1.2.3. Communicative strategy and tactics of the professional language person

In focus of the present research is motivatsionnoyopragmatichesky level of structure professional JAL. The given level javljayoetsja defining at drawing up of a socially-speech portrait professioyonalnoj JAL as, first, maintenance PD is defined by the purposes profesyosionalnoj activity and ways of their achievement, secondly, on J.N.KarauYolovu, variability JAL on a motivation level, caused it prinadlezhyonostju to a reference group or private speech collective, creates svoeyoobrazie a discourse made by it (see [Sentries 1987]).

Basic unit of motivatsionno-pragmatical level is moyotiv, defined imagined kommunikantom a resultant a situation (communicative or ekstrakommunikativnaja) which will come after the dialogue certificate [Borisov 2009: 109]. The motive will be actualised in the communicative purpose (intentsii) [Dry 1998]. In speech aspect of activity of the person of a category inyoteresa, motive, the purposes get other nature and are realised in speech strateyogijah and tactics [Tretjakova 2003: 16].

Speech behaviour JAL is defined by not so much genre forms, how many its individually-psychological characteristics which projavyoljajutsja that she chooses such strategy which provide to it dosyotizhenie as it is possible bolshego numbers of hierarchically built purposes [Bubnova,
Red 2012]. The structure of speech strategy is influenced by systems of values, belief, social norms and conventions, components in sovokupyonosti a disposition of the person [Dry 1998: 33; Tretjakova 2003: 16], and also konyokretnye dialogue conditions, an image of the addressee, an image of relations between speaking and the addressee [Issers 2008]. Strategy of speech behaviour JAL can purposefully be formed, if the speaking operates according to the plan of achievement of the purpose and its speech behaviour is strong-willed, or is spontaneous, if its speech behaviour psychological installation and its speech behaviour javljayoetsja supervises over the impulsive.

Approaches to definition of terms «speech strategy» and «speech tactics» can be divided on two groups depending on the speech form - monologic and dialogical (the review see in [Vasilev, Cherkassk 2013: 15-44]). Object nastojayoshchego researches - dialogical interaction of the psychologist and the client - opreyodeljaet an approach choice to definition of concept of strategy and working typology reyochevyh strategy.

Communicative (speech) strategy in dialogue were investigated in works [Dry 1998; Klyuyev 2002; Tretjakova 2003; Parshin 2005; Vereschagin, KostomaYOrov 2005; Fedorova 2007; Issers 2008; Borisov 2009; Mkrtychjan 2012].

Speech strategy is defined in our research as the plan of speech behaviour of the person, promoting achievement of the purpose of communications [VasilYOev, Cherkassk 2013: 15-43].

The principle of a feedback underlying dialogical dialogue, opyoredeljaet specificity of dialogical strategy (unlike monologic): interaction of strategy and tactics speaking with counter-strategy and kontryotaktikami the addressee, updating of tactics on a course of dialogue depending on reaction of the addressee, observed perlokutivnyj effect. Thus, in diayologicheskom dialogue there is ingerentnyj for strategy a parametre planiroyovanija, and also control parametre [Vasilev, Cherkassk 2013: 15]. In dialogue goyo
vorjashchy constantly is guided on listening, supervises its reaction and on the basis of it regulates the speech behaviour [Red 2012: 227-8].

As feature of colloquial dialogue is unpredictability of a current of dialogue, dialogical intentsija differs flexibility and izmenchivoyostju (dynamism) [Issers 2008; Vasilev, Cherkassk 2013].vybor strateyogii speaking not predzadan nadsituativno and it is unequivocal, and it is caused dinamiyokoj courses of speech interaction - previous, flowing, and takyozhe by anticipated reactions of the interlocutor.

L.R.Duskaeva allocates two types intentsy in dialogue: 1) primary and 2) secondary (arising under the influence of a situation and-or a context). GovorjaYOshchy - under own discretion or under the pressure of a situation - can izmeyonit the speech intention during dialogue, introduce in it corrective amendments, change it up to opposite or in general refuse from svoyoego an initial plan [Duskaeva 2012].

Efficiency of strategy in dialogue is defined by quantity dostignuyotyh the purposes, an optimality of their achievement (i.e. quantity of tactics and the courses, required for purpose achievement) [Dejk 1989: 272].

Being the phenomenon kognitivnogo the plan, inaccessible to direct supervision, speech strategy is realised in the form of some sequence of speech tactics [Issers 2008]. Klyuyev 2002: 222 is peculiar to strategy potential, virtual hayorakter whereas tactics is realisation, or plan actualisation, its real embodiment [; Vereschagin, Kostomarov 2005: 531]. Communicative strategy causes internal connectivity speech takyotik and courses [Issers 2008: 109-110]. Strategy crushing on tactics be based on various aspects of strategy - illokutivnom or propozitsionalnom soyoderzhanii [Vasilev, Cherkassk 2013: 15].

E.M.Vereschagin, V.G.Kostomarov have entered the term «reche-behavioural taktiyoka» and define it as «homogeneous on intentsii and realisations a line povedeyonija (pattern) kommunikanta-1, entering into its efforts for the sake of achievement strategiyo
cheskogo perlokutivnogo effect »[Vereschagin, Kostomarov 2005: 525]. I.N.BoYorisova defines speech tactics as« speech action (set dejstyovy), corresponding to this or that stage in realisation of speech strategy and directed on the decision of a private communicative problem »[Borisov 1996: 30]. In our research we will take advantage of this definition of speech tactics.

Ultimate goal of any speech strategy is model correction miyora the addressee; each speech tactics is directed on concrete aspects of model of the world (knowledge, an estimation, desire). The essence of application of concrete tactics and them komyobinatsii consists in changing a configuration of these parametres in necessary speaking a direction: to strengthen any desires, to change estimations, transyoformirovat an image of any situation [Vereschagin, Kostomarov 2005; Fedorova 2007; Issers 2008].

Speech tactics in dialogue possesses following signs: 1) dinamichyonost (provides operative reaction to varying situation); 2) vayoriabelnost (within the limits of one strategy unsuccessful tactics are replaced drugiyomi), 3) kombinatornost (tactics are built in the scenario), 4) konventsional - nost (tactics are stored in memory in a kind klishirovannyh the preparations which calibration is defined by a concrete situation) [Dry 1998: 39; Issers 2008: 109­110; Vereschagin, Kostomarov 2005: 525-526].

Speech tactics verbalizujutsja by means of concrete speech actions (speech courses) which language registration signals about this or that tactics. Manifestatsionno-language means of verbalisation of speech tactics podyorazdeljajutsja on levels of system of language on semantic, lexical, leksikoyogrammaticheskie pragmatical [Issers 2008: 130-138].

As to typology of speech strategy, in our research for osnoyovu O.S.Issers's concept as it is most razrayobotannoj for dialogical dialogue is accepted. By functional criterion speech strategy are subdivided into the cores (directed on influence) and vspomoyogatelnye (the interactions directed on the organisation). Auxiliary
Strategy are subdivided further into three types: pragmatical, dialogue and riyotoricheskie. Pragmatical strategy can have a various orientation: self-expression of the sender (self-presentation strategy), contact to the addressee (kontaktoustanavlivajushchie and emotionally adjusting strategy), etc. Dialogue strategy are directed on management of a communicative situation - the control over the initiative, the control over a theme. Rhetorical strategy sposobyostvujut to more successful realisation of the basic strategy [Issers 2008: 106 107]. We will notice, that in one speech action speech strategy of various types can be realised.

Professionally marked communicative strategy is a knowledge of various ways of achievement of the purposes of dialogue in given professional sfeyore [Bejlinson 2009]. Professional speech strategy are subdivided on two macrogroups: 1) informative and 2) the interactive. Informative strategy include strategy of reception, information granting, veriyofikatsii the validity of the information. Interactive strategy will organise vzaiyomodejstvie in professional sphere and include pragmatical, dialogue and rhetorical strategy [ZHura 2008].

Further we will consider concept of professional communicative style and its components.

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A source: GRINEVA MARIA SERGEEVNA. SUBSTANTIAL CHARACTERISTICS of SPEECH ACTIONS of the PRACTICAL PSYCHOLOGIST In the THERAPEUTIC DISCOURSE. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Kaluga - 2018. 2018

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