Structural-semantic text units

Difficult syntactic whole (SSTS) is largest of structural-semantic units, on which chlenitsja the text or the oral statement. SSTS consists of the several offers united by means of intonation and other communication facility and opening one of microthemes (podtem) of the text or the oral statement.

From compound sentence SSTS differs that the offers entering into its structure, are more independent and according to communication between them - less close. Various on the structure independent offers in structure SSTS freely join to each other, communicating mainly on sense so the maintenance of the second continues and develops the maintenance of the first etc., the given microtheme of the text will not be opened yet.

There is also a number of a formal communication facility of independent offers in SSTS. A communication Universal remedy in the oral statement is intonation difficult whole. Independent narrative offers in its structure are said usually with uniform fall of tone by the end, with
Identical pauses among themselves while fall of tone in the end of SSTS is more considerable, and a pause between two SSTS longer; the beginning besides, of following SSTS usually is characterised by tone considerable increase, and is frequent also changes in a voice timbre.

Besides, there is a number of a private communication facility which in various degree and are differently used in concrete SSTS:

1) unity vidovremennyh forms of verbs-predicates of separate offers;

2) the use anaforicheskih pronouns and adverbs (it, that, there, etc.) which in the second, the third etc. offers persons specify on earlier designated, subjects and their qualities, and also in all maintenance of the previous offer (a pronoun it); use of words, synonymous to the names used earlier; lexical repetitions;

3) subordinative and coordinative conjunctions in the beginning of the independent offers, having in this case usually connecting value;

4) the use of various circumstances (a place and time), concerning on sense to several independent offers (adverbial values can be expressed and separate offers of type: Evening. Already got dark. There were 7 o'clock in the evening);

5) an identical word order, parallelism in a structure of independent offers, etc.

Organisation SSTS is not stable, it depends on the maintenance, style, an author's manner. Nevertheless, it is possible to allocate some types SSTS differing from each other under the maintenance and a structure:

1. Static - mainly descriptive character. For them the use of compound nominal predicates, various verbal forms with value of a simultaneity of long actions is characteristic. Communication between offers here is often carried out by means of parallelism of syntactic designs (parallel communication), without participation anaforicheskih designs. For example: Hair straight lines, in a bracket. The person small,
Insignificant, starinno-Russian, Suzdal. Eyes under big sleepy centuries - hawk.

2. Dynamic - narrative character. For them the use of verbal predicates more often in the form of a perfective aspect with value of actions replacing each other is characteristic. Communication between offers is carried out here more often with the help anaforicheskih pronouns, synonymous replacements, repetitions (chain communication). For example: I have told to boys that has lost the way, and have sat down by them. They have asked me, whence I, have kept silent, have stood aside. We have a little talked.

3. Mixed - widely common both at the description, and at a narration, and at a reasoning. For them association of the specified forms of a structure is characteristic. Houses it [Laptev] has seen an umbrella forgotten by Julia Sergeevnoj on a chair, has seized it and has greedy kissed. The umbrella was silk, not so new, intercepted staroju an elastic band; the handle was from a simple white bone, cheap. Laptev has opened it over itself, and it seemed to it, that about it even smells schastem.1 and 3 offers have dynamic character, 2 - static.

The paragraph is stilistiko-composite unit. With the help abzatsnogo a space the most important are allocated in compositions of the whole text of group of offers or the separate offers containing: the description of a new stage in action development, the characteristic of heroes, author's deviation etc. - in a work of art; the description of a new subject of the thought, a new stage in its development, separate logic parcels and conclusions - in scientific work, etc.

The paragraphs consisting of several offers, often coincide on the borders with SSTS. Such paragraphs stilisticheski are neutral. If paragraphs consist of one offer or share on two-three SSTS they serve the certain stylistic purposes: in the first case express an allocation expression, give events by close up, and in the second serve for association of different events in one picture.

The composite-stylistic role of the first offers of the paragraph becomes especially evident if in any story to read successively only the first offers of paragraphs. They as though plan the basic line of product.

Text partitioning on paragraphs is important stileobrazujushchim the factor. So, as a whole the big paragraphs on the volume are more characteristic for epically quiet narration, and small paragraphs including offer paragraphs - are more peculiar to a narration strained, liricheski to the excited. Much in this plan depends and on genre features of product, and from individual style of the author.

The dialogical unity (DE) represents the largest structural-semantic unit of dialogical speech. It consists of two, is more rare than three or four offers-remarks closely connected among themselves on sense and structurally. Thus the maintenance and the form of the first remark defines the maintenance and the form of the second etc. so only in a combination of remarks completeness of the given part of dialogue necessary for understanding is found out.

On value and on formal features including on intonation, DE share on a number of types. The most widespread are that, for example, question-answer DE; unities in which the second remark continues not finished the first; unities in which remarks are connected by one subject of thought, represent statements concerning it; unities in which in the second remark the consent or disagreement with the statement concluded in first, etc. is expressed

Intonational and semantic incompleteness of remarks, the connecting union in the first, lexical repetition (grab) in the second, etc., and also parallelism peculiar to majority DE in a structure of remarks and natural incompleteness of the second remark - all it closely connects one remark with another, transforms their combination into uniform structure.

However it is far not all remarks going one after another possess these signs. There are the remarks representing finished offers, each of which contains the message.


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A source: Gromova Alla Viktorovna. SYNTAX AS MEANS of UNDERSTANDING of PITHINESS of the TEXT WHILE TRANSLATING. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Tver 2019. 2019

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