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1.1. Ambiguity: kinds and approaches to studying

Ambiguity as a general scientific problem is present at various areas of knowledge. So, in a legal discourse ambiguity means ‘ doubtfulness ’, ‘ uncertainty ’, ‘ an ambiguity ’, ‘ an ambiguity ’, for example, the document: ambiguity upon the factum - ‘ an ambiguity concerning a document being ’; latent ambiguity - ‘ latent (hidden, caused by circumstances laying out of the document) an ambiguity ’.

In economy ambiguity is treated in terms neopredelyonnoyosti - uncertainty, and also doubtfulness and unauthenticity in such vyrayozhenijah, as uncertainty of exchange rates‘неустойчивость exchange rates, currency fluctuations ’, exogenous uncertainties‘внешнеэкономические faktoyory uncertainty ’, statistical uncertainty‘статистическая neopredelyonyonost ’ [Collins http]. The concept of uncertainty, an ambiguity and discrepancy, i.e. an openness to more than one possibility of interpretation contacts interpretation of ambiguity according to a number of English-speaking dictionaries. Ambiguity connect with uncertainty, an ambiguity, misunderstanding, an ambiguity (ambiguity, uncertainty, vagueness, inexactness) [Collins http; Oxford English Dictionary http; Oxford American Dictionary http]. In some cases the certain contradiction, collision of values of an ambiguous word (contradiction of meanings) is marked So in the Oksfordyosky American dictionary ambiguity is treated by the following obrayozom: ‘ uncertainty or inexactness of meaning in language ’ i.e. ‘ an ambiguity, neopreyodelyonnost or discrepancy of value in language ’ [Oxford American Dictionary http].

Having analysed entries of English-speaking sources, it is possible to draw a conclusion that the term "ambiguity" (ambiguity) in the basic value acts as ability to be opened to plural
To interpretations, this property of ambiguity is the general for all entries analysed by us. Thus, neodnoznachyonost means by itself:

- ‘ the quality of being open to more than one interpretation; inexactness ’ [Oxford English dictionary http];

- ‘ state of being unclear, confusing, or not certain, or things that produce this effect ’ [Webster's 1828 Dictionary http];

- ‘ when something has more than one possible meaning ’ [Cambridge Dic­tionaries Online http]

- ‘ something that is not clear because it has more than one possible meaning or a situation with a lack of clear and exact use of words, so that more than one meaning is possible ’ [MacMillan Dictionary http];

- ‘ doubtfulness or uncertainty of signification, from a word's being suscepti­ble of different meanings; double meaning; something liable to more than one in­terpretation, explanation or meaning, if that meaning etc. cannot be determined from its context ’ [Multi-Lingual Dictionary http];

- ‘ the phenomenon that an expression has more than one meaning. Two dif­ferent types of ambiguity can be distinguished on the basis of what is causing it: lexical ambiguity (more than one word meaning) and structural ambiguity (more than one syntactic structure).

Ambiguity has to be distinguished from vagueness and context dependence ’ [Lexicon of Linguistics http];

- ‘ the presence of two or more distinct meanings for a single word or expres­sion. In itself, ambiguity is a common, harmless, and often amusing feature of or­dinary language. When unnoticed in the context of otherwise careful reasoning, however, it can lead to one of several informal fallacies ’ [Dictionary of Philosoph­ical Terms and Names http].

Proceeding from the term description ambiguity, it is possible to draw a conclusion that "ambiguity" - wide concept, applicable to different spheres, podrayozumevajushchee a duality, uncertainty, an ambiguity interpreyotatsy. The majority of these terms have the general sign of value - ‘ something
Difficult for understanding, uncertain, not clear ’ - ‘ something being difficult to understand, uncertain and obscure ’ [OneLook http]. In this respect neodyonoznachnost connect with concept "uncertainty" [Вентцель1988; DaYOvitashvili, Chernjavsky 2009; Carps 2000].

Terms puzzleи enigma, designating ‘ a person or thing that is difficult to understand or explain ’ [OneLook http] also underline zavuali - rovannost values, the sense of a lexical unit thus does not lay on poyoverhnosti, and is hidden, can be interpreted only at more tshchatelyonom the analysis of a context of a situation. The term concerns more special case of use ambiguous leksisa equivocation - ‘ the use of ambiguous language to conceal the truth or to avoid committing oneself also; prevarication ’ [In the same place], meaning ambiguity and possibility of double interpretation in definite purposes; thus, concept poluchayoet negative konnotatsiju.

The phenomenon of ambiguity drew attention of scientists with old vreyomyon and was considered in a close connection with a polysemy peculiar cheloyovecheskomu to language and thinking. Considering ambiguity as neotemyolemoe property of human consciousness, it is possible to see psychological roots of this phenomenon in formation of scientific consciousness. According to E.A.Sergienko, «growth and distribution of scientific knowledge gives rise somneyonija and polifonichnost, ambiguity of a picture of the world whereas the everyday consciousness gravitates to binary system of representations: truly - it is incorrect, prayovilno - it is wrong, good - badly» [Sergienko http].

The majority of real vital problems multi-variant approach of development and impossibility odnoznachyonogovybora, i.e. some uncertainty contain ambiguity in this or that kind. The sense problem - in psihoyologicheskih statements of a question on a freedom in choosing - began to be considered in variety of its ways that included polaganie mnogourovnevosti and samoyoreguljatsii in the analysis of acts and decisions of the person. Uncertainty became one of the major concepts of works, in which on the foreground vydvinuyo
You problems of self-determination and self-control of the person [Davitashvili, Chernjavsky 2009]. The person daily rises before a problem of the permission of ambiguity of this or that situation, initially not possessing dostatochyonym quantity of the information, the support necessary for decision-making. Certainly, any decision will be accepted in any case, but whether it will be true or whether will be of use, it is not known. Quality of a condition neopredelyonyonosti can be various. E.S.Venttsel distinguishes three types neopredeyolyonnostej [1988: 1]) uncertainty of the purposes (it is reflected at statement zayodachi, a choice of separate criteria or all useful effect); 2) neopreyodelyonnost our knowledge of surrounding conditions and operating in danyonom the phenomenon factors (uncertainty of environment); 3) uncertainty dejyostvy the partner.

«Under uncertainty, - marks A.V.carp, - it is understood nedoyostatochnost the relevant information for a choice administrative alternayotiv» [2000: 130]. Uncertainty causes occurrence of the situations which do not have an unequivocal outcome (decisions) [Venttsel 1988: 26]. From here sleyoduet, that «the uncertainty situation lays down process of self-determination of the subject in conditions of an infinite choice of ways, alternatives and vozmozhnoyostej» [Davitashvili, Chernjavsky 2009].

In models of classical logic uncertainty is «a situation, koyotoraja takes place, when the same object possesses vzaimoiskljuchajuyoshchimi properties, thus, if they are quantitatively equal in the relation, isyokljuchajushchem each other, uncertainty is absolute» [Carps 2000: 27]. Some authors notice, that from the point of view of semantics neopredelyonyonost it is possible to characterise as a lack, shortage, razmytost, skry - tost sense or its absence, absence of definiteness is more exact. poyomimo lexical ambiguity semantic uncertainty priyosushcha to such phenomenon, as shirokoznachnost (evrisemichnost) [Zhukov, ZHuYOkov 2003]. It is noticed, that shirokoznachnosti the diffusion principle (razmytosti also is peculiar, to an ambiguity) the values, inherent polisemii
[Apresjan 1995; Zhukov, Zhukov 2003]. Diffusion of word meanings predpolayogaet the uncertain or ambiguous use of a word in speech, that meyoshaet to discrete representation of word meanings in language (in particular, in sloyovare) [Apresjan 1995]. However "shirokoznachnost" and "polysemy" not javyoljajutsja the equivalent. As marks N.N.Amosov: « Under wide znacheniyoem words we understand the value containing the maximum degree obobyoshchenija, shown in the pure state only in the conditions of isolation of a word from reyochi both receiving known narrowing and a concrete definition at the use of the given word in speech »[Amosov 1963]. As an example shirokoznachnogo words A and K.Zhukovy [2003] result a word thing which in English language in the isolated condition means« any reality serving by a subject of thought ». Also it is noticed, that in different contexts given shiyorokoznachnoe the word can receive the various specifications which are not removing, however, this wide value and consequently acting only as"podznacheyonija". The word thingпри it can act in such values as« ‘ something existing ’, ‘ the phenomenon ’, ‘ action ’, ‘ result of action ’, ‘ a being ’, etc. »[In the same place].

Comprehension of language ambiguity was inherent in already ancient people, including to ancient Greeks. Aristotle's postulate says: «poyoskolku the quantity of words - is limited, and number of things (subjects) - not ograyonicheno, inevitably, that the same word is allocated by many values» [Aristotle 1976: 123]. In Aristotle's postulate the essence filosofyoskogo the approach to ambiguity contains. Many basic concepts of philosophy also are ambiguous. Critics rank as that, for example, concept "paradigm" of Thomas Kuna's philosophy which is realised in its concept more than in ten different values: ‘ most an overall picture of the rational device of the nature, outlook ’; ‘ disciplinary matyoritsa, characterising set of belief, values, means etc. which unite experts in given scientific soobshcheyostvo ’ and many other things [the Dictionary the Academician http].

In the book [Ivanov http] the review of the points of view on the maintenance of concept "word meaning" among which the greatest interest for our research is represented by sights of linguists and psychologists is presented, questions of a parity of language and thinking entered into a circle nauchyonyh which interests.

S.D.Katsnelson defines a lexical word meaning as «a minimum of knowledge, sufficient for an identification of displayed object». According to A.R.Lurija, value is the steady system which has objectively developed in the course of history of the generalisations, standing up for a word, identical to all ljuyodej. It is noticed, that this system can have only different depth, razyonuju obobshchyonnost, different width of coverage of designated subjects, but it necessarily keeps an invariable kernel - a certain set of communications. The author of the review, V.I.Ivanov, notices, that the concept represents «a lexical word meaning»:

1) «fixed in consciousness speaking correlation of a sound complex of language unit to that or other phenomenon of the validity»;

2) «the maintenance of a word displaying in consciousness and fixing in it representation about a subject, property, process, the phenomenon etc.»;

3) «a product of cogitative activity of the person». Also it is noticed, that the lexical word meaning is connected with an information reduction chelovecheyoskim consciousness, with such kinds cogitative processes as comparison, classification, generalisation and reflects various signs, with the help koyotoryh it is possible to distinguish subjects from each other »[Ivanov http].

According to the typology of lexical values offered by V.V. VinoYogradovym, it is accepted to allocate a direct or nominative word meaning, frayozeologicheski the connected lexical word meaning and sintaksicheski obuyoslovlennoe lexical value. Direct or nominative znachenijayomi the words designating «subjects real dejyostvitelnosti» possess, first of all, they are freely combined with in other words and have shiroyokie verbal communications [Vinogradov 1953: 12]. Phraseologically connected lekyosicheskie word meanings do not correspond directly with subjects of the real
The validity because are not free unlike nomiyonativnyh, and on the contrary "gravitate" to each other. The words having similar lexical values are a part of set phrases - seven pjayodej in a forehead, Achilles' a heel, to cut on a nose, to prick up skis, slomja goyolovu and so on. Sintaksicheski the caused lexical value realiyozuetsja in a word only when it acts in the offer in opredelyonyonoj syntactic function. As the examples illustrating sinyotaksicheski caused values, in V.I.Ivanovoj's book are resulted sleyodujushchie offers:

The hat laid on a table.

We took a hat from a table.

Well you for a hat!

In the two first examples a word the hat has subject and addition function. In the third example this word carries out predicate function, getting sintaksicheski the caused value.

Certainly, is possible to say that depending on a context and compatibility with in other words in one word can prisutyostvovat all three types of the lexical values described in given klassifiyokatsii. For example:

The head - ‘ is a part of a body of the person or an animal in which there is a brain ’ (nominative value).

He ran on appointment rashly (phraseologically connected lekyosicheskoe value).

It at us - a head (sintaksicheski the caused value).

L.V.ShCherba noticed, that «it is wrong to think, that words have on neyoskolku values: it, as a matter of fact, formal and even is simple tipoyografskaja the point of view. Actually we has always so much words, how many the pledged phonetic word has values... It follows logically from priyoznanija unities of the form and the maintenance, and we should speak not about words simply, and about words-concepts» [SHCHerba http]. In the same communication the author goyo
vorit about that the words having the similar phonetic form, for iskljucheyoniem homonyms, form «difficult system». In the book [Katsnelson 2011] it is noticed, that the given statement underlies abstraktnoyoteoreticheskogo the approach to polisemii which adherents «started with a primacy of the form and, accordingly, endowed riches concrete znayocheny, designing uniform“ a general meaning ”for the uniform form» [KatsnelYOson 2011: 44]. The empirical approach to polisemii, an assuming priority of concept and minority edinyostva words is opposed the described approach.

It is noticed, that the theory of "general meaning" of a word was defended mnogiyomi by linguists [Aksakov 1875, Ahmanova 2009, Vinogradov 1957, Nekrasov 2012, Kasares http, Baidinger 1957, Jacobson 1936]. In work [Katsnelson 2011, with. 45] it is said that supporters of "general meanings" achieve restoration of "a symmetry rule» by data of all word meanings to one general therefore it «accepts trudnoopredelimye, rasyoplyvchatye, fantastic lines» [In the same place]. Sometimes concept «the general znacheyonie» replace with the term "principal value" of a word which can be vyyojavleno by means of studying of the language practice reflected in dictionaries chayostotnosti, and also in explanatory dictionaries.

A.A.potebnja notices, that a principle polisemii which consists that to one lexical unit there correspond some values, is convenient, first of all, at drawing up of dictionaries, for «time and place savings» [potebnja 1941: 33]. However such principle, according to the author, should not lead researchers of thought that the word can have neyoskolko values. In article [Iomdin 2014] the point of view that coincidence of the lexical and sound form of a word is a sign toyogo, that before us not different values of one word, and different words between which it is possible to track the certain historically developed communications expresses. polisemija and a homonymy at such principle of classification actually are not distinguishable.

The principle of unity of the form and the word maintenance also is treated as a principle of "solidarity", "symmetry", "harmony" and so on [Katsnelson 2011]. Occurrence polisemii as negative unnatural javleyonija, one carry to insufficient efficiency of human memory [Baidinger 1957], others - to "limitation" of language resources [VinograYOdov 1957, Kasares http].

The "general meaning" theory was exposed to criticism owing to the several reasons. In the book [Katsnelson 2011] on an example of a word a pig it is shown, that the values of the given word concerning a category "person" (figuratively) and "animal" have only one general sign - nechistoplotyonost. As the author marks, these two lexical values can be vzai - movyrazheny in the following offer: This person possesses kachestvayomi pigs. Thus it is not specified, whether the given person all kacheyostvami pigs or only one - absence of cleanliness possesses. As otmechayoetsja in the book [Katsnelson 2011] if the person whom compare to a pig, possessed all qualities of the given animal, it magic obrayozom would reincarnate in something artiodactyl, tuporyloe, klykastoe, spoyosobnoe to grunt and so on. « If some mean only kayochestva pigs as, for example, untidiness concepts remain razyonymi and, insisting on their association, we receive not less ridiculous utveryozhdenie, that diverse concepts of a pig and the careless person can be alloyed in one "superconcept", a certain concept-monster, sovmeshchajuyoshchee in themselves signs of a pig and the person »[In the same place: 49]. It is impossible to tell, that properties and the signs of these two values concerning different categories, completely coincide, only partially. A word the pig has the following znayochenija: 1) ‘ an animal ’; 2) ‘ the person (dirty creature) ’; 3) ‘ the person (rascal) ’. From three values of the given word only the first, the direct sense has kontseptualyonuju the importance while others two are elements of" ekspresyosivno-stylistic means of language »[Kurilovich 1955: 55]. They have razyonye use spheres, and occurrence of the second and third values obuslovyo
leno not «conceptual, and affective requirements» [In the same place]. AnaYOlogichnaja the point of view is reflected in article [Vinogradov 1953: 10]

In work [Jacobson 1936] are allocated the general and combinatory znacheyonija. The last arise only in the presence of a verbal environment - konyoteksta which "specifies" value of a multiple-valued word. Thus otmechayoetsja, that using a multiple-valued word in speech, the ordinary native speaker does not reflect on a variety of values of a used lexical unit. At the moment of construction of the statement for it that value which is realised in a context is actual only. Thus, the context influences performance of two consecutive actions - selection (selection) of value and its actualisation [Katsnelson 2011].

It is noticed, that the maintenance of a multiple-valued word is caused sisteyomoj language, instead of speech as values of a multiple-valued word in different jazyyokah frequently are not equivalents each other [In the same place]. It is easy to confirm the given fact on an example of the words taken as a material for issleyodovanija in our work. Russian word a plug cannot serve ekvivalenyotom English forkв values ‘ a cross-road ’, ‘ a tongue of flame ’, ‘ the pickpocket ’, and the word a chest unlike English trunkне is an equivalent of such values, as ‘ a trunk ’, ‘ a trunk ’, ‘ a trunk ’.

Ambiguity of words, development of new values and loss old proyoishodjat in connection with society development, change of an epoch, values and obyyochaev. Opening the historical approach to a problem of ambiguity of a word, V.V. Vinogradov pays attention to ample opportunities of the latest reconsiderations of initial values and shades of words [Vinogradov 1953]. As an example the author results a verb to salt. Except direct concrete value ‘ to prepare a pickles, to put many salt in something ’, this verb in the modern language has a figurative sense ‘ poyovredit, to cause trouble ’. V.V. Vinogradov notices, that most likely, this figurative sense of a verb to salt has arisen on a basis there is no time existing representations about sorcery, as on superstitious predyo
stavlenijam the past, scattering with slander of various subjects could cause illness and damage. The persons passing through bewitched subjects or touching them, were exposed to "damage"; on purpose to harm and it was used often "nagovornaja" salt [In the same place]. ^vremennye isyosledovanija problems of "development" of new word meanings and "dying off" stayoryh, process «eternal movement and lexicon updating» Russian opiyosyvajutsja in article [poljakova 2013]. The author quotes K.Chukovskogo, words koyotorogo as well as possible reflect the changeable, constantly developing nature of language: « Its one words die off, others are born, the third of obyolastnyh and slangy become literary, the fourth of literaturyonyh leave in popular speech, the fifth are said absolutely in another way, than proyoiznosilis about forty years ago, the sixth demand other cases, than it was, say, at Zhukovsky and Pushkin »[In the same place]. Words of any language tend to change the values eventually, that subsequently can complicate understanding of texts of fiction, napisanyonyh the authors who are not our contemporaries. The given fact has been considered in particular at drawing up of" the Dictionary of the rare and forgotten words »V.P.Somova. It is possible to find many words which value has exchanged in HH century In R.I.Poljakovoj's article [2013] In it following examples are resulted: the auditor - ‘ the official who was taking up at warships a post sledovayotelja, the public prosecutor and the secretary ’; the brawler - ‘ trading barns on landing stage, and also landing stage ’; the entrant - ‘ the graduate of high school ’; mizer - ‘ bedyonost, need ’; oblom - ‘ rough, clumsy or the ill-mannered person ’. In the statement that «language creates speech, and itself it is created in speech» [MaksiYOmov 2001: 18], the language nature as properties of a society and each person separately is reflected. Communications, interaction between people to the full it is impossible without speech support, and speech does not exist separately from language.

Ambiguity is the integral property of a language sign. According to «the law of asymmetry of a language sign», formulated S.O.
Kartsevsky, the sign and value do not cover each other completely. Noticing after Sossjurom, that «the nature of a linguistic sign should be neizyomennoj and mobile simultaneously», the author specifies that the same sign can serve for transfer different znachimostej (for example, moryofema and in words of a table, a sail, the wife serves as means of expression of forms indirect and imenitelnogo word and plural cases), and the same importance can be presented different signs (for example, plural in words tables, sails, peasants), that potentially does each sign by a homonym and a synonym simultaneously »[Kartsevsky http].

Some authors mark derivational character of a lexical polysemy which is characterised by hierarchy - all word meanings are expressly or by implication subordinated to the main thing, major importance [Katsnelson 2011; potebnja 1941]. We will consider derivational structure of a multiple-valued word on a word example soft (a Fig. 1):


In work [Katsnelson 2011: 59] it is noticed, that owing to that communications between values cannot be established once and for all, and derivatsionyonaja the structure can undergo changes eventually, neobhoyodimo «to distinguish etymological, that is historically removed, and aktualyonye, is effective shown in a word of the given epoch derivational otnoyoshenija».

There is a classification of kinds of the polysemy, constructed on osyonove word accessories to a certain part of speech. Are allocated mnogoyoznachnost nouns, verbs and adjectives. In our work inyoteres represent ambiguous nouns. In the book [Apresjan 1971] detailed classification of values of nouns is resulted, koyotorye are subdivided on 2 two groups: actantial values and other values. The nouns which values correspond with each other as follows concern the first group:

- Action - the subject of action: sensation (to make sensation - not hoyochu to be sensation);

- Condition - the condition reason: insult (to bear a grudge - Such obi - yes, that it has not arrived);

- Property - the subject of property: authority (authority scientific - mneyonie the best authorities);

- Action - object of action: embroidery (to be engaged in embroidery - its embroidery);

- Action - result of action: a dislocation (a shin dislocation - to set vyyovih) etc.

Polysemy special cases concern the second group: sushcheyostvitelnye which values are not described in the first group: a plant - a fruit/flower of this plant (an apricot, an aster); a tree - its wood (a fur-tree, a cedar); an animal - its fur/meat (a polar fox, a goose); a body part - its expression (glayoza, the person); body body - its disease (At it a kidney); capital/name gosuyo
darstva - its government "(Washington, Russia); an animal, an insect - the person similar to it (a hippopotamus, a spider) and many other things [Apresjan 1971].

As principal views of lexical ambiguity are considered poliseyomija and a homonymy. Both these concepts meet often, however, in the first sluyochae, various values of one word have any general sign (for example, a needle for sewing or the needle of a hedgehog), and in the second coincides only grayoficheskaja and the phonetic form of the words, which lexical values have not something in common at all (marriage in value ‘ defect ’ or ‘ a matrimony ’). Syntactic ambiguity appears then, «when the person vospriyonimaet (reads, hears) a certain text, and it needs to accept simultaneously set of decisions concerning its interpretation» [the Drag 2006: 44]. Proceeding from this statement, it is possible to consider, that the ambiguity problem in some cases is not actual for speaking or writing, the one who creates the statement, i.e. kommunikatora - in normal communications people do not put in the statement simultaneously some senses. TaYOkaja the situation frequently develops in texts in which ambiguity bears certain function - to draw attention of the reader, to confuse it, to force to ponder upon the read. In particular as O.V.Dragoj's example results offers of type Someone shot the maid of the actress who was on the balcony.В this case, on a sentence structure it is not clear, whom all the same have shot - the servant or the actress. Such offers quite often meet in art texts, and also in jokes and jokes, osnoyovannyh on language game.

In linguistics the ambiguity problem was considered by many researchers. In science history attempts of "struggle" with neodnoyoznachnostju as the negative phenomenon are known. Supporters of classical logic in which basis the ambiguity principle lays, aspired to subordinate language and thinking to this principle according to which the parity between sounding and value, between a writing and sounding should carry simyometrichnyj character. Presence of such kinds of ambiguity, as omofonija and

Homography, break, in opinion of "supporters of unambiguity», natural harmony of the world.

Attempts to refuse a polysemy towards language simplification were undertaken repeatedly. For example, sharp change of English vocalism in XV—VI has led centuries to that 5 public letters of English alyofavita, symbolise now 22 vowel sounds. B.Shou's will according to which big suma money intends to the one who doyobetsja liquidations of a polysemy of English spelling [Pumpjansky 1983: 124] is known.

Researchers of a problem of ambiguity classify treatments of the given phenomenon on the basis of certain criteria. J.D.Apresjan allocates a language and speech polysemy. Syntactic and lexical neodnoyoznachnost, according to the author, are kinds of a language polysemy. As the examples illustrating a speech polysemy, the following is resulted: the Patient has blinked, Ivan has fallen, the Child has often begun to breathe, It has broken a window an elbow, John cut off to itself an ear lobe [Apresjan 1971].otmechaetsja, that the given offers suppose two judgements: « "Intended" (somebody has made it) and "unintentional" (with someone it happens) »[In the same place]. PrimechatelYOno, that in work terms« a lexical polysemy »are used, koyotoraja plurality of word meanings, and« syntactic ambiguity », meaning« means syntactic ambiguity leyozhashchih in their basis of designs »[In the same place]. Thus, it turns out, that terms« lexical ambiguity "and" a lexical polysemy »are synonyms. Such judgement raises the doubts.

The similar point of view is reflected in article [Zaliznjak http]. Are noticed, that ambiguity of a word is a term synonym «a lexical polysemy». However, according to dictionary Lingvo [http], terms "mnogoyoznachnost" and "polisemija" act as synonyms, being thus raznoyovidnostjami only lexical ambiguity which also the homonymy while directly term "ambiguity" mo - 26 also concerns

zhet to concern different levels: morphemes, forms of words, lexemes, frazeologizyomov, word-combinations and offers [Venttsel 1988]. Thus, it is possible to say that ambiguity - wider concept, than mnogoyoznachnost as which in considered work it is understood neodnoznachyonost exclusively at level of lexemes, and only cases polisemii. The Points of view of authors on a differentiation problem polisemii and homonymies, and also signs of the given phenomena on which basis these "get divorced" two poyonjatija, will be considered further. We consider, that terms "polisemija" and "polysemy" are synonyms. The parity of ambiguity, a polysemy, a homonymy and polisemii is presented on fig. 2.

Fig. 2

Lexical ambiguity, from the point of view of the native speaker facing it, was studied in the tideway of the psycholinguistic approach, razrabayotyvaemogo by A.A.Zalevsky, its pupils and followers. The ambiguity problem at word level as properties of the person was studied in aspect of storage of values polisemantichnogo words in a mental lexicon, their psychological status for the native speaker, from the point of view of influence vnutyorennego (mental) and external (verbal) context on processes koyodirovanija, storages and information extraction. Ambiguity at text level was studied with attraction of concepts «effect of the deceived expectation», "prajming-effect", «likelihood forecasting».

In materials of large-scale associative experiments, proyovedyonnyh A.A.Zalevsky with carriers of different languages, had been found out the reproduction and identification facts only one value of a multiple-valued word [Zalevsky 1971]. Studying of features of identification polisemanyotichnyh words have been continued by O.O.Kuznetsovoj [1978] who has established, that ambiguity polisemantichnogo words acts in film, when the examinee identifies a word only in its one value in the conditions of actualisation nekoyotorogo a semantic field. The carried out researches have allowed vyskayozat the proved assumption of separate storage polisemantichnyh words.

On purpose to reveal features of functioning of a word speaking another language in a context of studying IJA, I.L.Medvedevoj's research [1999] has been carried out. Considering a word speaking another language in a lexicon of the person from positions inyodividualnogo knowledge after A.A.Zalevsky, the author criticises the western models of mastering of lexicon speaking another language in which majority of word IJA are treated as «the discrete units which are subject“ to loading in memory ”» [Medvedev http]. In this context memory of the person is compared with kontejyonerom in which it is possible to "put" a word in its all variety znacheyony. I.L.Medvedev, on the contrary, considers mastering process inojazychnoyogo words as stage-by-stage "implantation" of a word in a mental lexicon, vkljuchayojushchego the identification, studying, mastering and the assignment considered as «transformation of a word into an accessor to uniform information base cheyoloveka» [In the same place]. Thus, a word in research I.L. Medvedevoj it is considered not as object which can be manipulated, and as «an accessor to various knowledge and the experiences, stored in its information thesaurus», and the lexicon of the individual is characterised as «samoorganizujushchajasja system which is reconstructed at inclusion in it of new units» [In the same place]. I.L.Medvedev notices, that the mental lexicon is based on a principle of associative communications and in the conditions of norm there are no the individuals knowing of many words, which among themselves in any way
Are connected. The similar point of view is reflected in S.I.Togoevoj's research [2000]. The author considers the processes connected with perception new sloyova as unit of an internal lexicon, noticing, that specificity of a new word is defined first of all «by interaction unknown earlier indiyovidu units with picture which has already developed at it of the world and, accordingly, with other units of an internal lexicon of the person» [In the same place].

Studying features of development polisemantichnogo words at children and vzrosyolyh, T.M.Rogozhnikova pays attention to degree of an urgency of this or that value polisemantichnogo of a word during the certain age period. The preference of different values polisemantichnogo words is traced in experiments with uneven-age Ii. Also communicates the author with change of relative density of ways of coordination with a word of the information about world around (is evident-effective, is evident-shaped and conceptual thinking) [Rogozhnikova 1986, http]. This conclusion proves to be true change assotsiayotivnyh reactions to the same isolated stimulus in process of growing Ii., that every time Ii testifies that. Include it in izmenenyonyj the internal context updated at the expense of deepening and expansion of the language and not language experience. In this sense it would be possible govoyorit about the leading part of an internal context in an identification of that value poliyosemantichnogo a word which is priority in a considered age range.

Other picture is observed in experiments with an identification "konyotekstnyh" polisemantichnyh words-stimulus. Materials such eksperimenyotov, spent by T.M.Rogozhnikovoj, testify in favour of a point zreyonija simultaneous emerging if not everything, at least, neskolyokih values of an ambiguous word [Rogozhnikova http]. The author comes to inconsistent conclusions concerning influence set external (veryobalnogo) a context on processes of identification of an ambiguous word in the text. Influence of a context on a word identification has been revealed. At the same time the data testifying to absence of such influence are obtained. In
Conditions of a rigid context sensual support which, apparently, should give way to a contextual variant persistently "appear". Personal suppresses a context, rises over it ("personal" value stanoyovitsja prepotent) [In the same place].

In N.M.Tkachenko's research [2007] on Russian material processes of identification of pseudo-words are considered. Spent issleyodovanie has allowed the author to allocate a number of support and strategy, to which pribeyogajut Ii., perceiving a pseudo-word separately and in the presence of a context. Besides influence of a verbal context in N.M.TkachenYoko's research considers personal features Ii. - age, a gender sign and formation. Initially the author came out the assumption that the given factors influence identification processes psevdoyoslov. However N.M.Tkachenko has come to conclusion, that received in a course proveyodyonnogo psycholinguistic experiment results testify that there are bases to assert, that no young man and the girl, technics and gumayonitarii, use cardinally different identification support [TkaYOchenko 2007].

In linguistic researches ambiguity at text level is usually discussed in connection with comic effect which is created at the expense of use of language game, pun, etc. in advertising and mass-media. Flexibility and possibility to plurality of interpretations causes presence of set of examples of ambiguity in texts of these genres [BurjaYOkov http; Dzemidok 1974; Krylov http; Zaliznjak http, etc.]. On A.A.Zaliznjak's supervision, a pun - the advertising favorite method, and effect reached with its help is based on the pleasure received from successful game: "success" of the addressee of advertising as partner in this game is detection to both of them of the senses which are simultaneously present at these or those reklamyonom the text. The author pays attention of readers that the pleasure is purely semiotics nature and «the second sense» often happens to some extent "indecent", but generally it is perfect neobjazayo
telno; such examples are resulted: «What communication between Moscow and podmosyokovem? - Moscow cellular; you will not leave our footwear never (an inscription under the image of the man and the woman, their boots connected with each other by laces); do not disregard a thing. New big catalogue IKEA», etc. [Zaliznjak http].

The joke in which basis lexical ambiguity posluyozhila that material lays, on which I.F.Brevdo studied a problem preodoleyonija text ambiguity from a position of the psycholinguistic approach [Brevdo 1998, 1999].

On I.F.Brevdo's supervision, ambiguity presence in hudozheyostvennyh texts, unlike scientific, not only does not complicate understanding, but also gives a highlight: « The interlacing of threads of senses and values in hudozheyostvennom the text, creating a basis for its various interpretations, neizyobezhno, differently product will seem too boring and predicted. Plurality of interpretations of the text consists in its features poyonimanija, carrying strategic, dejatelnostnyj, prognostichesky harakyoter which is in turn caused by ambiguity of the world, okruzhajuyoshchego perceiving subject »[Brevdo 1999]. In quoted work pokayozano, that originally multiple-valued word is perceived by the individual in contextual value which seems to it the only thing, and only an outcome which is making active any other word meaning, opens it neodnoyoznachnost, finding out development possibilities is perfect other scenario. The attention of the researcher is concentrated to how there is an emergency transition from incorrectly identified word on necessary in a certain situation of dialogue - a joke, a joke, etc. Among factors under which influence there is a choice of the necessary value, I.F.Brevdo names rate of the use of a word in concrete value and praj - ming-effect (effect predshestvovanija) [In the same place].

Studying of the nature of the comic is closely connected with effect of "the deceived expectation», considered in works [Brevdo 1999; Beets http; VoskreYO
sensky 2002; Zolotaryov http; the Roar http]. As «the deceived expectation» in this case it is understood ‘ variability of development of a situation ’, i.e. «vozmozhyonost developments of several scenarios of continuation of a situation» [Voskresenyosky 2002: 133]. The discussed phenomenon traditionally is object vniyomanija the authors studying headings of newspaper articles and their reason uspeshyonosti at recipients [Kolosov http; Pirogova 2000; Rubbed-minasova http; TSze, SHljahov http]. At the same time, as mark T.JU.Sazonov and A.V.Umerenkova [http] a situation of "the deceived expectation» often meets in different conditions of dialogue when the statement essence appears absolutely unexpected and rather far from predicted. The psycholinguistic essence rasyosmatrivaemogo effect is connected with such phenomena, as predictability and the unpredictability, underlying ekspektatsii and antitsipatsii otnosiyotelno "correct" development of a discourse [In the same place].

Thus, process of perception of ambiguity in oral or written speech carries «prognostichesky character». The mechanism prognoziroyovanija developments of a situation in all people is under construction approximately equally. proyotsess forecasting takes place, both during perception of another's speech, and at realisation by the subject of own statement. Listening or reading, the person predicts some events, standing up for the oral or written text; predetermines lexicon as means of the description of this event, predicts grammatical forms of lexical units and tseyolostnye structures. For definition of this phenomenon of I.M.Fejgenberg has entered concept «likelihood forecasting - a future anticipation, osyonovannoe on likelihood structure of last experience and the information on a cash situation or differently - actions or operations at reception the information consisting in preguessing of words or word-combinations» [the Psychological dictionary "Planeja" http]. Last experience and cash situayotsija give the basis for creation of hypotheses about the forthcoming future, and each of hypotheses attributes certain probability. According to likelihood forecasting preadjustment — is carried out under -

Cooking to corresponding actions of the individual. During time kommunikativnoyogo the certificate the person continuously plans (programs) the speech or the perception, carrying out necessary adjustments, switchings etc. From this point of view, each following unit should any obrayozom be verified and co-ordinated that is already said (or is apprehended) to a present situation. The described mechanism includes constant verification with a context: so, ability of likelihood forecasting assumes presence of certain intuition in a choice from among alternative soobshcheyony the most suitable to the given context [Sazonov http]. With psihoyolingvisticheskoj the points of view the context «is in a head listening», after all the interpretation certificate is impossible without correlation of the language information of the text with schemes of cash knowledge and the belief forming a number assotsiiyorujushchihsja of internal contexts [of Sazonov, Umerenkova http].

G.G.Granik and A.N.Samsonovoj's researches have shown, that text reading is accompanied prognosticheskoj by activity of the reader which, soyoedinjajas with its personal experience, leads to creation in imagination tselostyonoj pictures, own plot of product. The arisen installation operates the further perception of the text. In case of promotion by the reader of all variants of forecasts which allow to finish the text, there is a true (flexible) installation which anticipates the text maintenance, directs perception to the necessary channel. Absence of variants of forecasts deyolaet installation nonflexible, that can lead to aversion of the text [Granik, Samsonov http].

The principle of likelihood forecasting has been considered by A.V.umerenko howl for construction of models of "mental spaces of expectations» in situayotsii the deceived expectation at perception of "unexpected" scenarios retsiyopientom [Umerenkova 2009]. In research "unexpectedness" or, in other words, ambiguity of the scenarios offered by the examinee in ekspeyorimente, "acted in film" at the expense of semantic type prajminga, podrazumevayojushchego an involvement of associative thinking, rechemyslitelnyh obrayo
Call, establishments of associative communications in the course of construction of a projection of the text [In the same place: 17]. That is that enters in psycholinguistic ponjayotie an internal context.

To studying of the phenomena of ambiguity in business correspondence from a point zreyonija motives, strategy and support of the participant of communications on implitsirovaniju and to the ambiguity permission in communicative interaction posvjayoshcheno I.V.Voskresensky's research [2007]. In quoted work ustayonovleno, that ambiguity of an element is overcome for the account ispolzovayonija a complex of various support, «among which special value have original meta support as dynamic products of the text processing, situations described by it and all previous experience business kommuyonikatsii [In the same place: 6]. The author states an ambiguity estimation as the tool successfully applied in system of anti-recessionary management by that subekyotami of an economic reality which realise its potential [In the same place: 4].

The presented review of psycholinguistic researches osobennoyostej identifications of an ambiguous word - isolated and in structure tekyosta allows to speak (statements) about their contribution to studying of mechanisms of overcoming of ambiguity on a way to understanding, however leaves otyokrytym a question on a simultaneous or consecutive choice of values of ambiguous words at perception their person. Hypotheses or the models describing these processes, will be considered in the second chapter of the present research.

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A source: BELJAEVA Victoria Mihajlovna. STRATEGY of OVERCOMING of LEXICAL AMBIGUITY In the conditions of EDUCATIONAL BILINGVIZMA. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Tver - 2015. 2015

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