>> Influence of cultural values on metaphors about transfer

The conceptual world of the translator includes not only linguistic and literary theories, but also its outlook. Z.Tan comes to conclusion, that many metaphors about transfer reflect cultural values and ideologies [Tan 2006: 47 - 49].

(For example, kontseptualizatsija the translator as matchmakers is reflected by an uncooperative altitude to matchmakers in China. According to Z.Tana, metaphors about transfer as competition are much more frequency in the West, than in China, that also can be connected with cultural values.) This conclusion corresponds to the statement of J. Lakoffa and M.Johnson that «our values are not independent; they together with metaphorical concepts with which we live, should form consistent system» [Lakoff 2004: 46]. As kontsept transfer is the core for the translator, metaphors about transfer reflect cultural values. One of problems of the present dissertation - to define the cultural values reflected in metaphors about transfer in texts in Russian and English languages.

From this point of view, to revealing of cultural specificity of metaphors about transfer various theories and methods of definition of cultural values can be useful. G.Hofstede's theory which promoted occurrence of a new research paradigm in intercultural psychology and intercultural communications, has been developed proceeding from the given intercultural interrogations and the researches spent about 1960th on 2002 At the heart of this theory - six cultural "measurements" which describe influence of cultural values on behaviour:

- Power distance, i.e. «Degree in which the members of the organisations allocated with the smaller power and institutes [...] accept and expect, that the power is distributed non-uniformly» [Hofstede URL: http://www.geerthofstede.nl/dimensions-of-national - culturesl:

- Individualism - a collectivism, i.e. «Degree in which individuals are integrated into groups» [In the same place];

- maskulinnost - feminnost, i.e. «Distribution of emotional roles between floors» [In the same place];

- Long-term - short-term orientation, i.e. Degree in which «societies encourage the pragmatical virtues focused on compensation in the future» [In the same place];

- Indulgence to desires - restraint, i.e. Degree in which the society «provides rather free satisfaction of the basic and natural human requirements connected with pleasure by a life and fun» [In the same place];

- Uncertainty avoiding, i.e. «Shipping an uncertainty and ambiguity society» [In the same place].

Judging by points in which these parametres (from 1 to 120), the basic English-speaking cultures more are measured or are less similar with each other whereas between these cultures and the Russian culture there are big distinctions on all from these measurements [Hofstede URL: http://www.geerthofstede.nl/dimension-data-matrix: Hofstede 2010а]:

Table 1. Quantitative characteristics of cultural values in Russia and the English-speaking countries
Parametres Points
Russia The Great Britain THE USA Canada Australia New Zealand
Power distance 93 35 40 39 36 22
Individualism - a collectivism 39 89 91 80 90 79
Maskulinnost - feminnost 36 66 62 52 61 58
Long-term - short-term orientation 81 51 26 36 21 33

To desires - restraint

20 69 68 68 71 75
Uncertainty avoiding 95 35 46 48 51 49

We will try to find out, how much cultural distinctions on these parametres influence cultural specificity of metaphors about transfer.

Also there can be correlations between cultural specificity of metaphors about transfer and the most important in the given culture kontseptami.

According to A.Vezhbitskoj, key kontsepty, reflecting basic values of certain culture, are expressed by "keywords", i.e. The most frequency for this culture words [Wierzbicka 1997: 11 - 17]. For example, she considers, that kontsept the native land is especially important for representatives of the Russian culture as a word the native land is used in Russian much more often English corresponding to it homeland [In the same place: 12]. How the given approach can be used for the analysis of cultural specificity of metaphors about transfer? It is possible to assume, that the words used more often in certain culture, than in other cultures, and expressing metaphorical domains-sources with which help transfer is comprehended, will be used in metaphors about transfer in this culture more often, than in other cultures. It means, that certain metaphorical ways of judgement of transfer will be more characteristic for this culture, than for others.

Cultural values are supplemented and are in interrelation with ideological values which also are reflected in metaphors about transfer. As marks T.Hermans, in the twentieth century new metaphors about transfer were created within the limits of ideological approaches to transfer [Hermans 2004]: for example, the postcolonial ideology is obvious in L.Venuti's appeal to "zametnosti" («visibility») translator [Venuti 1995] and in Brazilian project of "anthropophages" (current of the beginning of the twentieth century, postulating refusal of the translator to serve the author and equating the translator to "cannibal" or "vampire" in relation to the author). Perevodovedy-feminists have rejected the fidelity requirement in transfer. These new approaches «have expanded and partly reoriented traditional terminology» [Hermans 2004: 124].

As marks N.Raund, metaphors about the transfer, based on ideologies, it is important to use with care [Round 2005: 54 - 56]. It with suspicion concerns the metaphors reflecting ideology of the translator as the importance of areas-sources in the literal contexts which are not concerning transfer, can undermine their importance as metaphors about transfer. In its opinion though feministicheski the adjusted translators and perevodovedy reject the metaphor of fidelity based as they confirm, «on out-of-date concepts of submission and contractual duties in relation to the text-source or the spouse», about transfer there can not be a speech if the translator is not responsible transfer by the author [Ibid.: 55].

It is impossible to avoid influence of ideology of the translator on judgement of transfer, but always there is a danger of that this influence will be negative. For example, the religious concept "zhivopodobija" which in the seventeenth century has been automatically transferred from theories ikonopisi to reasonings on transfer (by means of a metaphor transfer is zhivopodobnaja an icon), has led to clumsy literalism (section 3.3.1 see). The metaphors based on ideology, will be analysed in the present dissertation, and we will consider as their advantage (for example, conformity of metaphors to ideologies does transfer psychologically attractive to translators), and their lacks.

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A source: SHATALOV Dmitry Gennadievich. METAPHORICAL JUDGEMENT of TRANSFER. 2014

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