formation of speech function from the point of view of physiology

The traditional approach in the linguistics, developed in XIX century, considered language as a vehicle delivering the information from the sender to the addressee. Thus other, much more significant activity on mastering by the person by the articulation device was not considered.

Before the child will say the elementary offer, it should master the most complicated process of coordination of the muscles participating in an articulation (them more than hundred). On complexity this process cannot be compared with any another in ontogeneze. From the moment of a birth the child with improbable persistence trains muscles, mastering movements of eyes, hands, ability to hold a head to stand, go, master a small motility. The close connection of these processes with a motility recheproiznesenija has been proved during inspection of children of preschool age with the speech infringements, shown, that at 70 % of preschool children 49

Speech infringements are accompanied by infringements of a thin and general motility, at 85 % - infringements of visual and tactile perception [Massinger, Nikisch 1996].

The body of the person - the uniform mechanism, and an articulation of sounds of speech is carried out at all by simple fluctuation of sheaves, but by skilful unconscious statement of movement of air through soft mobile muscles. At an articulation of a sound the stream of air exhaled through a throat passes through a trachea, to a drink and a mouth, representing boldly moulded cavity reminding a channel of the river. Depending on what is said a sound, this cavity instantly varies by means of movement of muscles of the sky, language, a uvula, jaws and lips. When air stream exhausts through lips, it has the form of the site passed by it, so-called a river bed, defining a said sound, i.e. plastic forms of exhaled air are generated by a relief of internal muscles.

Mobile forms of air generated by speech were opened by Rudolf Shtajner in 1924, and in 1962 to I.Tsinke has been experimentally proved, that each sound of speech generates characteristic only for it the air form [Patslaf 2003]. These forms naturally are reproduced and chambers, device Tyoplera and interferometra can be embodied by means of the camera. Each form arises during shares of second, reaches the full volume, and then disappears. Thus, speech, first of all, formosozidajushchy process in which participate not only muscles of the vocal device, but also all body speaking, making at each sound of speech movements inaccessible to an unaided sight. Fix these movements representatives enough a young science - kineziki, studying a sign language in correlation with a language reality at which the riches impellent zhestiki are described on the basis of laws, categories and rules of the structurally-linguistic analysis [the New philosophical encyclopaedia 2001] could. Researchers fixed process 50

govorenija on the high-speed chamber (30 and 48 shots in a second) also have come to conclusion, that the pronouncing certificate proceeds synchronously with body micromovements, all muscles of a body from a head to feet will thus be involved. Identical, absolutely unconscious process, the truth, with the minimum delay milliseconds have shown on 40-50 the further researches, that, occurs at the person listening to the statement. The author of this opening, William Kondon so describes the given synchronism: It looks so as if all body listening precisely and plastically accompanies speech speaking pljasom Rondon 1974: 99-101], and body micromovements accompany only process of pronouncing of coherent sounds of speech irrespective of language on which they are said.

So, the two-day baby reacts identical micromovements both on English, and to the Chinese speech [in the same place]. Hence, speech heard by the person influences the unconscious"conductor"who is operating movements of a body and building in it by means of movement in process of perception of speech. The person listens all body : the impellent process started speaking, is transferred to muscles and finitenesses listening is a first stage of perception of speech; then movement from muscular activity is transferred to rhythmic activity of heart and lungs, leading to acceleration or delay of natural rhythms and giving rise to the response in"shower": From area of the unconscious there are semirealized emotions and the experiences transformed then a brain in concepts and representations, realised by the person. It is difficult physiological process, and, not stopping on details, we will underline only, that speech penetrates all person, generating the active impellent response at the listener.

Speaking about mastering of speech by children as about imitation process, it is necessary to specify, that it is a question, most likely, not of imitation, but about "sovyrazhenii". The researches of babies described in work Neonate Movement is Synchronized with Adult Speech"("Movement of the newborn baby 51

Proceeds synchronously with speech of the adult ), confirm, that the child since the first instant unconsciously is built in by all corporality the movements made by sounds, it "dances" a speech stream together with speaking with all accuracy and law, not introducing there anything the [Condon, Sander 1974: 100]. At the given stage of development this process has no anything the general with emotions and thinking, representing pure activity "," form-building movement from which subsequently there will be a speech. It is necessary to notice, however, that this process is insufficiently studied owing to complexity of its research, but with the greatest probability it is possible to assert, that studying to reproduce sound forms, the child develops cerebration. The sensual world in all variety of tactile sensations, on the one hand, and the stream of movement made by speech of the adult, with another, are motive forces of the brain processes which are responsible for formation of the higher mental functions, in particular, of speech. A speech role in ontogeneze to overestimate it is impossible. The developed speech is pledge of the successful training, one of which problems is formation of the high-grade person, capable to seize knowledge, effectively to work and harmoniously to exist in society.


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A source: Kruzhilina Tatyana Vladislavovna. UNDERSTANDING of the TEXT CHILDREN of PRESCHOOL AGE With the ACCOUNT of FACTORS of the SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT the CHILD (EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH). The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Kursk - 2014. 2014

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