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THE BASIC MAINTENANCE OF WORK

In INTRODUCTION the urgency of the chosen theme, scientific novelty, the theoretical and practical importance of work is proved, the object and a subject, a hypothesis, the purpose and research problems are formulated, methods and research materials are described, the substantive provisions which are taken out on protection are defined.

In chapter 1 «Theoretical bases of research of functioning of English-speaking loans» the concept "loan" of linguistics and the terminological problems connected with it are considered, the basic directions in research of loan within the limits of the psycholinguistic approach and methodological initial positions are defined.

Absence of unity and clearness in definition of the term "loan" explains a variety of classifications of loan words. In a basis
Considered classifications and the kinds of the borrowed lexicon allocated in them different criteria lay:

1) degree of assimilation and loan integration in language:

The assimilated and speaking another language, foreign words;

2) degree of necessity and correctness of use of loan: necessary and unnecessary loans;

3) prescription of existence of loan in language: the most ancient, ancient, early, new, newest occurrences;

4) dynamics of development and loan development in accepting language:

varvarizmy, a transliteration, actually loans,

internatsionalizmy, kvazizaimstvovanija (words-miksty, words-hybrids);

5) use spheres;

6) character of the borrowed material: direct loan and tracing;

7) a parity of loan with systems of contacting languages: full, partial, kontaminirovannoe, a zero impregnation.

At selection of English-speaking loans for research by basic criteria there was degree of assimilation of a loan word in language, a prescription of occurrence of an anglicism, and also sphere of the use of loan. Forming questionnaires for experiment carrying out on subjective definitions and associative experiment, we tried to avoid varvarizmov and ekzotizmov as we consider, that use in the experimental task of similar impregnations speaking another language would become a considerable barrier to perception and understanding native speakers, especially those who is not able to read in English, that would lead bolshemu to number of refusals, than in case of use of loans which finally have entered into the case of investigated lexical units. The anglicisms graphically transferred by means of accepting language concern them, grammatical combined with in other words in the text, actual at present, that is often used both in mass-media, and in daily speech. In the chronological plan investigated English-speaking loans represent the newest occurrences which have filled up dictionary structure of language-recipient within last twenty years.

It was found out, that there are three approaches to definition of concept "loan" in linguistics.

Table 3. Definitions of concept "loan"

Process Result Process and result
Loan - process of the reference to lexical fund of other language and transition of lexical units of one language in another Loan - result of carrying over of elements of another's language and assimilation of this element in accepting language Loan - process of transition of elements of another's language in other language, and also result of this process

In considered work loans are understood come in language-recipient from other language as lexical units which serve for a nomination of abstract or real objects of the surrounding validity, and are a natural consequence of language and cultural contacts. Thus, within the limits of this research us the result of process of loan interests mainly.

The separate paragraph is devoted identification process as to a complex of the mental processes which product is subjective experience of clearness of a word. The concept of strategy, including within the limits of strategic model of identification of a word is presented. Strategy of identification of neologisms [Togoeva 1989, 2000] and loans speaking another language [Vysochina 2001 are shown and analysed; Djakonova 2002]. We have found out, that the strategy revealed in reviewed dissertational work, coincide with strategy of identification of the word, the allocated named authors. Results of our experiment have allowed to expand concrete definition strategy for the account of allocation of one more basis: through instructions on a scene of action, object or the subject of action. In the classifications considered earlier in strategy of a concrete definition we have not found out this basis. On the other hand, among the received empirical data we have not revealed examples of use of strategy of a concrete definition in a way and an image of action. In I.V.Djakonoj's work this strategy has been noted in single instances of interpretation of adjectives. Unlike S.I.Togoevoj's works in which the author names motivating and word-formation strategy dominating at identification of new nouns, results of our experiment show, that leaders at identification of the borrowed nouns are strategy of selection of a synonym-similjara, a straight line a definition, concrete definitions.

In other paragraphs of chapter 1 the questions, concerning concepts of a word meaning from a position of psycholinguistics, concept of a mental lexicon, lexicon structure as many-tier system, concepts of external and internal contexts are taken up. The special attention is focused on social and cultural aspects of functioning of English-speaking loans as which we understand set of the linguistic and extralinguistic factors influencing features of perception, understanding and the use of anglicisms. Some psycholinguistic researches as which object loan acts, and by a subject - influence of linguistic and extralinguistic factors on perception and understanding of loans are considered: communication research between the use of loans in speech and formation of image of the modern politician [Fedoseyev 2003], research of influence of formation, age, gender factors on understanding of loans speaking another language [Myagkov 1996; Vysochina 2001; Kopejkina, Talitsky, SHamanova 2017], influence research obshchestvennoyokulturnyh changes on specificity of emotionally-estimated experiences,
The loan words connected with perception [Zalevsky 2011], natsionalnoyokulturnaja specificity of perception of the English-speaking borrowed economic terms [Mitireva 2002].

Besides, in chapter 1 it is a question of results of the first stage of an experimental research with carriers of Russian and Bulgarian languages which have allowed to specify concept psycholinguistic similjara. It was found out, that value judgment of affinity of a word meaning extends not only on native language words, but also on the borrowed lexemes. It means, that, despite an origin speaking another language, English-speaking loans can be perceived by native speakers as synonymous to native language words. We have found out, that special influence on identification of words as identical on value is rendered by the contextual information. Leaning against a language context and neglecting formal signs of a word, respondents often define English-speaking loans as synonymous to native language words even if their values have no anything the general with values of investigated anglicisms.

Chapter 2 «Experimental research of functioning of English-speaking loans» is devoted the experimental research description (with use of a method of subjective definitions and an associative method), spent for the purpose of studying of specificity of functioning of English-speaking loans in individual consciousness. Carrying out of the first investigation phase was based on the assumption that value of English-speaking loan is formed in the course of perception under the influence of a language context or a situation of the use of loan with a support on personal experience that causes various ways of identification of English-speaking loans and various variants of interpretation of values of the same loans.

Students of Southwest state university took part in experiment with native speakers of Russian (Kursk), only 92 students. 77 from them - students-bachelors at the age from 18 till 20 years, trained on specialities «the Automobile economy», «Law-enforcement activity», «Land management and cadastres», «Economic safety», «Electric power industry and the electrical engineer», "Building", and 15 - students-masters at the age from 23 till 25 years, having training preparation on specialities «Law-enforcement activity», "Building", «Pedagogical (language) formation». Data on participants are resulted in tab. 4:

Table 4. Data on Russian participants of experiment

Social status Age Floor Quantity
The man's The female
Students-bachelors 18 - 20 years 37 40 77
Students-masters 23 - 25 years 6 9 15

55 students of university of a name have taken part in experiment with carriers of the Bulgarian language Angela Kyncheva (Rusenski university "Angel Knchev", of Ruse, Bulgaria) at the age from 18 till 25 years, trained on specialities «the Elementary education and a foreign language», "Computer science". Data about participants are resulted in tab. 5.

Table 5. Data on the Bulgarian participants of experiment

Social status Age Floor Quantity
The man's The female
Students 18 - 25 years 20 35 55

Material for experiment on subjective definitions with native speakers of Russian of a steel of 22 English-speaking loans: the UPGRADE, AUTLET, MOLL, BAJOPIK, the BILLBOARD, BLEKAUT, the BRIEFING, the SITE, DEDLAJN, the INNOVATIVE DEVICE, KAMBEK, LOUKOSTER, the MAINSTREAM, the TREND, NJUSMEJKER, SITKOM, DESIGN, the SPOILER, FIDBEK, FLESHMOB, FEJK. These loans have been shown in 18 offers taken entirely from articles of the Russian newspapers «Arguments and the facts» and «the Russian newspaper» (www.aif.ruи www.rg.ru). The chosen newspapers are among the most readable newspapers in Russia.

In experiment on subjective definitions with carriers of the Bulgarian language the English-speaking loans corresponding to what were shown in experiment with russkogovorjashchimi participants have been used. By means of search system on sites of the Bulgarian newspapers «Instant NEWS.INFO» and "Duma" (www.mignews.infoи www.duma.bg) articles containing required English-speaking loans have been found. The choice of newspapers is determined by their popularity among readers in Bulgaria. Nevertheless, to find all anglicisms it was not possible, therefore quantity of investigated words in experiments with carriers of Russian and Bulgarian languages not equally. 13 offers in which 14 English-speaking loans were have been shown the Bulgarian participants: PGREJD, the SITE, the BILLBOARD supposedly BLEKAUT, AUTLET, the BRIEFING, LOUKOSTR, MEJNSTRIJM, the TREND, NJUZMEJKR, SITKOM, DIZAJNERSKI, FLASHMOB.

The questionnaire for participants of experiment consisted of two tasks. In the first task to all informants (Ii.) it was necessary to write down a subjective definition of each English-speaking loan allocated in the offer. In the second task it was required to specify a word (word-combination) of the native language which could replace the shown English-speaking loan.

On the basis of the received empirical material nine strategy of identification of the English-speaking loans used by carriers of Russian and Bulgarian languages in our research have been allocated. The list of strategy, and also their quantitative parity are resulted in tab. 6.

Table 6. A quantitative parity of strategy of identification of English-speaking loans

Identification strategy Russian informants The Bulgarian informants
1. Strategy of selection of a synonym-similjara 330 172
2. Strategy «a direct definition» 96 117
3. Concrete definition strategy: 371 286
Through nazyvanie actions 35 47
Through object of action 100 45
Through the subject of action 22 33
Through nazyvanie the purpose and result of action 44 29
Through nazyvanie one of situation elements 33 40
Through the attributive characteristic 95 46
Through nazyvanie the action tool 22 19
Through instructions on a scene of action, object or the subject of action 20 27
4. Literal translation strategy 68 10
5. Strategy «an illustration an example» 20 5
6. Motivating strategy 4 13
7. Negation strategy 22 5
8. Support strategy on similarity zvukobukvennogo a complex 4 -
9. Strategy «refusal of a definition» 724 132

Strategy of selection of a synonym - similjara is realised in those definitions, in which Ii. Use equivalent or close units of one level with identified loan: the UPGRADE - improvement (20); modernisation (8); updating (3); improvement (20); updating (10); change (3); development (2); the BRIEFING - press conference (12); the SITE - vebyostranitsa (5); a page (4); page on the Internet (6); PGREJD - development (3); obnovjavane (7); the BRIEFING - preskonferentsija (5); sreshcha (6); meeting (6); meeting (5); the SITE - web page (24); electronic page (2); Internet page (2).

Strategy «a direct definition» is realised in the answers representing the developed description of a word meaning: autlet - shop where the clothes is on sale at a discount, footwear of known marks (6); the shops exposing collections of last seasons; MOLL - the trading area with shops and the entertaining centres; AUTLET - magazini for drehi with namalenie; shop for markovi drains on on-niski appreciate (3); and place where distribution of a service happens; the PIER - place where people go to shop things or to watch a movie.

Concrete definition strategy is realised in the definitions expressing the most significant signs of a subject or the phenomenon, reflecting experience, knowledge, representations Ii., sootnosimye with a perceived word. The received material allows to allocate following concretising signs: through nazyvanie actions (a briefing - publication; discussion; the UPGRADE - a raising on new technological level; the BRIEFING - giving information (11); PGREJD - to become better (2); to make new (6); povishavam; renewal of information (9)), through object of action (loukoster - a carrier (4); airline (10); the company (2); a billboard - the poster; a banner; a signboard (8); LOUKOSTR - parent company; cheap flight company (2);
Billboard - a place for adverlιsemenl (13); goljama tabela; screen), through the subject of action (NJUSMEJKER - the person noteworthy; the well-known person; the founder of news (4); design - author's (2); njuzmejkr - svetoven the leader on prvi places; journalist (3); novinar (3); DIZAJNERSKI - made by someone who is famous (2)), through nazyvanie the purpose and result of action (fleshmob - mass action with one purpose; FLASHMOB - populjariziram sbitie with it is whole prisstvie on many uchastnitsi), through nazyvanie one of situation elements (autlet - discount (3); shop, a little shop (6); the low prices; the discount (2); sale (3); AUTLET - a store/a shop (9); clothes (6)), through the attributive characteristic (a billboard - big; the huge; the BILLBOARD - large; big; goljam; vidino mjasto; with golemi razmeri), through nazyvanie the action tool (moll - shop (3); a platform for sales; a pier - chain of shop; all kinds of shops; Concentration on magazini), through instructions on a scene of action, object or the subject of action (a billboard - located at road; in the street; a billboard - local places; by the road; next to big streets and boulevards; on highways).

Literal translation strategy consists in attempt Ii. To formulate a subjective definition on the basis of transfer of a prototype of English-speaking loan from language-original on the native language: SITKOM - a comedy of situations; a situational comedy; situatsionna a comedy (2); comedy serial (2); dedlajn - a dead line; kambek - returning (34); a mainstream - the basic current (4); a briefing - short (2); short.

Strategy «an illustration» is connected by an example with actualisation in memory of the native speaker of the situation connected with the identified word: an upgrade - the altered play; a briefing - planyorka; meeting between colleagues; the SITE - a personal office; a homepage; Vkontakte; Internet page of any company; a page that opens when you surf in the internet; BLEKAUT - blekaut poezija. Last example is term transfer blackout poetry, come of English language which name the new kind of poetry consisting in deletion of separate words in newspaper articles so it turns out some kind of a poem, is frequent without any rhyme.

Motivating strategy is realised in the subjective definitions containing morphological elements or a root of English-speaking loan or its prototype in English language: LOUKOSTR - a company which sells in a low price (6); an air provider that offers low cost flight tickets; MEJNSTRIJM - main (7); autlet - new autlet; design - made the designer; the decision from the designer; DIZAJNERSKI - made by a designer (3).

Negation strategy is used in following definitions:

BLEKAUT - without electricity; no power; FEJK - artificial (4); a lie (2).

Support strategy on similarity zvukobukvennogo a complex is realised in the subjective definitions generated on the basis of phonetic or graphic affinity with shown English-speaking loan: dedlajn - a debut.

Strategy «refusal of a definition» most typical for English-speaking loans the SITE / the SITE, the MAINSTREAM / MEJNSTRIJM, LOUKOSTER / LOUKOSTR. Along with these anglicisms Russian Ii. Have worse consulted with words MOLL, DEDLAJN, NJUSMEJKER, FIDBEK, DESIGN. Bulgarians have less successfully coped with identification of loans BLEKAUT,
SITKOM, FLASHMOB. There is variety of the reasons, on which Ii. Refuse a definition: uncertainty in correctness of the answer, weariness, misunderstanding of the purpose of the task, a carelessness, absence of semantic communication of loan with other units of an individual lexicon.

Received from Russian and Bulgarian Ii. Subjective definitions show, that the language context makes the big impact on understanding and formation of value of English-speaking loan in an individual lexicon. Definitions of participants of experiment show, as value of anglicisms varies depending on a contextual environment. BLEKAUT in Russia connect with a power interruption, in Bulgaria - with censorship and an information lack, the TREND in Russia define as something fashionable, new, modern, in Bulgaria - the period of time or time between events in the past and the present, the MAINSTREAM in Russia - a modern direction, in Bulgaria - a music genre. However not all Ii. Analyze a language context at interpretation of value of English-speaking loan. Loan the SPOILER is defined by Russian participants as the device preventing a stream of air; a car detail. In the technician a spoiler name the device in the car which transforms a laminar stream of air into the turbulent. The language context in which it is a question of a spoiler as about the information opening a plot of films, has not affected subjective definitions. The support on a language context is actual for native speakers in the event that neither available experience, nor language and not language knowledge do not help to understand value of a loan word.

The allocated strategy of identification of English-speaking loans are applied both native speakers of Russian, and carriers of the Bulgarian language that allows us to draw a conclusion on relative rate of the revealed strategy among representatives investigated lingvokulturnyh groups.

Hypothesis of the second investigation phase spent by a technique of free associative experiment with native speakers of Russian, the assumption that specificity of functioning of English-speaking loans in an individual lexicon is influenced by linguistic and extralinguistic factors, the person of the participant of experiment, its age and gender characteristics, a trade, an educational level has acted.

Research material are English-speaking loans OUTSOURCING, KOMJUNITI, the GRANT, TEST DRIVE, MAKE look slender, shourum, the TRANSFER, KONSILER, the SOUNDTRACK, pankejk, KRAUDFANDING, STARTAP, LAJFHAK, SELFI, ESCALATION. As well as at the first investigation phase, as a source of a material for associative experiment sites of newspapers «Arguments and the facts» and «the Russian newspaper» have served.

60 examinees have taken part in experiment: 20 students Jugo - the Western state university (Kursk, Russia) at the age of 18-19 years (a speciality «Nanotehnologii and the microsystem technics»,
«Law-enforcement activity»), 20 teachers of chair of foreign languages of Southwest state university at the age from 30 till 72 years, 20 employees of the enterprise of joint-stock company «Aviaautomatics of V.V. Tarasova» (Kursk, Russia) at the age from 22 till 58 years. Data on participants are resulted in tab. 7.

Table 7. Data on participants of experiment

Occupation Age Floor Formation Quantity
The man's The female
Students 18-19 13 7 Full average 20
Teachers of university 30-72 2 18 The higher 20
Assemblers, collectors, engineers 22-58 8 12 Average profesyosionalnoe, the higher 20

The received language material has been analysed and distributed on twelve groups of verbal associations:

- Explanatory associations (komjuniti - a society united by a platitude of a residence, interests, etc.);

- Associations-definitions (lajfhak - useful, necessary);

- The associations expressed in other words of English language (outsourcing - the offshore (2), screening);

- The associations which have arisen on accord with a word-stimulus (shourum - shaurma (3));

- The associations containing elements of a word-stimulus (konsiler - the console, a consultation (3), horse force, the adviser);

- The associations which are transfer of a word-stimulus (test drive - trial arrival);

- Associations on a contiguity (pankejk - the dough, a flour, the recipe, a frying pan (2), a banana, oladik, fritters, cookies (3), maffin, a pancake week, a holiday, driving, sweet, a pie (3), a pie, a cake (6), a fruitcake (8), a roll, America, a bourgeois cheesecake, oladushek);

- The associations specifying on functional and a causal relationship (STARTAP - to project, advancement (2), development, the economic term, business (5), research and projects);

- Associations of an obscure origin (kraudfanding - the ice breaker, a class, sports (2), a building, a treasure, a disgrace, crash);

- The associations caused owing to proceeding influence of former stimulus (pankejk - a society);

- Associations - additions (a transfer - technologies);

- Associations-circumstances (make look slender - fashionably).

Results testify that the associative behaviour of participants of experiment is based as on the realised operations connected with the analysis of the arriving information, search of logic communications between stimulus and reaction, and on displays of unconscious sphere.

The received material has been presented in the form of associative fields. In each field the kernel including three and more repeating reaction, the peripheral zone including reactions with frequency «2», and a zone of individual reactions are allocated. Associative fields to professional and gender signs (for example, fig. 1 see, 2) have been generated. Separate associative fields to an age sign have not been generated, however work contains the analysis of the reactions which occurrence is connected with influence of the factor of age.

Fig. 1 - the Associative field of English-speaking loan the GRANT (girls and women)

Fig. 2 - the Associative field of English-speaking loan the GRANT (young men and men)

Results of experiment show, that between the associations given by students of a technical speciality and students of a humanitarian speciality there are distinctions. So, students of a technical speciality react to loan outsourcing by words work return to foreign persons, delegation, gathering, the organisation, while students of the humanitarian

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Specialities react to the same loan by words a pine, an autism, surfing. Reactions of students of a technical speciality in bolshej degrees are technically focused, than reactions of their coevals studying other subjects. Studying of certain disciplines leaves traces on an individual lexicon of students and the general level of development, that eksplitsiruetsja in character of associative behaviour at access to English-speaking loan.

Reactions in group of teachers of foreign languages of university show, that participants with linguistic formation often resort to a support on some kind of the internal form of a word and to transfer of its components into Russian (shourum - a room for display, a soundtrack - a sound track, komjuniti - community, a transfer - transfer, movement, kraudfanding - crowd, startap - the beginning). Girls unlike young men react to English-speaking loans by lexemes, conformable or having similar elements with a word-stimulus (komjuniti - a unit, a room, escalation - an exposition, the grant - a guarantee, the guarantor) is more often. Quantity of similar reactions among young men the insignificant. The same support choose women-employees of factory (make look slender - it is grown thin, a transfer - a transformer, konsiler - a consultation, pankejk - the punk, LAJFHAK - lajk). Men of technical trades lean against available language and background knowledge that finds reflexion in the developed associations-definitions (startap - the project c prospect of the commercial success, new idea for the further development; SELFI - a self-portrait version in zapechatlenii itself; the GRANT - compensation for the big successes and on the further development in any sphere of activity).

Influence of the factor of age is shown in the form of the associations reflecting interests of representatives of different generations, level of internal culture. For example, the association the captain (4) on English-speaking loan the GRANT arises in group of teachers and practically is absent in other groups of informants (only one person in group of employees of factory gives the same reaction). In this case influence an educational level, nachitannost, the age factor. The association has arisen in connection with a literary work «Children of the captain of the Grant» Z.Verna. For young generation the similar literature does not represent interest unlike people of advanced age which childhood has passed under reading of the named book. It explains absence of associative communications between a word-stimulus the GRANT and the novel name in consciousness of young informants.

Thus, dissertational research gives representation about a place of English-speaking loans in the modern language and shows, that occurs in consciousness of native speakers at perception of anglicisms.

In the CONCLUSION the basic conclusions and results of the carried out research are presented, prospects of the further researches in this area are defined.

In the APPENDIX samples of forms of interrogation of informants during experimental research carrying out are presented.

Work substantive provisions are reflected in following publications.

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A source: OVCHINNIKOVA Marina Sergeevna. ENGLISH-SPEAKING LOANS In INDIVIDUAL CONSCIOUSNESS (psycholinguistic research). The dissertation AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Tver - 2018. 2018

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