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2.1. A research technique. Questions of the organisation of an experimental research

As it was spoken in chapter 1, analysis unit in the present work is RA Requests. Proceeding from it, at an initial investigation phase 1-2 and older years of Kursk state university of faculty of foreign languages in number of 40 persons it was offered to students to formulate situations in Russian containing the request which could take place in a daily life (quantity of situations in a free statement it was not limited).

From total of the received situations have been selected 10, meeting more often.

Further, for the purpose of reception of an empirical material on which basis it would be possible to speak about degree pragmalingvisticheskih knowledge of the Russian studying English language, these 10 situations have laid down in a basis written diskursivnogo the test (written discourse completion test).

J. Brown and T.Hudson [Hudson et al. 1995] have divided the tests directed on an estimation pragmalingvisticheskih of knowledge, for three categories: tests with an answer choice, tests with a free statement, tests for a personal estimation. Written diskursivnyj the test is a test with a free statement. For the first time this test for studying of pragmatical aspect of speech certificates was used by S.Blum-Kulka in 1982 [Blum-Kulka 1982]. Many researchers addressed to similar tests in the works [Kasper, Rose 2001; Woodfield 2011; Barron 2001; Trosborg 1995; Yifeng 2012; Birjandi, Rezaei 2010; Parvaresh, Tavakoli 2009].

It is considered, that the concept the pragmatical test has appeared thanks to J. Olleru [Oller 1979]. For similar tests he has offered two limiting factors. First, the material for tests should be presented not in the form of the isolated words and offers, and in the form of real language situations. Secondly, the language maintenance of tests should be as much as possible approached to real language conditions.

So, at the second stage of our research has been spent written diskursivnyj the test which represented in advance selected 10 situations including RA the Requests. Each informant received the form on which the description of ten situations in English was resulted. It were the situations selected at the first stage stated by us in English. It was offered to students after perusal of each situation in writing in English to formulate the request about which there was a speech to situations. The task has been formulated as follows: After perusal of each situation write, that you would tell in each concrete case.

60 informants have taken part in experiment at the age from 18 till 22 years. They represented three groups. The first group (further R І) included 20 Russian-speaking students of 1 and 2 English courses of branch of faculty of foreign languages of Kursk state university
(Possession level English language Pre-Intermediate/Intermediate). The second group (further PII) 20 students of older years of English branch of faculty of foreign languages of Kursk state university (represented possession level English language Upper - Intermediate/Advanced). Level of mastery of a language at Russian-speaking students was defined according to results of intermediate and current certification. The third group (further Ak) consisted of 20 American students trained in Mount Union University on Allajans, the State of Ohio, the USA.

It has been as a result received 600 episodes containing RA the Requests.

As already it has been told above RA Requests represents unity of a kernel of the request or the basic certificate of the request and auxiliary certificates of the request. There are also lexicological and phraseological and syntactic amplifiers of communicative intention. For realisation pragmalingvisticheskogo analysis RA of the Request we have taken advantage of a method introspektsii and already existing technique of definition of strategy of the speech certificate, created by T.Hudson, E.Detmer and J. Brown [Hudson, Detmer, Brown 1995] (tab. 3 - 6 see). On the basis of this analysis the language means used by examinees for realisation RA of the Request, have been distributed according to structure RA described above. In tables 3-6 strategy and examples of language implementers of these strategy which have been used by examinees of our experiment (Russian and American) are presented.

Table 3. Strategy of the basic speech certificate of the request (Request Head Act Strategies)

Strategy Examples of language implementers of strategy
1. Preparatory (requests about possibility of realisation of the request) I.

Could you...

Would you...

I.

I was wondering if...

Would you be willing/be able/mind Do you think you would be able Is there any possibility

Is there any way

2. Desire expression I'd like...

I want...

I'd love for you to

3. The fact statement I have not been served yet
4. The direct request Give me your pen Show me that one
5. The offer Let's share our business

Let's do it together

6. Inquiry of the information Do you have...

Will you give...

Will you look...

Table 4. Strategy of the supporting speech certificate of the request (Request Supportive Move Strategies)

Strategy Examples of language means for strategy realisation
1. The basis for the request My pen is out of ink

You are good at bookkeeping I'm having some trouble.

2. Elimination of possible objections I did not mean to bother you

I know you are very busy

I would do it myself but

3. A preliminary designation of the request I need your help

I'm interested in this

Come to my study when you have time May I ask you

There is some problem

Could you spare me a minute


Are you busy today

Would you do me a favour

Can you help me/Couldyou help me

4. Apologies I'm sorry

Excuse me

5. Reduction of spent efforts It should not take long

It will not take long

It will not take me much time

Table 5. Lexical and phrase amplifiers of communicative intention (Lexical and Phrasal Downgraders)

Strategy Examples of language means for strategy realisation
1. Politeness markers Please
2. Expression of opinion speaking I seem/believe/wonder/think
3. Priglushenie values For a moment

For a little bit

For an hour

Table 6. Syntactic amplifiers of communicative intention (Syntactic Downgraders)

Strategy Examples of language means for realisation

Strategy

1. Aspect of duration I'm wondering if
2. Use of last time for a context with present time I wanted to ask you
3. Subordinate clauses of time, the purpose, a condition ... if you are finished with the menu/as soon as you are finished

This structured language material was used further for the analysis of strategy RA of the Request and language means of their realisation on all groups of examinees for the purpose of revealing of specificity of it RA at artificial bilingvizme.

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A source: PAVLOVA ANNA VIKTOROVNA. COGNITIVE AND PRAGMATIC ASPECTS OF A SPEECH ACTIVE REQUEST FOR ARTIFICIAL BILINGUALISM. Thesis for the degree of candidate of philological sciences. Kursk - 2018. 2018

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