history of studying of advertising in a humanitarian paradigm

Foreign scientists since antique times and up to the present were engaged in questions of studying of a phenomenon of advertising both domestic, and. However, recently there is an interest in scientific community to problem studying not the advertising as that, and to one of its subspecies - imidzhevoj to advertising.

Originally advertising has appeared in Ancient Egypt in the first millenium BC: it was simply the inscription on a stone: «I, Rino, from island Crete, at will of gods interpret dreams». It is possible to carry To ancient advertisements and the inscriptions found on walls destroyed Pompey, 73 year AD, and also advertisements on wooden boards, engravings on copper or the bones which have been found out in the Ancient Greece and Rome [Advertising. Modern advertising. Advertising kinds. Advertising occurrence
URL]. At the first stage of development of advertising as that, was not, in the majority it there were simply reports of information or announcements. As wrote V.V. Majakovsky, «advertising is not settled by announcements. Announcements - the elementary kind. Advertising should be a variety, an invention» [Majakovsky 1923: 58]. Advertising has started to accept the modern kind after the invention Gutenberg in 1450 of a press. There were new forms of advertising messages: leaflets, posters, newspaper leaves [the Big scientific library. Development of advertising URL]. Before occurrence of photos in the end of XIX century the visual component of the advertising text has been presented only by the drawings executed manually. The invention in XX century of TV and radio became a definitive stroke in advertising formation: it was generated as an element of marketing and began to be transformed to special institute - «the advertising industry», becoming interbranch system with mass character [Advertising industry URL].

The large quantity of publications and scientific works which testifies that the given concept is one of significant for a modern humanitarian paradigm is devoted research of various aspects of functioning of advertising. Considering, that scientists from different scientific fields of activity were engaged in advertising studying, we believe expedient to analyse the basic existing points of view on the given concept:

- Pankratov F.G., Bazhenov J.K., Shahurin V. G [Pankratov, Bazhenov, SHahurin 2009] after Phillip Kotler considered the economic party of the advertising text which as they believed, is one of variants of impersonal communications. According to scientists advertising influence was carried out by means of paid means of distribution of the information with accurately specified source of financing;

- From a position of the theory of communications advertising represents the special form of communications, «which aspires to translate qualities of the goods and

Services, and also ideas on language of needs and inquiries of the consumer »(tsit. On: [Nazajkin 2011: 178]), that is advertising will possess the pragmatical

orientirovannostju, and transfer of the message to the addressee, and also a manipulation its reciprocal actions becomes the purpose of such speech communications;

- The sociology treats advertising «from positions of the functioning public institute, making conclusive impact on sociopolitical and cultural processes in a society, promoting its change» [Ogorodnikova 2005: URL];

- In A.A.Leontev's psycholinguistics [Leontev 2006] believes, that the advertising psychology is very close to mass communication psychology, and the essence of advertising process consists in influence on mentality of the recipient, causing thus desirable changes in its installations, motives, in its person, in its consciousness, subconsciousness, in its behaviour, actions and acts;

- O.A.Sychev [Sychev 1990] considered advertising from the linguistic point of view as special area of the practical activities which result are the advertising texts characterised by certain signs of the internal maintenance and external registration, possessing certain functional signs and a place with which they occupy among all texts created and created in language.

Having studied and having analysed the points of view existing in different sciences on concept "advertising", we have come to conclusion, that for realisation of the purposes of our research existing definitions in initial treatment are insufficient. So, according to the purpose and problems of our research, advertising represents the special form of a communicative situation in which frameworks there is a transfer of the coded information on purpose to change views of the addressee, its relation to advertising and, accordingly, model of its behaviour.

We share A.A.Leonteva's opinion [Leontev 2006] which specified, that at creation of the competent, high-grade advertising answering by the put sender to the purposes, it is necessary to solve some problems: to provide the channel of influence of advertising that there was a communication between the advertising text and its addressee; to organise psychological inclusion of advertising in the specified channel; to construct the advertising text so that the addressee has accepted it that there was an effect of trust in relation to an advertising source; to create image to a source of advertising for maintenance of the trust specified above level.

In practice of advertising activity by scientists (K.Bove, V.Arens [Bove, Arens 1995]; U.Wells, J. Bernet, S.Moriarti [Wells, Bernet, Moriarti 1999]; G.G.ShChepilova [SHCHepilova 2010]; D.Ogilvi [Ogilvi 1996]) is allocated some types of classification of advertising: on covered territory (foreign, national, regional, local) [Bove, Arens 1995], (publicity boards, TV advertising, advertising in a press, a radio advertising, post advertising) [Ogilvi 1996], (international, national, regional, local) [SHCHepilova 2010]; on potrebitelnoj audiences (consumer and business) [Bove, Arens 1995]; on distribution means (newspaper, journal, television, a radio advertising, etc.) [Bove, Arens 1995], (advertising in mass media, the outdoor advertising, advertising in the Internet, advertising on points of sale, direct advertising, personal advertising) [SHCHepilova 2010]; on the purposes and functions (commercial or noncommercial, commodity or not commodity, direct or indirect) [Bove, Arens 1995], (commercial, social, political) [SHCHepilova 2010]; on influence functions (direct and indirect influence, primary and selective advertising, commercial and noncommercial) [Wells, Bernet, Moriarti 1999]; on typology (advertising of travel, advertising of a foodstuff, industrial advertising, financial advertising, advertising of kind affairs, advertising against biases, the trade mark) [Ogilvi 1996], (trade mark advertising, trading-retail advertising, political advertising, address
Help advertising, advertising with a feedback (direkt-marketing), business - advertising, institutsionalnaja advertising and public advertising) [Wells, Bernet, Moriarti 1999]; on a carried out role (marketing, communication, economic, social) [Wells, Bernet, Moriarti 1999]; on target audience (consumer advertising, business advertising) [SHCHepilova 2010]. The considered classifications cover practically all spheres of functioning and advertising creation, but it is possible to notice, that in the modern quickly developing world in advertising activity there is a displacement of accents towards creation of positive and positive image, otherwise, the non-material active which reception will promote active advancement in the market that it is possible to consider as one of major factors of increase of working capacity and survival rate on vysokokonkurentnom the advertising market both for the organisations, and for the person. In connection with the aforesaid, consider expedient to address to concept imidzhevaja advertising which has appeared more recently and, according to definition in the dictionary, is «the advertising which overall objective is maintenance of popularity of a brand, trade mark or a name of the concrete person (as a rule, in political advertising) usually with prospect on the future» [the Dictionary of terms on advertising, marketing, ATL, BTL and PR URL], i.e. it is the advertising purposefully focused on creation and maintenance of corresponding image, it does not comprise open appeals to purchase, but forms trust and belief in correctness of the made choice.

The word "image" occurs from a Latin word «imago», meaning to "simulate", but in different sources the given term is treated differently. So, in the dictionary of foreign words of N.G.Komleva image is «a certain image of the celebrated personality or a thing, created by mass media, the literature or the individual» [Komlev 2006], and in the Big Encyclopaedic dictionary under
By image purposefully formed image (any person, the phenomenon, a subject), called to render emotsionalnoyopsihologicheskoe influence on someone with a view of popularisation, advertising, etc. »[Big Encyclopaedic dictionary URL] is understood«. If to consider image from the linguistic point of view it is necessary to pay attention to E.S.Kubrjakovoj's opinion which considers, that «for image definition it is important to establish, in relation to what object it appears a sign - in relation to such to" empirical object »as the person, or - to such ideal object as its image (or its essence - the character, moral it moral and other lines, i.e. something from sphere abstract and ideal)» [Kubrjakova 2008: 6], that partially coincides with our understanding of image and, accordingly, imidzhevoj advertising.

Thus, on the basis of the spent analysis of history and existing tipology advertising, we have drawn a conclusion that it is necessary to offer the added classification of advertising based on the account of features of formation of an image as result of influence of advertising. Such classification, by our opinion, most full reflects existing and functioning in modern space of society advertising kinds. We suggest to allocate information advertising which is not directed on something concrete, and simply informs the addressee about something, for example, AFRICA. All kinds of the outdoor advertising. Kryshnye installations. Light signboards. Light a box. Volume letters. Publicity boards and indexes. Entrance groups. Interernye signboards. Ventilated facades; the Greek-Roman struggle. SDJUSSHOR №10. A set of boys with 7 till 11 years; the PAPYRUS. WALL-PAPER. Germany, France, Belgium, Italy, and imidzhevuju the advertising directed on formation of image (positive or negative, depending on the purposes put by the sender) as which we will understand the certain collective image formed in an individual lexicon of the addressee as the answer to the advertising text, for example, the advertising text: the LIFE without drugs!... Health...
Travel... Freedom. The antinarcotic commission at the mayor of a city of Astrakhan, an image of the healthy person forming in an individual lexicon which can enjoy travel lives a full life, not paying attention to the consequences caused by reception of narcotics, or advertising text Coca-Cola. For YOU. For me. For us which guarantees, that any of bank or the bottle of drink Coca-Cola will approach you, will allow you to be a part something bolshego.

Thus, we consider, that imidzhevoj can be both commercial, and social advertising, both political advertising, and advertising of the goods, and advertising of services because an ultimate goal of creation of any advertising is change of perception of concrete object or a predicate of the surrounding validity and behaviour of the person.


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A source: ANNENKOVA ANTONINA VLADIMIROVNA. SPECIFICITY of FUNCTIONING of IMAGES IMIDZHEVOJ ADVERTISING In the INDIVIDUAL LEXICON (EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH). The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Kursk - 2017. 2017

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