In Introduction the choice of a theme of research, its urgency is proved, the purposes and research problems are stated, the subject and object of the analysis are defined, the material and research methods are characterised, scientific novelty, the theoretical and practical importance of work reveal, the substantive provisions which are taken out on protection are formulated, data on approbation of results of research are resulted.

In chapter 1 «tourism Language as special sign system of formation of ethnocultural relations» such basic concepts for research, as image of region, regional identity, tourism as a kind of intercultural communications, a tourism discourse are analyzed and reveal. On the basis of the received conclusions the basic direction and research methodology are defined. Also it is in detail considered such diskursivnyj a method of designing of image of region, as a method of language modelling of mental regions. Tourism language is considered as special sign system which by means of the various verbal and nonverbal means used for advancement of this or that tourist direction, creates and strengthens its positive image, «transforming readers in tourists».

Regional identity is key concept of comprehension of occurrence of modern tourism and definition of its character. Creation and advancement of imagined and desirable places directly is connected with this concept that has made its powerful, often used slogan in practice of modern tourism where there is an attempt of creation of new symbolical senses for settlements, kultivirovanie their distinctive fig. In the given work the big attention is given to the analysis of the tourist brochures actively using language of tourism as the channel of an information transfer to the potential traveller. We adhere Joseph Schmidt's to statement, that tourism, in the course of advancement and advertising of this or that tourist direction, and also creation of a regional image uses an own discourse [Schmied 2006], with the features and an arsenal of the means, used to convince, involve, persuade potential tourists and to create an attractive image of "the small native land».

Differently, the discourse of tourism not only possesses ability to create tourist directions, but also represents the first step of "consumption" of the given direction which begins long before arrival to described district and on distance far from it. Renata Fox notices, that only thanks to a suitable choice of a discourse - selection of suitable means of language of tourism - it is possible to "invite" the potential tourist to become the real participant of tourist experience [Boh 2001: 15].

Such understanding of a discourse of tourism, and after it and a formation discourse, assumes otgranichenie it from an advertising discourse as would be erroneous to believe, that the text of the tourist or educational brochure is only the pragmatical advertising text. S.A.pogodaeva
Notices, that considered on a material of tourist prospectuses and brochures the tourist discourse can be classified as special in large quantities-information written and statusno-focused institutsionalnyj a discourse. It «represents slozhnoorganizovannyj, to be exact - hybrid (combining lines advertising, nauchnoyopopuljarnogo, didactic discourses), and a polycode discourse (using verbal, ikonichesky, graphic codes). Feature of a tourist discourse consists in the limited sphere of application (tourism sphere), available argumentativnogo the potential promoting effective belief of the addressee to go to travel for the purpose of rest or self-education» [pogodaeva 2008].

If at a tourism discourse is argumentativnyj the potential promoting effective belief of the addressee to go to travel for the purpose of rest and self-education argumentativnyj the potential of a discourse of formation can consist in belief of the addressee to get education in a certain place or even district, a city, the country. Thus, the educational institution cannot and should not be considered separately from settlement where it is located, and also from the country where there is a given settlement. It is quite obvious, that, advancing a tourist direction, we not only educate the addressee, but also we draw attention to educational institutions, the information about which can be in the tourist brochure. Advertising educational institution, we cannot do without the information on district. Probably, the side between the tourist and the future student or the student and the future townsman and the countries will be erased thanks to texts of a discourse of tourism and a formation discourse. Therefore in the given research it is offered to consider a discourse of tourism and a formation discourse in interaction, trying to reveal as much as possible the general and private laws and mechanisms of creation of the effective message.

It is possible to allocate a number of functions of language of tourism, among which above described directive (or konativnaja) the function shown in ability to manipulate by consciousness of potential tourists, is one of the most significant. Thus will manufacture: expressional function (it consists in use of expressional means for attraction and maintenance of attention of the reader to described object, for example, frequent use of a superlative degree of adjectives and adverbs in the description etc.; konativnuju function (it is shown in frequent use of an imperative mood and offers-direktivov («do not delay, explore the land!» [Orlic: 19]); informative function (it is directed on granting of the information on the country, region, district); faticheskuju, or kontaktoustanavlivajushchuju function (it is expressed in the organisation of correspondence dialogue between the tourist and «the hospitable owner» from which person "narration" is conducted. The rhetorical are for this purpose used
Questions, pronouns "we", "ours"); poetic function (it is realised for the account of use of various means metaforizatsii).

One of properties of language of tourism which is widely used in tourist brochures, is special reprezentatsija time. For example, stopped time («... traditions of Croatian people are still alive»), the negation of time assuming travel in time: («... small towns опthe coast, full of Venetian and Austrian-Hungarian atmosphere have preserved their Roman memories») communication with the past, («The fisherman has left for eternity the memory of the town and stone, revealing what is called work of art, but that is just his soul»)

Following property of language of tourist brochures is reprezentatsija magic and presence of fantastic images that assumes, the separation from a reality and dullness. («It is and wonderful region, and nook rightly called the splendid land or land of fairies, and terra magica...» [Croatia Istria Brochure, http])

At the analysis of tourist brochures we see, that texts are directed on «dream manufacture» by means of means of language of tourism. Moreover, the emphasis is placed on motive of realisation of dream of the potential tourist-reader of the brochure. (“First imagine your little dream-town, softly embedded in picturesque Mediterranean bay - then sote to Vrsar and you will see... it matches your dream!” [Roges tourist brochure: http].)

G.Dann notices, that tourism language is language of the social control [Dann 1996] which by means of a number of means tries to "supervise" readers, setting as the purpose to "transform" them in tourists, but thus creating visibility of boundless freedom of action. In this respect the accent becomes on konativnoj the function realised thanks to following features of language of tourism: (1) use of a "consumer" imperative which "persuades" the reader to visit advertised district, region or the country, i.e. to become the consumer of offered "product". "Do not delay: sail the azure blue waters of the Adriatic and discover the island which is one of the last habitats of the grif­fon vulture in Eurоре" [Croatia tourist brochure: http]); (2) use of rhetorical questions: "Isn't it time you treated yourself to and holiday? (3) use of means of a modality:" ... if you are interested in the days of antiquity, you should start from the Roman amphitheatre in Pula... "[Croatia tourist brochure: http]; (4) use of the latent commands:" If you have opportunity, you tau experience the charm of public festivities "[Bursic: 13].

The analysis of language of tourist brochures allows to allocate verbal means, on a way of influence for the reader forming groups of receptions.

Differentiation reception focuses attention on an originality, features of described object for the account of use of various expressional means and stylistic receptions. (Metaphors: «this hidden oasis»; «and necklace of small islands»; «fairytale town»; «in the shape of and heart or and bunch of grapes»; epithets: «magical nature»; «and rich, turbulent and glorious history»; game CЛOв: "Where the na­ture's beauty is its second nature" [Croatia tourist brochure: 19, http] etc.)

Reception of acknowledgement of appeal of a direction from known art workers, arts etc. («From the renowned Medieval philoso­pher, Istrian-born Hermann Dalmatin»; «the world traveller and explorer, Marco Polo, who was born on Korcula»); reception of orientation to the person (or «self-targeting» as named it
Dann, t.e «orientation to identity» [Dann 1993: 895]). This reception is based on allocation you, on orientation to your requirements: «your needs, your satisfaction», with smooth transition to your internal I, to your identity. («Discover yourself! [Croatia tourist brochure: http]»)

Reception of the reference to mythology means a certain returning by ancient times, to natural, true and innocent: «This is and place where people have deep respect for Mother Earth».

Reception of the description of the culinary features peculiar to this or that district, becomes a bright indicator of identity, creating, keeping and transferring unique qualities and characteristics of people, their cultures and territory which they occupy («... while mouth-watering aromas of delectable home - cured hams and the heavenly Kulen emanate from tables, and the famous ish-paprikash gently bubbles in the pots. Welcome to Slavonia!»)

For definition of the steadiest features reprezentatsii this or that phenomenon (here: local residents, visitors or region) we used concept motive. Leading motive in representation of so-called local residents is the motive of hospitality, kindliness. You are always glad to see, you respect, you value. ("The hospitable hosts will make your holidays тогєpleasant and comfortable" [Winter in Finland brochure, http])

The motive of authenticity and authenticity represents local residents as the true representatives of the earth close to the nature, generous and persistent. (“... the local people age diligent; you can find them in the field in the morning and often fishing in the evening.” [Bursic 2001])

The motive of authenticity meets in the image of the region, the district: is not and wax museum, it's inhabited u real people with

numerous needs ”[Bursic 2001].

The motive of a unique cultural heritage used in the description of sights of this or that region, is closely connected with motive of pride. (“Our cultural heritage is vibrant and alive. You will find distinctly modern events tak­ing place at some of our historic sites” [Denmark brochure, http].)

The motive of friendship meeting in the description of visitors/tourists, also stimulates repeated visits, and frequently are a push to moving. "You will hear the wonderful stories of friendship told u the hosts and guests as well as often continued u the children and grandchildren. What hosts like the best is probably the moment when guests tell them:" I have found mу new home here! "

Personification reception as diskursivnyj a method of creation of positive image of region, becomes one of the most demanded and effective ways of advancement of a tourist direction and strengthening of regional identity. Thus allocate some ways of use of a method of personification in a regional discourse: metonimicheskoe use of an image of the regional leader as representative of all region forming its image; use of an image of the legendary or invented hero as an edge symbol. The given variant of personification of image of region is now one of the most popular and effective as all toolkit leans against reception mifologizatsii. As an example it is possible to result
Creation of such "myths", as «Village Gadovo - the Native land of Dragon Gorynycha», «Staritsky caves - native land Kashcheja Immortal», and also the fact of opening of a new museum - «the Museum of a goat» in Tver.

Use of a method of personification in a tourism discourse allocates with senses certain territory and also is mythological activity or mifologizatsiej. Hence, personification of image of the region, based on mifologizatsii, is a way of creation of an image of territory which will be the most remembered and emotionally perceived as from inhabitants of the given territory, and its visitors. So there is a strengthening of the regional identity based on narrativnom type of cultural relations with surrounding space that is characterised by mythical communication and accessory comprehension to «the small native land» through "narrativy", so-called «the created myths», family histories.

Personification in itself also will be one of senses on which there is a reader in process reflektirovanija over the validity reflected in the text of the tourist brochure.

In the second chapter «Rhetorical and metaphorical characteristics of educational and tourist brochures» the rhetoric place in space of humanitarian knowledge and studying of questions of a discourse of tourism is considered, genre features of the text of the educational and tourist brochure are defined, the place of metaphors of formation is defined, qualitatively new metaphor of advancement of knowledge is allocated. Also in the second chapter specificity of the ritoriko-reflective analysis with reference to a formation discourse reveals, the detailed analysis of use ekspressivnoyovyrazitelnyh means in a discourse of formation and a tourism discourse is carried out, technicians of understanding and their use in the text of the educational brochure are considered.

The author of the text of a discourse of tourism or formation discourse is original "ritor". Prior to the beginning of so-called "communications" at «a precommunicative stage», i.e. before drawing up of texts as tourism discourse, and formation discourse, the author, as well as ritor, tries to answer on three basic questions: what to tell (what information to inform to the recipient and in what quantity)? How to tell (with what help of means to express this information)? Where to tell (in what section of the brochure to place this or that information)?

Let's consider first three stages (canon), as the most important for the given research, and their observance in a discourse of formation and a tourism discourse (tab. 1 see).

Table 1

Inventio (What to tell?) Dispositio

«Where to tell?»

Elocutio «as

To tell? »

The account of the factor of relevance Accent on certain ideas, messages or we name their motives Arrangement main and

The minor information in the text here is

At this stage we will speak about

Motive of trust and support: “it never ceases to amaze me how stu­dents from very diverse cultures, religions and creeds, live and study together so well and make such long-lasting friendships.”

Motive of experience and self-trust: “I have been associated with the summer programme for many years and in that time thousands of young people have attended our courses.”

Important for understanding of the text the recipient,

Generations of its correct reaction and belief achievement. So, in

To the aforementioned brochure of college the Concorde, as well as in many other things brochures, the reference of the director of an educational institution is located on the first page, the most important information repeats and summarised more close by article or section end.

Features of use of technics metaforizatsii, about occurrence of qualitatively new metaphor —

Metaphors of advancement of knowledge.

So, speaking about rhetoric of a discourse of tourism and rhetoric of a discourse of formation and considering its display on pages of tourist and educational brochures, we speak about ways of belief of the reader of the brochure, carried out in writing language influence by means of various receptions for the purpose of generation of positive emotions and the relations, capable to lead to desire formation to visit a described tourist direction or to study in certain educational institution.

Researches which passed in frameworks of consideration of the theory of mass communications, have allowed to allocate some significant characteristics of participants of rhetorical communications. Efficiency of the convincing message is influenced by four types of factors: features kommunikatora (for example, competence kommunikatora, sincerity kommunikatora), audience characteristics (for example, presence of requirement for noegenesis, motivation on achievement, avoiding of failures, structure presence attitjudov), a parity of features kommunikatora and audiences, message characteristics (for example, use of internal and external verbs, use of the adjectives having positive colouring) (tab. 2 see).

Table 2

Features kommunikatora Features of the addressee of the message Features of the message
Competence kommunikatora

(“We enjoy a reputa­tion for providing ef­fective language les­sons and running well-organised activi­ties and excursions...)

Sincerity kommunikatora

Presence of the such

Requirements as: noegenesis; maintenance of the close

The person (for example,

The child) all possibilities to receive knowledge; requirement in


Message structure.

Efficiency of the message

Raises, if it consists of the introduction, the basic part and

The laconic conclusion.

Message lexicon.

1) Frequent use of a pronoun we - speaks desire

Producer of the text of the brochure

To represent educational institution as

(“We believe strongly that an enriched and exciting curriculum will embed and con­tinue the rapid im­provement...)

Motivation on

Achievement / failure avoiding

(“Our school is a happy, caring and safe place, where all children achieve success and go on to fulfil their potential and contribute to society”) Structure attitjudov (the relation of the recipient to a theme or a problem in the text). Kommunikator appeals both to emotions, and to reason.

Something uniform, indivisible and amicable.

2) Rate of the verbs directed on the recipient (or external verbs: offer, provide, at, want, strive, wish for) and the verbs directed on a producer (or internal verbs)

3) Strengthenings of such cores for

Messages of nouns as cur­riculum, school, teachers, approach. Adjectives, which

Designate properties, qualities of character, (for example: good, caring, friendly, happy and secure), intellectual qualities (for example: creative, enriched), socially significant signs (for example: rich and innovative).

The big attention in work is given to the description of genre features of tourist and educational brochures. After N.V.Ruzhentsevoj who defines the tourist brochure as a difficult multicomponent secondary genre, and Martin Nilsen who has suggested to consider the brochure as a genre, by means of drawing up of its linguistic portrait (linguistic profile), had been in detail described external and internal matrixes tekstogrammy the tourist and educational brochure (tab. 3 see)

Table 3

External matrix
The tourist brochure The educational brochure

naja intentsija

To give the information on a tourist direction, to draw attention of potential tourists To give the information on an educational institution, to draw attention of potential students
Object of communications / the addressee Potential tourists and visitors of a tourist direction, the wide public Potential students, their parents and lawful representatives
The sender Department on tourism, city administration, individual customers and representatives of a city/settlement Educational institution, its administration

The internal matrix means consideration of such nonverbal characteristics, as the size, a format, quality of a paper, cover, the description of illustrations and tekstograficheskih communications, and also such verbal characteristics, as presence makrostuktury, izotopii denotativnoj and konnotativnoj groups, metacommunications, intertekstualnosti, inkljuzii the addressee and the sender.

One more significant genre characteristic of tourist and educational brochures is presence of an accurate macrostructure (tab. 4> see.

Table 4

The brochure «Cardiff» Table of contents; references to known art workers and the sports, visited a tourist direction; addresses of the tourist centres; the list of sights and actions.
The brochure «Worstead church of England primary school pro - spectus» Salutatory word of the director; credo, school mission; the description of values; the general information on school and its structure; the schedule; the information on the supervising organisations; accent on inkljuzivnosti and equality in formation; the organisation of safety and health maintenance; norms of behaviour.

It is necessary to note the uniform approach to the description macro-and the discourse microstructures, U.Mannom and S.Tompson offered in 1980th years in their theory of rhetorical structure (TRS). We will consider some examples of rhetorical relations (further - RO) in a formation discourse, leaning on list RO given on the Internet site Rhetorical structure theory. Transfer of names RO is executed by us. Presentation relations RO are presented to tab. 5.

Table 5

Kind of rhetorical relations Example Kernel /

The satellite

The comment

protivopostavl enija (Antithesis)

No As a producer of the text of a discourse of formation

Tries to create

Positive perception of described objects, RO oppositions are absent on pages of brochures.

Contextual RO (Background) Islington's primary school re­sults just keep on getting better and better.

Last year we were proud to achieve our best ever English and Math results for tests taken by 11 year olds. We now have more schools rated ‘ outstanding ’ and ‘ good ’ by Ofsted than many other boroughs in the country, so you can be confident that our primary schools will offer your child a solid foundation.


The satellite

The contextual information is the general information of any sort, which which can lead the reader to understanding of a kernel.
RO Concessions


We can also add your child's name to a school's waiting list Kernel

The satellite

RO concessions in a formation discourse more often

even if you did not list the school on your application form (although you can only be con­sidered for a maximum of six schools at any time). Concern the description of process of record and a filing of application for receipt in this or that educational institution.
RO Realizations (Enablement) If you would like to apply for another school in Islington, we can send you a list of schools with available places. You can then let us know if you would like to apply for one of these schools. Kernel

The satellite

The way is shown

Realisations of the offered possibilities.


Acknowledgement (Evidence)

As a school, we encourage the children to keep healthy; only healthy snacks are allowed for breaks and water bottles and healthy packed lunches are en­couraged. School meals meet the Soil Association’s Food for Life standard, therefore, ensuring a very high quality of provision, with at least 30 % of food organ­ic and 75 % of food unprocessed. Due to allergies, we are a nut and seed free school. Kernel

The satellite

These are one of most

Frequency RO in a tourism and formation discourse. Acknowledgement of statements and statements pledge of confidence with

The parties of the reader in the positive relation to presented in

To the brochure to the educational

To institution or

To tourist direction.

Let's consider now some examples of use predmetnoyosoderzhatelnyh RO in a formation discourse (tab. 6 see).

Table 6

Kind of rhetorical relations Example Kernel /

The satellite

The comment

The accompanying


Parents should not take children out of school when it is avoida­ble because of the effect that ab­sence can have on a child’s edu­cational progress. Kernel the satellite For an explanation

The necessary information to parents and trustees authors of the brochure often resort to RO

Concomitant circumstances.

RO Conditions If your child has to travel more than two miles to school and the journey is unreasonable by bus, and you are on a low income, your child may be eligible for a travel card. The satellite


One of the most frequency RO in educational brochures is RO Conditions. For the author

Brochures important accurate understanding of all conditions of transfer in

Educational institution and training there.

RO Specifications In Camden we ' ve got a lot to be proud of, and we ' re convinced Kernel RO Specifications are very important for understanding and

that there are few better places for your child to attend school. Ofsted agrees with us. 1. With more than 90 % of our children attending schools judged as good or outstanding, they are among the best in England. 2. Primary pupils in Camden have per­formed consistently above the national average in recent years, with significant improvements in national tests for 11 year-olds since 2011 The satellite Acknowledgement of the information resulted in nuklearnoj a part (kernel) of the message.

It is possible to carry following indicators to accurate genre characteristics of the educational brochure: (1) presence macro-and microstructures; (2) nearness of the text of the educational and tourist brochure to characteristics kreolizovannogo the text; (3) communication of elements of a discourse of tourism and a discourse of formation by means of a different sort of rhetorical relations. Perception of educational process metaphorically enough. Before our research three kinds of a metaphor of formation were allocated: a metaphor of acquisition of knowledge, a metaphor of participation and a metaphor of creation of knowledge. A.Sfard [Sfard 1998: 4] as follows characterises a dichotomy of metaphorical perception of educational process (tab. 7 see).

Table 7

Metaphor of acquisition of knowledge (acquisition metaphor) Participation metaphor (participation metaphor)
The training purposes Individual enrichment Community creation
Training it. Acquisition something Formation by the participant of process
The student it. The recipient, the consumer The additional participant, the pupil - the assistant
The teacher it. The supplier of knowledge, the co-ordinator, the intermediary The participant-expert, the organizer of practical application of knowledge, discourse
Knowledge, the concept it. The property, product (personal and public) Aspect of practice, discourse, activity
Knowledge it. Acquisition process Accessory to whole, participation, dialogue

Semi Paavola and Kaj Hakkarajnen assert, that, in the modern world productive participation in the high technology work demands, both from separately taken professionals, and from their communities and the organisations, constant modernisation, development of new abilities, perfection of knowledge, and also creation of innovative products and qualitatively new knowledge [Paavola 2005: 535]. Here on the foreground there is a new perception of the validity and its reflexion in a metaphor of creation of knowledge. The analysis of texts of educational brochures which are on a joint of a discourse of tourism and a formation discourse, allows us to allocate one more kind
Formation metaphors is a metaphor of advancement of knowledge. Now in the attention centre there is a process of attraction of the person as addressee of knowledge (student) to a place of reception of knowledge (in an educational institution, community, a city, the country). Visualisation of a metaphor of advancement of knowledge becomes a part of wider process - metaforizatsii, which on the basis of actually metaphor or others tropov (the epithet, a synecdoche, metonimija etc.) promotes awakening of a reflexion of the recipient at perception of the text of the educational brochure. metaforizatsija it is one of kinds rhetorical the technician which help to enter the recipient into a reflective position. In a discourse of formation the recipient is the potential student, and the reflective position is a process of a choice of an educational institution during perusal of the text of the educational brochure.

To track how the text of the educational brochure influences the reader, we will address to the ritoriko-reflective analysis - to studying and the description of influence of rhetorical means, receptions and ways tekstopostroenija on processes of a reflexion, understanding and use germenevticheskih the technician in a course retseptsii the text of a discourse of formation.

The concept germenevticheskih the technician, promoting effective deducing of the subject in a reflective position [Makeeva 2000:53], is key for understanding of the nature of influence of the text of the educational brochure on imagination of the reader, on awakening of its reflexion and, as consequence, on its desire to visit a described tourist direction. The special attention should be turned on group so-called author's germenevticheskih the technician, i.e. rhetorical the technician which are used by the author of the text of the educational brochure for deducing of the recipient in reflektivnuju a position. We will more in detail stop on technicians metaforizatsii. So, technicians metaforizatsii, realised by a metaphor or other tracks (epithets, hyperboles, a synecdoche, etc.), are directed on differentiation achievement, on allocation of original lines and features of described object for the account of use of various expressional means and stylistic receptions.

The text of educational brochures of the Cambridge International school and school D'Overbroeck's in Oxford has the following scheme of creation and existence of a metaphor of advancement of knowledge (fig. 1 see).

The scheme resulted more low illustrates interaction of a discourse of tourism and a formation discourse (fig. 2 see).

Let's stop on practical realisation of means and receptions of language of tourism in the obrazovatelno-tourist brochure offered by us. Popularity now mobile appendices, online of versions of printing editions and the Internet of sites as educational institutions, and tourist directions, does possible use of the offered text for creation of the so-called Internet brochure. The Internet brochure can exist in the form of an exact copy of the printing brochure and-or in the form of an independent site. Both variants do possible association 17

Tourist and educational brochures in one subspecies - obrazovatelnoyoturisticheskuju the brochure. It will give the chance to use all empirical material of the given research work to the full and once again to confirm fidelity of the statement that it is impossible to imagine advancement of a tourist direction without the description of educational institutions existing in it as it is impossible to imagine the full description of educational institution without a detailed mention of district, its histories and culture.

The tourist-educational Internet brochure is understood as the independent site devoted to a tourist direction with instructions of data on educational institutions, or a site containing the information on educational institution with the detailed description of district, a city, the country where it is located. The structure of similar sites has structure similar to the printing brochure, and the information containing on such site, can to be used, if necessary, for creation of the printing edition. On fig. 3 it is represented vkladka under the name «Tver History». Its association with section «Tver Region History» is possible.

Is available also radel «Education in Tver». Use of a metaphor of advancement of knowledge helps to create here the text which is clearing up a reflexion, causing positive senses - emotions at the reader, advancing an educational institution and a city as a whole: “Academic gymnasium is a structural subdivision of Tver State University and we are very proud of being that close to one of the best institutions of higher education in our region. We provide a stimulating, dynamic environment that enables stu­dents to gain the skills, qualifications and confidence for success at university and beyond...”


In the Conclusion are summed up dissertational research and prospects of the further studying of rhetoric of a discourse of tourism are outlined.

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A source: ISAKOVA Elena Mihajlovna. RHETORICAL And METAPHORICAL ASPECTS of LANGUAGE of TOURISM (on a material of texts of educational and tourist brochures). The dissertation AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Tver - 2017. 2017


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