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THE BASIC MAINTENANCE OF WORK

In introduction the urgency and scientific novelty of research are proved, its object and a subject are defined, described the purpose and the problems, the used methods, the theoretical and practical importance of work reveals.

In chapter 1 Concept of identification of a word and reading as its basis is considered the concept of identification having interdisciplinary character, the review of various approaches to process of perception of the text and how reading corresponds with process of identification of a word is spent.

In the reviewed dissertation it is shown, that the concept of identification has the interdisciplinary character any of approaches existing at present it is impossible to consider general scientific and basic. In our work we also stand on a position integrativnogo the approach to identification questions, not limiting ourselves only language area. Identification is defined as an identity recognition, an identification. After N.D.Arutjunovoj we believe, that the identification certificate consists in comparison of data in direct supervision of properties and signs with impressions and the data following from last experience (Arutyunov 1998). As a matter of fact, such treatment represents synthesis of approaches existing in linguistics to a problem of identification of a word. For the decision of research problems we have in detail considered: 1) kognitivnyj the approach (the constructive
Perception); 2) the ecological approach (direct perception); 3) the information approach.

Kognitivnyj the approach to perception and information processing is presented kognitivnymi by theories of constructive perception (Asmolov 2002; Bruner, 1957, 1961; Gregory, 1980; Rock, 1983), based on idea

Pluralities of sources of a choice which concern: the touch data taken from long-term memory of knowledge, vyvodnoe knowledge and knowledge of the context, previous experience, etc. According to konstruktivistam, all this knowledge assimilate us at subconscious level, generating defined pertsept.

The polar position is occupied with the ecological approach of J. Gibson (Gibson 1950, 1966, 1979; Goldstein 1980, 1981), attaching paramount significance of the information received from a touch context, hence, being in most perceived word. Kognitivnye processes of higher order and previous experience appear unessential to identification realisation. Such understanding of process of perception considerably narrows an action field, limiting the individual in decision-making as excludes action of existential relations of environment and possibility antitsipatsii the received information. At such approach the perception appears static, lifeless. Konstruktivisty consider perception as process as the certain continuum originating in existential both semantic systems of readout and having for an object construction / designing nobody an image.

The information approach describes construction of a guess by the individual algorithmically - the logic sequence of processes beginning with perception physical (visual and-or acoustic) characteristics of the identified word, including possible variants of its decoding and stages of a choice of the answer is set. All it is carried out by means of certain rules and operations. Nevertheless, it is not necessary to forget, that the objective reality lives the own life which is not submitting to "laws" of the information approach, aspiring to "adjust" it to the rules.

Plus of the information approach consists in representation of difficult processes as the sums of more simple; perception process is presented as progress from simple structures to more difficult. From these positions it is necessary to mention L. Barsalou (Barsalou 2012) and its idea of counter designing from elements of the last experience including products of processing of experience of dialogue and knowledge of the world, in situations when we try to understand about what there is a speech. Thus there is an activation of the various communications providing experience of the perceived word as clear.

Not capable "one by one" to construct the theory of high explanatory force, in a complex kognitivnaja, ecological and information paradigms allow to consider perception as the certain continuum assuming antitsipatsiju, reception, information structurization, and also action kognitivnyh processes of different levels of abstraction and osoznavaemosti. All it
Assumes plurality of used strategy. It is as a result generated pertseptivnyj an image / a Gestalt. The received image grows out of interference of culture, psychophysiology, thinking, language and consciousness, i.e. result kognitivno-diskursivnoj activity. In this case the word appears as the carrier of all information on multilevel system of interactions which, however, is not characterised by a hierarchy principle, and is organised geterarhichno as we do not know, on what channel the information preprocessing will begin, and also in what direction it will be developed (an existential axis); besides, parallelism of processing of the information received on raznomodalnym to channels is not excluded also.

Speaking about an ecological component, it is necessary to notice, that at the heart of perception of in writing presented word reading as visual perception, recognition of a graphic image of a word which is defined by biological characteristics of the recipient (the person as the representative of a kind) always lays. Kognitivnyj the component demands participation of a ratsio-making behaviour of the individual that assumes inclusion of a psychological component in perception process, hence, reading. Considering told above, we could not ignore a reading problem as nejropsiholingvisticheskogo process.

Within the limits of research by us have been considered: 1) logogennye reading models; 2) two-system cascade model of the visual identification of words and reading aloud.

Logogennye models is konnektsionistskie one-system models as the pronunciation and word reading is formed on the basis of rules grafemno-fonemnyh conformity. The two-system models assuming two ways of perception of words otherwise work. In the first case it is a question of a lexical way when to a word the ready pronunciation is attributed that is characteristic for frequency words, in the second case - about the sublexical way assuming use of rules grafemno-fonemnyh of conformity. In any case process of identification of a word leaves far for perception exclusively physical / touch characteristics (Seidenberg, Plaut 2006) on which the models considered by us to what the reflective function of a word meaning presented by us as a metacomponent testifies are focused.

In the second chapter the Metacomponent in the course of word identification existing treatments of concept of metalanguage abilities are considered, principles and models of functioning of metalanguage abilities are described, examples of display of a metacomponent are resulted at identification of an unfamiliar word. Metalanguage abilities are defined differently, nevertheless, all available definitions reflect a reflective component of a metacomponent and specify in sensitivity / a susceptibility of the individual to language elements.

Consideration of various concepts of metalanguage development is served by the following idea: formation of the metalanguage competence is in direct dependence from kognitivnogo developments (Scholer 1986). Along with it allocate E.Bjalistok's hypothesis about a support of metalanguage development both on language, and on kognitivnoe development as a whole, that has made a basis of the two-componental model of metalanguage development offered by the author (Bialystok 1985, 1986). This hypothesis is supported also by J. Gombert, however, a little modifying the offered E.Bjalistok model and supplementing with its third and fourth components (Gombert 1992). It is necessary to mention M.Valera's sights at a discussed question and put forward by it tryohkomponentnuju model of metalanguage development: formation and a principle of functioning of metalanguage abilities are caused by changes in language behaviour of the individual (Waller http). In our research the mentioned models are in detail considered and the conclusion is drawn on influence of a metacomponent on process of identification of a word. The studied material is systematised by means of schemes, fig. 1, points (), (), () accordingly see.

Fig. 1

Summing up to consideration of the basic models of metalanguage development, it is possible to tell, that all of them are to a greater or lesser extent based on put forward in (Scholer 1986) an interrelation hypothesis between metalanguage and
metakognitivnymi by abilities as a whole also are reduced, as a matter of fact, to the following: the primary mastering assuming a stage of comprehension and the analysis of a word / of the text with the subsequent exit on sense by an inductive principle, i.e. from sense of separate units to sense of the complete text, induces to reflect on a cash arsenal of the means necessary for "decoding" of the shown material as result of activity then there comes a self-checking stage / the self-corrections, having integrativno-selective character. However the considered models differ with the relation to a role of an environment of the individual, i.e. external factors which are most obviously positioned in model of J. Gomberta. The author notices, that internal structurization kognitivnogo and language experience is based on exchange processes between the individual perceiving the message and its environment. Differently, identification of an unfamiliar element is promoted by a context (in model the accent becomes on a welfare component) in the broad sense of the word.

The third chapter Modelling of process of identification of an unfamiliar word is devoted the description of the stage-by-stage research carried out by us (2009-2014), directed on studying of various aspects of the named theme.

Many authors were engaged in a problem of identification of a word, we considered works of representatives of the Tver psycholinguistic school considering a word as property of the individual. We have given special attention to the works considering strategy of identification of words by native speakers (Togoeva 1989, 2000; Lachina 1993; Medvedev 1998, 1999, 2003; Rodionova 1994; Sazonov 1993, 2000; SHumilina 1997, etc.). Our research considers, how different sort of the task and condition (specificity of the selected material, a condition of its presentation, age and other features Ii.) can affect guess realisation about a word meaning. For an explanation of the mechanism of perception and understanding of the text expedient the combination of two approaches is represented: (I) identifications of a word and-or the text on the acquaintance / the native language and (II) references to texts in an artificial language (in our case - esperanto) or to pseudo-phrases when the context "is created" by the individual.

We had been spent five experiments, as a material for which have served: pseudo-phrases in Russian (experiment 1); the text in language esperanto (experiment 2); neologisms, nonce words and unfamiliar words of English language, and also the offer with these words (experiment 3); words and Russian offers (experiment 4); a pseudo-phrase in English (experiment 5). We will notice, that Ii. Varied on level of mastery of a language: the part from them (children of 6-9 years) knew language at secondary education level (experiment 4), a part (students 18-21) - at level of the higher vocational education (experiments 1, 2, 3, 5). All Ii. Were bilingual, but in different degree: for participants of experiments 1, 2, 3, 5, spent to Russia on the basis of TvGU, Russian was native, for participants of the experiment 4 spent to Germany on base
The educational centre for children and adults "Source" (Kulturzentrum fur Kinder und Jugendliche e V. Istok), Russian was foreign. More detailed information on the spent experiments is more low presented.

1. Experiment 1 (further - Э1) was spent on a material of pseudo-phrases; from Ii. (18 students II and III courses of faculty IJA and MK English branch TvGu) were required to be written down, about what there is a speech in three shown phrases. The total of the received answers has made 386. The course and results of experiment are described in paragraph 3.2 of reviewed work.

2. Experiment 2 (further - Э2) included work with the text in language esperanto; from Ii. (11 students of IV course of faculty IJA and MK English branch TvGu) were required performance of two tasks: to find in the text (a fragment from poetic product of the known Russian poet, translated on esperanto) words which can help to understand sense of the text and to inscribe over them prospective transfer or associative reaction; then the first line of the original of the text appeared, the task remains former. 640 answers have been received. The detailed description is presented in paragraph 3.3.

3. Experiment 3 (further - Э3) assumed work with unfamiliar words, neologisms, okkazioanalizmami English language; from participants (10 students of V course of faculty IJA and MK English branch TvGu) were required to give reactions to the shown words out of a context, and then to identify the same words in a context. On two stages of experiment 180 answers have been received. The course and results of experiment are described in paragraph 3.4.

4. Experiment 4 (further - Э4) was spent on a material of Russian words and offers. At first participants of experiment (18 detej-studying educational centres for children and adults "Source" in Bochum, Germany) gave associations on separate words of Russian, then worked with the same words in offers. The general number of answers - 356. More in detail about experiment - in paragraph 3.5.

5. Experiment 5 (further - Э5) assumed work with a pseudo-phrase in English. From Ii. (57 students of I course of faculty IJA and MK English, German and French branches TvGu) it was required to write, how they understand the shown phrase. Ii. Distances 531 answer. More in detail about experiment - in paragraph 3.6.

Total of all received answers Ii. - 2093.

It is necessary to underline especially, that our purposes included detection of base strategy and support, the variation of character of used words and conditions of their presentation therefore was priority. Set of received answers Ii. Allows to make following generalisations.

Results of the spent experiments show, that at an identification of an unfamiliar word the individual resorts to various schemes of action, since perception of the form of a word that assumes connection of well-known process of synthesis through the analysis when the understanding of the whole is reached through the analysis of components making it, and leaning on intralinguistic keys,
Connected with an investigated word, i.e. on phonologic, spelling, morphological indicators and finishing connection of a context, the general (encyclopaedic) knowledge and personal factors on perception and understanding of the text as single whole. The interlacing of a different sort of structural support (as the intralinguistic keys connected with the investigated word, and contextual keys) provides an exit on more objective picture of about what it is spoken in the text.

The support of the individual on formal signs of a word which its graphic, structural and phonetic components promoting occurrence of associations on similarity zvukobukvennogo of a complex and similarity of morphemes concern has appeared the general for all experiments. Even presence of a context did not induce Ii. To refuse this strategy, obviously, owing to that that the information which has been put in pawn in the form of a word, is the most relief and, hence, accessible Ii. Thus the word is perceived or is complete (holistichesky the approach), or as combinatory (revealed by means of decomposition) unit on the basis of what "image" of a word appears. The new word thus incorporated in a lexicon is worried by the person as familiar and activates various images; process of identification of an unfamiliar word - heuristic search, in which course Ii., as shows experience of the carried out research, can attribute to it and incorrect values: RIBELA - rebellion, rjabit, revolting; JAROJ - ardent, a heat; NEBUL - the sky, nebyl; LARMOJ - der Larm, la larm; EXILO - exist

(32); SLIMNASTICS - gymnastics, aerobics; Nogoodnik - the wretch, the mischievous person; NUDNIK - the bore, nudist (Э3); KISSEL - der Kessel; the DUMMY - Mannchen; ELFY - elf, 11 (Э4).

Along with support strategy on zvukobukvennyj a complex support strategy on personal experience and the knowledge, assuming is noted a bright image: BLIZZARD - Entertainment; PROMISCUOUS - Nelly Furtado; PULLMAN - Bill

(33); the SLOGAN - Slogan im Supermarkt z. B. Real: Einmal hin, alles drin (Real - the supermarket name in Germany) (Э4). These examples - obvious demonstration nobody an image, standing up for a word and reflecting cultural experience Ii., presented by elements of the situation which are a fragment of an individual picture of the world. The resulted examples reflect two approaches to perception of unfamiliar words: analytical, when Ii. Carries out a guess on the basis of logic reflexions, and emotionally-estimated, assuming privnesenie itself and the experience / knowledge in identification procedure. It is necessary to notice, however, that in both cases actualisation takes place there is nobody an image on an exit. After N.I.Kurganovoj, we consider, that exists two ways of judgement of the information: conceptually-logic and is situational-shaped. Speaking about two types of schemes - predicative and figurative, the author notices, that such schemes set a format of identification of a word on kognitivnom level and are the important parametre of operational knowledge (Kurganova 2013).

If it is a question of identification of unfamiliar unit in the text on a foreign language, it is important, that the formed image was entered in a word environment, both syntactic, and lexico-semantic.

Listed above strategy are applied or in a complex / in parallel, or it is consecutive. In any case it is important to watch that there was no confrontation of parametres of an order at different levels (graphic, phonologic, morphological, syntactic and leksikoyosemanticheskom). For it the metacomponent choosing "leader" among parametres of an order, movement setting a vector / system developments is responsible so that it has come to a balance condition. We will result some examples of such confrontation: He has drunk a kissel glass - now the stimulus was perceived not as der Kesselили villages, a fur-tree owing to the phonologic and morphological shape, and as Getrank, Saft (a drink, juice) as it was demanded by""environment"; the Son begged for a toy the father in shop - refusal Ii is noticed. From a variant klanitsa, based on similarity zvukobukvennogo a complex, now the context dictates other value - beten, fragen (to ask, ask) (Э4); Word apologise (an example from student teaching), out of a context identified how to rely, in offer He apologised for his mistakeобретает value peculiar to it; the same concerns words delete to (divide), competitive (competent), divorce (diversion), still (stylish), scholarships (any ships), polite (policy), hazardous disease (infectious) by which the incorrect values nonplusing respondents subsequently have been attributed. So, "environment", on the one hand, corners, on the other hand, reveals an erroneous guess, specifying on discrepancy of parametres of an order at different levels, stimulating with that the further search of true value by means of metacomponent action.

The Fig. 2 shows, how use Ii was distributed. The listed strategy at different stages of experiment depending on conditions and character of tasks. Drawing reflects a situation of identification of words in a context and allows to reveal prepotent strategy for each of stages. We will notice, that in drawing Russian words and the offers shown to children in Germany mean. Obvious prevalence of strategy of a support on a word environment at last two stages while work with pseudo-phrases and esperanto went with a support on the form of the shown words and experience Ii is noted. Accordingly. It is possible to explain similar results to that at last two investigation phases work on identification of the unknown element entered in a familiar environment which gives additional keys and helps was conducted. First two investigation phases assumed work on an identification of the unknown word placed in unknown Ii. Environment, representing some kind of the equation with two unknown persons, that, on the one hand, complicates a problem as it is difficult enough to read such text linearly (especially if the first element does not bear any semantic loading for the individual), sporadic reading (Ii instead is applied. "Clung" that to one, for
Other element of the text), on the other hand, gives bolshy open space for "creativity"; not casually these stages are characterised slovosochinitelstvom, slovotvorchestvom from party Ii. (novogodnik, godnik, multistanding instead of expensive, melobelyj, melkobelyj, murskoj, etc.) . Nevertheless, similar records nevertheless show following Ii. To certain productive models, system types; at creation of potential words realisation of laws of word-formation that testifies to presence in consciousness of the individual of building elements from which words are as required created is carried out. Such distribution testifies to a prevalence of the emotionally-estimated approach at the first and second stages and the logiko-rational approach at the third and fourth investigation phases, thus in both cases the word acts as the operator generating a number of difficult associations at different levels (both language, and not language) as the carrier nobody information quantum. At the same time it is necessary to note nevertheless dialectic unity of two these approaches.

Fig. 2. Use of strategy Ii. At different investigation phases

The carried out vertical analysis of the received reactions testifies, that Ii. Already after a presentation for identification of the fourth-fifth word develop certain prepotent strategy of behaviour which adhere further that can both to simplify, and to complicate value search. Other strategy "are connected" as auxiliary, in case of need adopting on themselves the leading part. By means of strategy the text, physically final and limiting, can be interpreted by many ways, but not any as the text - structural formation, besides, interpretation is accompanied by the informative

Processes (action of the logiko-rational approach) that imposes certain restrictions on process of interpretation of the message / the text.

The total analysis of the data received during spent experiments, has given an extensive material for revealing of various strategy and basic elements (functional reference points), used for identification of an unfamiliar word in the text on a foreign language. Results of our research allow to speak about multilevel character of functioning of a word in consciousness of respondents: Depth word meaning identifications is defined formal, semantic, kognitivno-diskursivnymi and metakognitivnymi by characteristics of used support and carried out actions. A.A.Zalevsky, speaking about specificity of the live polycode hypertext laying behind a word, notices, that the identified word immediately joins in the broadest network of the communications considered at different levels osoznavaemosti and providing experience of a word as clear (Zalevsky 2012: 57). Each language unit can be interpreted by means of another language / semiotics unit or any other knowledge that is represented by helicoid movement which can be made ad infinitum, indefinitely.

The analysis of answers Ii. Also has shown, that the inclusiveness of the person in a wide network of relations influences a guess about a word meaning (for example, Ii. Could lean against the social and-or cultural experience, knowledge of other languages, an emotional condition etc.). The understanding of the human factor demands the interdisciplinary approach that is reflected on fig. 3.

And - the biological factor (the person as the representative of a kind) - the factor of mental activity (the person as the person) In - sotsiokulturnyj the factor (the person as the representative of society and the culture carrier) G - "ratsio" the factor (the person as Homo sapiens) D - the language factor (the person as the language person)

Fig. 3

14

Drawing reflects diversity of the worlds in which the person is placed: The person is a continuity of interceptions of its body and thought with world around: the world covers the person in a point of its body, and the person covers the world in a circle of the thought (Epstein 2004). Such dialectic understanding of human life as souls "and" bodies gives the right to speak sets about the complex approach to consideration of the person (Zolotov http; Petrov 1997; TSokolov 1996) and, hence, language, after all language is analogue of the person , uniting in itself a matter and spirit (Arutyunov 2000). Here we consider it necessary to stipulate, that variety of works (see, for example, [Velichkovsky 2006 is devoted a problem of a parity"body-reason"; Gazarova 2002, 2005; Zalevsky 2002, 2005, 2006; Zinchenko 1998, 2005; Karasev 2007; Levi 2005а, 20056; Petrenko 1997, http; Setchenov 1958; the Sokolov 2005; Damasio 1999; Ruthrof 1997, 2000; Pulvermuller 2002; Stringaris A. et. al. 2007]), differently treating these two components of a single whole dividing "body" and "corporality" etc.; problems of our work do not include detailed discussion of the given field of the questions, how the dialectic unity "body-reason" influences identification process a live word is essential only.

Such approach answers the integrity of the person assuming indissolubility pertseptivnyh and kognitivnyh of processes and emotsionalnoyootsenochnyh of experiences, body and reason interaction, an inclusiveness of the person simultaneously in macro-and microcontexts with all consequences following from here: the life of any organism should be considered as process of its interaction with Wednesday (Imoto 2006; Kravchenko 2004; Sonin 2002; Trofimova 2006; Maturana 1970, 1978). The idea of integrity and vseedinstva is not new, to recollect the Greek philosophers and a principle postulated by them all in all that in it to be convinced enough: philosophical positions Geraklita, Ksenofana, Anaksagora, expressed by formulas panta hen, panta en panti (all is uniform, in all there is a part of all), speak about unity, thereupon it is necessary to mention dialectics uniform at Platon. So, in processes of generation and perception of senses, reprezentirovannyh language, it is impossible to ignore a role of the person, how it would be desirable to create linguistics "objective", deprived of influence of subjective activity of the individual (Pishchalnikova 2013). Summarising, we will notice, that authors agree in opinion, that the person - the open, "not complete", "remedial" system subject to influence from the outside (Batalov 2006; Menegetti 2005); it defines process of identification of a word.

Coming back to psycholinguistics, we will notice, that the same principle - a principle of coherence and internal soprinadlezhnosti - allows to look in a new fashion at a problem of understanding and word identification, considering not only a rational component of this process; high-grade it is done by consideration through a prism of individual consciousness / the subconsciousness which work is shown by every possible schemes of action, support and strategy,
Providing a guess about a word meaning on crossing of the physical, rational and personal worlds of the person.

So, at a meeting with an unfamiliar element the individual perceives and "processes" the information presented on an input which sends an impulse to various levels of perception and an identification of an unfamiliar word (both language, and not language). This process represents not simple "reading", and an exit for frameworks of directly given information. The results received during research have allowed us to construct model of process of identification of an unfamiliar element the individual (fig. 4 see).

Fig. 4

The model offered by us illustrates a support of the individual on formal signs of a word which concern a graphic and-or phonetic component of the stimulus, promoting occurrence of associations on similarity zvukobukvennogo a complex and to similarity of morphemes. The analysis of the received data shows, that focusing strategy on the internal form of a word is the general for all investigation phases. Thus the word is perceived or as complete (holistichesky the approach), or as combinatory (by means of decomposition) unit on the basis of what "image" of a word appears. The new word thus incorporated in a lexicon is worried by the person as familiar and activates various images, required value constantly is modified and develops.

In the conclusion results of the performed work are generalised, the general conclusions are offered, possible prospects of the further research are predicted.

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A source: SARKISOVA Elina Vladislavovna. INTERACTION of STRATEGY And STRUCTURAL SUPPORT AT IDENTIFICATION of the UNFAMILIAR WORD. The dissertation AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Tver - 2014. 2014

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