on conservation aksiologicheskih accents or (that is more difficult) extending of knowledge absolutely new to a wide auditory. Transfers can become instances aktsentualizatsii such meta programs: «Sati. Not dull classics» (television channel "Crop"), «Night in a museum» (television channel "Crop"). Meta program "Worth" is capable to make considerable impact on process of "education" of the spectator. Within the limits of this meta program it is set some kind of «a lath of worth» modern society. The meta program passes round the agency on worth of a different sort - material and non-material. Quite often this meta program acts within the limits of subcrops, appealing to concrete target audience.

• Meta program "Similarity". Largely mentions questions of household crop. Demonstration of a daily, ordinary life - its basis. In this case identification mechanisms allow the spectator to be entrained in the shield world («Letters from a province», «G eny places» - television channel "Crop"). The journalist shows to the spectator the significance of the "usual" phenomena, quite often mentioning questions of ethical character. It is possible to tell, that this meta program is directed on attaching of norms of ethics and morals in a society, on demonstration of behavioural models, on formation of representation that art not is something "separate" that the beauty can surround us and in our daily occurrence.

• Meta program "Process" staticizes the significance of the event, and not just its result. Dynamics of event - key concept of this meta program. For example, the teleprogram "On foot" (NTV) - travel in any cultural-historical places of capital. «Andrey Makarevich. The car of its time» - history of a life of the musician and success of group "Time machine" (the First channel). This program involves the spectator in process of creation or opening of cultural values. The archetype of the user is replaced by an archetype of the creator. The spectator becomes some kind of the co-author, that quite matches up with development modern lines auditornyh habits.

• Meta program "Past« accents history important points in the documentary form («Petersburg. A time and a place» - television channel "Crop"). To 100 anniversary GMII it. Ampere-second. Pushkin on «the First channel» there was Leonid Parfyonov's film «the Eye Divine». Known people of sphere of art: Oleg Tabakov, Evgenie Mironov, Igor Kvasha, Vladimir Pozner, Peter Nalich, Michael Efremov and others - have played the leading parts in the documentary design of studio "Recently". On this instance we can see riches of visual elements at supply of historic facts and deeds. Here authors used archival records from a capital life, a screen version of an epoch, shooting of a present time, the modern drawing and animation in program registration. «The eye Divine» is an original digression [84] to sources of the well-known museum of Moscow, with an evident panorama of historical events round it.

Television channel "Crop" - one of unique designs of the state television who most thinks much of conservation of national worth and traditions. Having generated "person" of the channel and a unique format, television channel "Crop" in many respects becomes one of the main outstanding points in the field of education and ways of supply of news of crop and art. To number of advantages of television channel also it is necessary to refer to absence of advertising.

As well as many mass-media, television channel "Crop" today has gained a wide circulation and in network forms: groups in social networks, own site with a rich videoarchive. The television channel is the most conservative in means and ways of construction of transfers. But, observing the basic canons of journalism, its modern form of interactive communications with public introduces corrective amendments and in character of representation of a material. Balancing between traditional receptions and «new visual habits», the television channel managed to get out on other level of interacting with modern public. Some components of modern transfers and feature of work of journalists have thus changed also.

The modern psychology divides people of a creative warehouse into two types: divergents and konvergentov. First - "universal" journalists who today, in days of the world convergence, use the greatest demand. Such workers are capable to a wide spectrum of creative activity, easily instal the remote communications between unjoinable both non-comparable concepts and the phenomena; dared and openly meet half-way new ideas and experiments. The second type of creative specialists - journalists with narrow specialisation. They are inclined to purposeful, deep and concrete researches [85]. Authors of television channel "Crop" by means of special screen language are aimed to make a television independent art. Leaders of the channel - professionals of the business. He is F.Razumovsky («Who we?»), J.Gordin («There is no mercy to anybody», «There is an ecstasy in fight...», «1825. Interregnum puzzles») - historians. L.Anninsky («Silver and a common people», «Copper pipes», etc.) V.Nepomnyaschy (A.Pushkin. "Evgenie Onegin") - literary critics. J.Bashmet («dream Passenger depot»), I.Butman ("dzhazofrenija"), A.Vargaftik ("Orchestra pit" and «Scores do not burn») - professional musicians. This list can be continued. People with high crop and refined taste became "person" of television channel. The strong television command does each program at high aesthetic level. Camerawork, direction of these transfers speaks about the professional approach. Shots of a telecast, which illustrate reaction of spectators in a hall («Romanticism of a romance»), transfer mood for teleshield limits. The television auditory becomes the accomplice of an estimation of the teledesign.

The newest trends of media space, unconditionally, influence formation of the "new" spectator, with special perception of the screen world inherent in it. Aesthetic education assumes the active form of affecting at which both the author, and the spectator will talk in one language, clear for each participant of "dialogue". Therefore character and some elements of modern construction of programs "have removed" on television channel "Crop" and have got the, especial sounding, for example, change on temporitmu. At substantial level the given trend, first of all, is caused by that the major problems of modern crop and art which sound in television channel programs, demand detailed, slow analysis. Frequently authors resort to separation of programs into cycles, the seasons, to some themes happen some series - as, for example, in programs «Doctor Vorobev are devoted. Re-reading the autobiography","Conversations with wise men. Grigory Pomerants and Zynaida Mirkina "," Vladimir Bekhterev. A sight from the future »and others. At level of the form we can notice, that installation of programs soft, not aggressive, authors actively use archival materials and unique shots. Some transfers are completely collected from archive. In documentary cycles frequent there are long plots and panoramas. The shot delay on one plot or smooth approach / removal as a whole reduces dynamics, but frequently such shots work on creation of a complete image or an additional tincture. Intellectual discussions, conversations, the talk shows aimed at formation of sights and vital outstanding points of the present spectator, are builted under all"demands"of a modern auditory. It is manifested, first of all, on dynamical change of shots, animation use, stylistic registration. For example, in the program "Cultural revolution" in the transfer beginning acquainting spectators with participants of the program, behind a shot the journalist reads the file of heroes, cutting-in with a thematic plot is applied - all it gives dynamics to the program. Individual style of the program is under construction of such elements.

In network space language and decorating of programs has the same appearance, as on air. Style of the channel is kept and in visual registration - design of a site and in forms of dialogue with public. The archive of programs of television channel allows spectators to address at any time to an interesting material and to revise it anew.

At present provoking character of the telestatement, not clear position of the author, a fragmentary narration - the spectator trust is lost, sceptical moods on the shield have generated the respective relation at public. Internal freedom of the journalist, an accurate position, dialogichnost - all is conditions of existence of the information on air which nowadays at times are simply ignored. As consequence - a muffled narration with the astable characteristic. Thus nonverbal expressive means - an abundance of large shots, dynamical shooting, sharp installation with straight lines sklejkami - are used to the full. The conflict between the form of a narration and the program maintenance is sharply felt. Trends of the industry of entertainment it is felt most strongly in a media content. Verbal language of a literary work at "transfer" in nonverbal - a film or the program, admits conversion of an image, it "obytovlenie". Expressive means of the shield do an image from "ideal" by more "real". Television channel "Crop", applying verbal and nonverbal television means, spiritually improves the modern spectator through comprehension of sense of an artistic image.


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A source: Oganesova Julia Arturovna. EXPRESSIVE MEANS of TELEVISION PROGRAMS of CULTURAL-EDUCATIONAL SUBJECTS. 2014

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