1.2. Language changes - display of dynamic character of language

Already with the beginning of the third millenium does not remain doubts, that language is «live dynamic samoorganizujushchajasja the system adapting for the natural and social environment through knowledge and dialogue in the conditions of interaction of biosphere, psychosphere, sotsiosfery and noospheres» [Zalevsky 2011: 19].

Dynamics appears in language for the account of numerous changes at all its levels and as confirmed V.A.Zvegintsev, changes not only represent constant quality of language, but also are its essence [Zvegintsev 1963: 131]: the language changes which main properties are infinity and postojannost, create language. About neprestannosti changes in language many scientists, noticing, that spoke this fact not
Is exposed to doubts (to I.A.Boduen de Kurtene, B.A.Serebrennikov, A.Martin, E.Koseriu, etc.). We can say that language is infinite while there is a mankind subjecting language to changes. But it varies not only because of the person, but also for the person: it changes to continue to function, and as soon as language ceases to change, he dies [Koseriu 1963: 343]. D.N.Ushakov compares constant variability of language to his life [Ushakov http]. Changes also can repeat at various times and in different places, but as marked I.A.Boduen de Kurtene, only in case of similarity of the conditions influencing development of language, and similarity of a psychophysical warehouse of people [Boduen de Kurtene 1963б: 248-249].

In the middle of the XX-th century scientists have been so interested in revealing of laws of language changes and the factors influencing them, what even the tendency of allocation of the doctrine about language changes in independent discipline [the General 1970: 201] was outlined. However in due course interest to the general laws of changes has obviously died away, and at the given stage of development of a science about language we can speak only about private researches in the given area. Mentioning questions of language changes, scientists any more do not consider necessary to make definition of this phenomenon - so it it is represented obvious. Despite it, we consider necessary to open essence of concept «language change».

A.Razgranichenie of concepts "change", "innovation", "variation" and "reintegration"

Further we lean against position, that language changes are display of dynamic character of language and, after B.A.Serebrennikov, we understand language change as «process and result of infringement of identity of unit to themselves» [the General 1970: 208]. Thus B.A.Serebrennikov accurately differentiates concepts "change", "innovation" (or "new growth"), "variation" and "reintegration".
For change the designation netozhdestv between the phenomena, «finding out dependence in time following and the connected relations of continuity and replacement» [the General 1970: 208] is characteristic. For innovations or new growths the moment of occurrence of new unit, but not the moment of transformation of one phenomenon in another is important only. The term "variation" B.A.Serebrennikov designates all updatings of same unit, thus variation processes is a coexistence and a competition of these updatings, «united on any similar sign, more often on similarity denotativnogo values of considered units» [the General 1970: 209].

Reintegration (or redecomposition) does not mean change of material identity of unit, and assumes «redistribution of a morphemic material in a word at preservation of its basis of derivative character» [Shansky 1968: 213]. And. Serebrennikov noticed, that processes of a variation, reintegration and innovations only prepare changes, but no replacements as a result of these processes occur, whereas in case of change «presence of one unit excludes simultaneous existence another» [the General 1970: 209]. E.Koseriu also marked distinctions between terms "change" and "innovation" where the innovation is told speaking a deviation from the models existing in language, and acceptance is an assumption listening these innovations «as model for the further statements» [Koseriu 1963: 191]. On E.Koseriu, language change is wider concept which means distribution of an innovation and «is a number of consecutive acceptances» [Koseriu 1963: 192], that does a problem of studying of language change more essential in comparison with a problem of studying of innovations.

Some researchers especially beginning, quite often identify concepts of change, a variation, an innovation and reintegration whereas last three concepts are connected only with some stages, stages of historical development of language,
Preparing changes of some phenomenon and defining a direction of its further development. Many scientists adhere to such point of view, for example, E.S.Kubrjakova allocates variability, variability and reintegration as the basic forms of movement in language, noticing thus, that reintegration and a variation precede change [Kubrjakova 1978: 19]. V.M.Solntsev says that only during an infinite variation change and language development [Solntsev 1984: 41] is carried out, and R.V.Patjukova underlines affinity of the phenomena of a language variation and language change, connecting it that «variability quite often acts as a certain stage in the course of language historical development» [Patjukova 2011: 6].

Thus, we can draw a conclusion that processes of a language variation, an innovation and reintegration are relatives on the being to language changes, however, we cannot put an equal-sign between these phenomena as the given processes make only the initial stage during realisation of changes.

B.Rechevaja activity - a source of language changes

L. V.ShCherba in the work «About triple aspect of the language phenomena and about experiment in linguistics» [SHCHerba 1974: 24-39] allocates three aspects of the language phenomena: speech activity, a language material (as set of all govorimogo and understood in certain conditions and a certain epoch) and language systems. Thus concepts of process (as the aspect of the language phenomena identical to speech activity) and the mechanism (speech organisation of the individual) are accurately differentiated. Taking for a basis the given system, we see, that speech activity [SHCHerba 1974: 27 is subject to changes; the General 1970: 198;, etc.). The given idea has been stated still V a background by Humboldt: «All that the expedient use of language scoops from conceptual sphere, makes on its return impact, enriching and forming language» [Humboldt 2000: 313], and
Subsequently it has been supported mladogrammatikami. F de Sossjur considered, that speech - a source of all changes, and the innovations which have arisen in speech of separate people, can become the language fact if will be accepted by collective [Sossjur 1999: 117]. Language «eats speech, replenishes and develops for the account of products created in it - from separate words and their forms to the whole offers» [Smirnitsky 1954б: 20-21]. In the same way as speech exists thanks to language, language continues the existence thanks to the changes occurring in speech. Acknowledgement to the given statement can be found, for example, at E.Koseriu who asserted, that «language changes, because on it speak, because it exists only as technics and set of laws of speech» [Koseriu 1963: 184]. Thanks to daily experience of speech activity, change are accessible to everyone saying, that has allowed And. Rosetti to name change in speech "occurring", and changes in language - "finished" [Koseriu 1963: 150]. H.Shtejntal said, that «there is no distinction between" primary "creation and what repeats every day» [Koseriu 1963: 182] as language there is continuous "creation" (On E.Koseriu).

E.Benvenist fairly noticed, that «in language there is nothing that was not in speech» [Benvenist 1965: 449] earlier, but is far not all changes "occurring" in speech become "finished" and are a part of a language material or system. N.D.Andreev noticed, that «not any change in speech system leads to shifts in language structure, but any shift in language structure necessarily is preceded by change in speech system» (tsit. On: [the General 1970: 206]). So, for example, imenovanija «Cornflower-blue revolution"or"Jeans revolution», once having appeared in speech, could not become clear for a wide range of native speakers of Russian that has not allowed imenovanijam to continue the further existence. About the important role of understanding of any changes of L. V.ShCherba expressed as follows: «. A language material out of
Understanding processes there will be dead, a understanding out of somehow organised language material (i.e. Language system) it is impossible »[SHCHerba 1974: 10]. Here we can say that the language system possesses ability to self-regulation when changes in one subsystem cause changes in another. Thus, we can assert, that any changes arise in speech activity, but only some of them become a language part. The changes fixed in language, define its further development and the functioning appearing for all speaking in the form of speech.

V.Skorost of language changes

One more pressing question within the limits of dynamics of the language phenomena there is a question on speed of language changes. Here again, first of all, it is necessary to notice, that the relation to the factor of time within the limits of synchronic and diahronicheskogo approaches variously is primary.

V.A.Grechko defines synchronism and diahroniju not as absolute concepts and as time categories which define time from the point of view of the subjective approach and have in language knowledge «a known relativity and convention as in gnoseological so, probably, and in the ontologic relation» [Grechko 2003: 95]. As marks

M.A.Kazazaeva, «the specified measures are considerably excellent from each other in the relation to time factor» [Kazazaeva 2014: 201]. In diahronicheskom aspect time - the main parametre, thus value has not an establishment of astronomical time, and definition «chronology of events, synchronisation of established facts on different time layers, definition of a sequence or the phenomenon characteristic in primacy and secondariness terms» [Kazazaeva 2014: 201]. In

Synchronic aspect value has time linguistic where changes can be neglected [Kubrjakova 1968: 121], and this time
Ivanov 2011: 68 is defined by speed of change of language system [; Axes 1960: 52]. As marked G.Hyonigsvald, «for a long time interval in language always there are considerable changes, and for one day language does not vary» [Hyonigstvald 1970: 79], therefore for definition of speed of changes not concepts synchronism and diahronija, and an establishment of relations «predshestvovanie - following» (on Hyonigsvaldu), an establishment of an accessory of one language by the different periods of existence where one form of the phenomenon precedes another in time [Hyonigsvald 1970: 80], first of all, are important. U.Labov noticed, that change process can be observed throughout a life of two generations [Labs 1975: 204].

In the XX-th century beginning two various points of view of speed of language changes have arisen. For example, representatives sravnitelnoyoistoricheskogo linguistics, and also their followers, have been convinced, that changes in language occur by slow evolution and are the most typical for language. It is caused by that for all native speakers is important to keep mutual understanding, and for each concrete carrier - not to admit sensation, that language, «on which they speak also which they hear from associates, ceases to be identical or identical to itself» [Martin 1963: 529]. Marksisty believed, that changes occur «by gradual accumulation of elements of new quality, hence, by gradual dying off of elements of old quality» (tsit. On: [the General 1970: 299]). According to adherents of the given point of view, sharp changes can quickly result language in a condition of full communicative unfitness, therefore the theory of spasmodic development of languages of N.J.Marra was exposed to criticism from their party. The given theory has resulted from transferring of the theory of jumps from chemistry on history of development of a society [the General 1970: 299]. N.J.Marr who is considered as the founder of the theory of spasmodic development of languages, believed, that language development shows history of revolutions: revolutionary shifts on which have made the big impact
New sources of the material life, qualitatively new technics and social system, are a source of language changes, and, hence, cause their speed [Marr 1933: 241]. The given theory was widely propagandised and in domestic linguistics.

At the given stage of development of language position that there are the periods sated with language changes, and the periods characterised by insignificant quantity of changes even more often undertakes a basis. So, B.A.Serebrennikov speaks about the periods of more intensively occurring changes, «when in a certain time interval there is in language much more various changes, than during the previous periods» [the General 1970: 300]. A.A.Reformatsky also underlines, that during the various periods rates of changes too are various: « There are epoch when the language system remains steady throughout thousand years; happens and so, that within two hundred years the language system strongly changes »[Reformatsky 1996: 246]. V.A.Grechko qualifies these epoch as« the periods of relative stability and intensive change »[Grechko 2003: 117]. The reasons so« quiet "and" active »the periods in a language life are covered in development of a social life of a society. Sotsialnoyopolitichesky changes accelerate language dynamics, there is a considerable quantity of language changes and innovations which are accepted, or are not accepted by a society and to which language reacts,« though and not so quickly as it occurs in consciousness of native speakers »[Antropov 2013: 16].

Comparing the various periods of development of a society and language, we can testify that the present stage is characterised by the greatest speed of language changes. But, despite the force operating in a direction of change of language, there is also a force directed on its preservation, providing mutual understanding between native speakers. The given position was underlined by many scientists: for example, still V Humboldt noticed a background, that «on the valid essence language

There is something constant and at the same time during each given moment passing »[Humboldt 2000: 70], and is closer to S.Balli's our time underlined that« languages incessantly change, but function they can only not varying »[Balli 1955: 29]. The force operating in a direction

neizmenenija language, provides safety of its communicative function which allows speaking to understand each other without dependence from speed of changes. E.Benvenist said, that process of language evolution is regulated by mutual understanding [Benvenist 1965: 449].

The given positions allow us to compare changes in language to movement in the mechanic (fig. 3) where language is a material point, moving on a circle. On a point two operate raznonapravlennye forces - the force directed on change of language, and the force directed on preservation of language. In the mechanic the given forces can be comparable to the force of a friction directed against movement of a point, and with force of the inertia directed in a direction of movement. According to force Newton's third law are capable to exist only in pairs, thus the nature of forces in each such pair is identical, and it means, that the force directed on change of language, is equal to the force directed on preservation of language. Besides, for the description of those processes which provide understanding speaking each other, we can address to a principle of a relativity Galilee which says, that if the moving system of readout moves concerning the first without acceleration, acceleration of a body concerning both systems of readout equally. And it means, that the language presented in the form of a material point and moving on a circle, for the person who is in the centre of a circle, will remain invariable.

Fig. 3. The forces operating on language, in the course of its development

Generalising all told above, we can assert, that language change is essence of language, infinite and constant process of the changes arising in speech, a part from which mentions also language structure. Processes of an innovation, a variation and reintegration are not identical to language changes, but prepare them and define the further direction of their movement. Speed of language changes is various throughout all history of development of mankind and is caused by it, however, without dependence from speed of changes in consciousness of native speakers it remains invariable. Thanks to the forces aspiring to preservation and change of language, our language is constantly enriched by new words and the phrases, new grammatical structures, but remains clear to each carrier.

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A source: BUDINA Maria Eduardovna. DYNAMICS of the LANGUAGE PHENOMENA FROM OCCURRENCE BEFORE ACQUISITION of NEW SENSES (on an example imenovany «colour revolutions»). The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Kirov - 2015. 2015

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