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2.2. Questions of the organisation of research

Research imenovany «colour revolutions» includes some stages for which description it is necessary to enter some reductions and to make specifications.

Further we will mean by reduction TSR imenovanie colour (th) revolution () - a certain collective image of all

"Revolutions", which on some philological (but not the political!) to signs can be carried to the category of the colour.

Under reduction HR we mean all imenovanija «colour revolutions», which have ever been used for the description of political events, where H is the certain variable designating a symbol of concrete "revolution" (orange, pink, tjulpanovaja etc.) in structure imenovanija HR, and R - a constant designating a word "revolution".

Research procedure consists of 5 stages which are visually presented on fig. 9.

Fig. 9. pjatietapnoe research imenovany «colour revolutions»

Stage 1. At first sight, the given stage seems insignificant as everyone knows, that were Orange revolution, Pink, Tjulpanovaja, etc. However if common imenovanija at all on hearing deeper analysis of sources of mass-media shows that there are also more rare imenovanija such, as «Tvitternaja revolution», «Tiled revolution», «revolution of snowdrops» and many other things. At the given investigation phase we have tried to find all possible variants HR, to present dating of events, and also to systematise imenovanija on character of assignment of a concrete adjective to concrete revolution. Within the limits of this stage necessity of carrying out of a stage 2 also has been realised.

Stage 2. Studying of "colour revolutions» in historical and political aspects has helped us to realise necessity of specification of a word meaning "revolution" for structure TSR. The given process is in detail described in paragraph 2.1 in A.Tselesoobraznost's section of use of the term "revolution" in structure imenovany «colour revolutions». Results
Works on studying of the words-symbols which are a part imenovany, are presented in the same paragraph in section «the Choice of a key word - of a symbol in structure

Names of historical event ».

Stage 3. After revealing of all possible HR and definitions of values of their components (values H mean and R in structure imenovany), it was necessary to track dynamics of changes HR and TSR in language. For this purpose we have addressed to corpuses of Russian and English of languages for the purpose of search of offers in which structure there are data imenovanija.

As «colour revolutions» - the phenomenon new, especially if to consider it in language aspect it is obvious, that selection of offers passed from the sources representing various kinds of mass-media (the newspaper, magazines, the Internet). Limitation only sources of mass-media, in turn, has defined the list of the studied cases where have entered:

- The newspaper case of the National case of Russian (NKRJA);

- Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA);

- Corpus of Global Web-Based English (GLOWBE);

- Corpus of Canadian English (CANADA);

- TIME Magazine Corpus;

- Collins WordBanks Online;

- British News Corpus on a platform of University Leeds;

- Internet Corpus on a platform of University Leeds.

It is represented to us inexpedient to give more detailed characteristic of each case as the case linguistics is on the popularity peak, therefore many authors mention this question in the works, for example [Bardovsky 2012; National.;

Nekrasov M. E. 2011, 2012а, 2012б; Pertsov 2006; Plungjan 2008], besides developers of cases place the exhaustive information on the resource on a web site.

Beginning any work with a corpus, the researcher first of all should solve: with what case it should work. So, for example, NKRJA consists of the basic case and nine specialised cases: syntactic and newspaper (or cases of modern mass-media) cases, the case of dialect texts, the case of parallel texts, the case of poetic texts training the cases of Russian, the case of oral speech, aktsentologicheskogo and multimedia cases. For the decision of research problems we were interested by the basic case and newspaper case NKRJA, the detailed description and which comparison is presented in [Nekrasov M. E. 2011: 126­135]. In tab. 1 the basic characteristics of the given corpuses are resulted, thus it is necessary to notice, that during studying of basic case NKRJA we addressed to the task podkorpusa which was formed of inartistic texts with sphere of functioning "Publicism".

Table 1. The comparative characteristic podkorpusa the basic case and newspaper case NKRJA

The characteristic podkorpus the basic case The newspaper case
Quantity of articles 23397 181175
Year of the edition of the first document To 2000 2000
Year of the edition of last document 2005 2008
Additional parametres for the task podkorpusa 1. The name

2. The author (FIO, a floor, year of a birth)

3. Year of creation

4. Functioning sphere

5. A text type

6. Text subjects

1. The name

2. The author

3. Year of the publication

4. The edition

The information on article 1. The author (FIO, a floor)

2. Article name

3. Creation date

4. A theme of the text and style

5. Quantity of offers

6. Quantity of word forms

7. Age, the size and an audience educational level

8. Carrier type

9. A source

10. Publication date

11. The edition

1. The author

2. The text name

3. Creation date

4. Quantity of offers

5. Quantity of word forms

6. The edition


From tab. 1 it is visible, that both cases possess a number of advantages and lacks. So, podkorpus basic case NKRJA contains smaller quantity of articles in comparison with the newspaper case, but gives possibility to set more parametres of search and contains more exhaustive information on article. The newspaper case more volume by quantity of documents, but articles in it are presented only from 2000 for 2008. It is necessary to note also non-uniformity of representation of articles on years in both cases which is more distinctly observed in podkorpuse the basic case (for example, for 2000 data about 183 articles, and for 2003 - already 5743) contain. Such non-uniformity can complicate studying of dynamics of any phenomenon considerably. Besides, podkorpus the basic case it is presented by a large quantity of various editions whereas data are brought in the newspaper case about seven largest mass-media of Russia ("News" newspapers, «the Soviet sports», "Work", «the Komsomol truth» and electronic RIA Novosti news agencies, RBC, «New region»). We had been chose newspaper case NKRJA which in bolshej meets the requirements of degree to search of articles for our further research.

At a choice of English-speaking corpuses we used other approach as because of increasing popularity of case linguistics at present there is a considerable quantity of corpuses of English language. Defining for us a steel following factors: presence of open access to the case (in some cases for possibility reception to work with the case it is necessary to pay membership dues) and presence in the case at least one of kinds of mass-media (printing editions, news agencies, sites and blogs of a network the Internet).

During work with corpuses 2958 offers with imenovanijami TSR and HR, from them 2092 offers in Russian and 866 in English have been revealed. Distribution of offers on cases and languages is presented to tab. 2.

Table 2. A quantitative parity of offers with imenovanijami HR and TSR in cases of Russian and English of languages

The case Language of offers Quantity of offers
Newspaper case NKRJA Russian 2092
GLOWBE English 517
Collins WordBanks Online English 177
COCA English 117
British News Corpus English 46
Internet Corpus English 5
CANADA English 3
TIME Magazine Corpus English 1
In total 2958

At the given investigation phase the offers containing TSR, and also 9 imenovany HR in Russian and 7 imenovany HR in English have been allocated. That only 5 imenovany HR have found reflexion in both languages simultaneously whereas 4 Russian and 2 English imenovanija have no equivalents in other language is remarkable. Imenovanija and their quantitative parity for each language are presented to tab. 3.

Table 3. A quantitative parity imenovany HR and TSR in cases of Russian and English of languages

RUSSIAN ENGLISH LANGUAGE
Colour revolution 426 Color revolution 131
Orange revolution 1221 Orange Revolution 341
Pink revolution 314 Rose Revolution 143
Tjulpanovaja revolution 85 Tulip Revolution 18
Cedar revolution 10 Cedar Revolution 54
Jasmine revolution 9 Jasmine Revolution 131
Chestnut revolution 19 Examples it is not found
Jeans revolution 6 Examples it is not found
Date revolution 1 Examples it is not found
Cornflower-blue revolution 1 Examples it is not found
Examples it is not found Green Revolution 41
Examples it is not found Purple Revolution 7

Stage 4. The given stage includes the two-level analysis of offers. The first step - the primary analysis of data for the purpose of revealing of features and laws. At this step following hypotheses have been formulated.

HYPOTHESIS 1. In both investigated languages some imenovanija can be used in two cases: as designations istoriko - political events and as imenovanija case phenomena.

HYPOTHESIS 2. In both languages it is possible to reveal markers thanks to which some imenovanie can be identified as meaning either event, or a case phenomenon.

HYPOTHESIS 3. In both languages there are no settled rules and norms of a writing investigated imenovany.

The questions connected with the first of named hypotheses, are considered more low in paragraph 2.4. The second hypothesis has proved necessity of carrying out of the second step of research - the secondary analysis of offers for the purpose of revealing of markers (the detailed description of each marker and its value is given in paragraphs 2.3 and 2.4). Speech about features of a writing investigated imenovany will go in paragraph 2.5.

E t and p 5. The given stage is final in our dissertational research and means the analysis of the results presented in the form of generalised conclusions in the end of each subsequent paragraph and chapter 2 as a whole.

Used by us 5-etapnoe research has allowed to elicit the facts of similarity and distinctions in imenovanijah in Russian and English languages, and also to track features of use imenovany TSR and HR from their occurrence and fastening in language before functioning in speeches and acquisitions of new senses by them.

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A source: BUDINA Maria Eduardovna. DYNAMICS of the LANGUAGE PHENOMENA FROM OCCURRENCE BEFORE ACQUISITION of NEW SENSES (on an example imenovany «colour revolutions»). The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Kirov - 2015. 2015

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