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THE BASIC MAINTENANCE OF THE DISSERTATION

In introduction the object, an object of research are defined; the purposes and problems are put; the urgency, scientific novelty of work are proved; are specified a material for research and applied methods, the hypothesis is put forward, the positions which are taken out on protection are formulated; theoretical and practical value of work is proved, approbation of the received results of research is underlined.

The chapter I «Kognitivnaja linguistics and conceptual researches at the present stage of development of linguistics» represents the analysis of the scientific literature on kognitivnoj to linguistics on which basis the problems considered in the dissertation are formulated. Within the limits of this section such terms and concepts, as a language picture of the world, a conceptual picture of the world, makrokontsept, kontsept are considered; the problem of a parity of language and mentality is analyzed; classification of conceptual signs is described; the description technique kontseptov is resulted.

In modern linguistic works the big attention is given to studying separate kontseptov in frameworks kognitivnoj linguistics and lingvokulturologii. It is necessary to note the fact of occurrence of a new branch of linguistics - kontseptologii.

The basic term with which the linguistics operates kognitivnaja, is kontsept. At the present stage of development of linguistics research kontseptov is represented very important from positions of understanding of processes kategorizatsii and verbalisations of knowledge, and also storages of the received knowledge in consciousness of the person and operating by them in the course of communications.

Cultural kontsept is an embodiment of the large gnoseological block. Kontsepty result from mastering by certain signs of fragments of the world gradually. Such signs reflect the relevant information for native speakers. Set of the valuable
Orientations in lingvokulture represents a scale on which the basic (prepotent) priorities and minor characteristics of fragments of the world are established. The volume of these characteristics is indicative for the people as a whole, but them prioritetnost and special combination theory allow to allocate this or that type of culture on the basis of this factor.

The analysis kontseptov in aspect of realisation kognitivnyh categories is important and significant. Judgement and revealing of ways of verbalisation makrokontseptov - one of the most perspective directions at the given stage of development kognitivnoj linguistics. For researchers works as on a material of one, as a rule, the native language (both in synchronism, and in it diahronii), and on a material various - both related, and unrelated languages are considered as the actual.

The quantity of the scientific researches devoted kontseptam, increases year from a year. Methods and studying receptions kontseptov at the present stage are perfected and approved. One of the main indicators of an urgency of such works is creation in Russia scientific schools under the guidance of leading experts in this area of knowledge.

On a joint of centuries there was a change of a paradigm of scientific knowledge, introduction in the scientific device of new terms - kognitivnaja linguistics, a language picture of the world, a conceptual picture of the world, kontsept, makrokontsept, conceptual structure, kognitivnyj a sign and under.

- it specifies all in prompt movement of a science about language to new horizons. Kognitivnyj the approach to research of the language phenomena assumes attraction of new methods of the analysis in the course of studying of conceptual structures, allows to expand considerably borders of the linguistic description, involving data from history, cultures, mythologies, religions. Studying of conceptual systems of national-cultural communities gives possibility to reveal kontsepty, embodying base values of the given culture. Kognitivnyj the approach to studying of elements of language shows, that kontsepty - mental konstrukty - an essence reflexion kognitivnyh the processes occurring in thinking and consciousness of the person. Kognitivnoe the basis of the conceptual maintenance of a language sign assumes, that in structure kontsepta, verbalizuemogo a word, there is all spectrum of knowledge of a world fragment.

The cultural space of ethnos in the big degree influences a national language; formation of a language picture of the world specific to the given people occurs by means of penetration of a cultural code into a language layer.

The conceptual analysis is formed and improved. It is considered one of leading methods of linguistic researches, allowing in details to consider many aspects, concerning cultural values and different spheres of a language picture of the world. The reference to a world picture helps with studying of representations of the people about the world. The world around is a person and environment in them
Interaction, and a world picture - result of processing of the information on reflexion of the real world in consciousness of the person.

Studying of conceptual signs - fragments of mental formation - one of elements of the conceptual analysis.

The conceptual picture of the world accumulating in of knowledge of the world, acts as the base of individual and public consciousness on which basis the general is formed kognitivnoe space and thanks to which communications process is possible. Conceptual pictures of the world at native speakers can differ. They not identical as at representatives of different epoch, and representatives of different social, age and professional groups. This fact allows to draw a conclusion on existence of a constant and variativnoj parts in a world picture.

Between a picture of the world and a language picture of the world as difficult relations exist fixing of this reflexion in consciousness, thus the conceptual picture of the world in the given process posesses a base role. The language picture of the world fixes all former conditions of a conceptual picture of the world and represents set of knowledge of the world, embodied in lexicon, phraseology, grammar, syntax. The natural language displays a certain way of perception and kontseptualizatsii the world ethnocultural community.

The language picture of the world does not coincide with the scientific picture of the world formed of a meta language of different branches of knowledge (biological, mathematical, astronomical, etc.), it precedes them, forms them, acts as means of their fixing.

The chapter II «Motivating and conceptual signs makrokontsepta children» is devoted the description of two groups of the signs staticizing studied makrokontsept - motivating and conceptual. On the basis of the analysis etymological and istoriko-etymological, Russian explanatory dictionaries the lexicographic and etymological analysis of a lexeme children - the core reprezentanta investigated makrokontsepta is made, that allows to reveal and describe its motivating and conceptual signs. Conceptual signs represent a powerful part of all collected material.

The structure makrokontsepta differs from structure kontsepta a number of characteristics. In structure makrokontsepta children the first conceptual sign rather mnogochislenen. It is connected by that makrokontsept concerns the category antropomorfnyh. Accordingly, antropomorfnye signs of it makrokontsepta raznoaspektno are presented and staticized.

One more feature studied makrokontsepta is that its some motivating signs at the same time act as conceptual. In other words, some motivating signs function, keeping the urgency in the modern world.

Revealing of its motivating signs on the basis of the analysis of word meanings - reprezentanta makrokontsepta in corresponding articles of etymological dictionaries became the first investigation phase makrokontsepta children. Such
In the image we define pervoobrazy which make a nomination basis. For the analysis etymological dictionaries of Russian of different authors have been used.

Table 1. Motivating signs kontsepta the child by data

Etymological dictionaries of Russian

The dictionary Motivating signs
«The etymological dictionary of Russian» G.P.Tsyganenko ‘ the baby ’, ‘ the child ’, ‘ a sucker ’,

‘ the child of a male ’, ‘ the child of a female ’ ‘ dojashchy ’, ‘ nosimyj/born ’, ‘ born ’

«The istoriko-etymological dictionary of modern Russian» P.J.Chernyh ‘ those whom nurse ’, ‘ sons ’, ‘ daughters ’, ‘ juvenile ’
«The etymological dictionary of Russian» A.G.Preobrazhenskiy ‘ the child ’, ‘ a sucker ’, ‘ the boy ’
«The etymological dictionary of Russian» Max Fasmera ‘ sucking ’, ‘ nursed ’

During the analysis at makrokontsepta children have been allocated following motivating signs: ‘ small ’, ‘ born ’, ‘ the boy / the girl ’, ‘ sucking ’, ‘ nursed ’, ‘ nosimye / born ’. These signs have not disappeared in time. They or function in an invariable kind as conceptual as it occurs to such sign as ‘ the boy / the girl ’, or were transformed, but also function in the form of conceptual signs. The motivating sign ‘ small ’ becomes a conceptual sign ‘ small (on age people) ’; the motivating sign ‘ nosimye / born ’ becomes a conceptual sign ‘ a fruit, (developing / developing) in a womb of mother ’. Motivating signs ‘ born ’, ‘ sucking ’, ‘ nursed ’ remain; in the given work they are carried in the category vitalnyh signs ‘ born ’, ‘ a food ’.

Table 2. Motivating signs makrokontsepta children according to the National case of Russian

Motivating signs Kol-in examples %

sootnosheni

e

1. ‘ small ’ 271 30 %
2. ‘ born ’ 208 23 %
3. ‘ the boy/girl ’ 196 22 %
4. ‘ sucking ’ 46 5 %
5. ‘ nursed ’ 87 9 %
6. ‘ nosimye / born ’ 103 11 %
In total 911 100

As has shown the analysis of etymological dictionaries of Russian, at makrokontsepta children 6 motivating signs are noted. In this supervision two factors are shown: 1) the word children very ancient, on it specifies some motivating signs in its structure; 2) the interfaced senses specify on sinkretizm the internal form of a word, neraschlenyonnost once uniform pervopriznaka. It is necessary to notice, that kognitivnye motivating signs are functionally significant, understood, claimed till now by native speakers. It speaks about continuity of consciousness of Russian people, about its general conceptual basis helping, on the one hand, in aspect of mutual understanding of generations, on the other hand - in an invariance base kontseptov Russian lingvokultury.

At a following investigation phase makrokontsepta children its revealing conceptual kognitivnyh signs is made. As the conceptual are understood kognitivnye signs, obektivirovannye in entries of corresponding words, reprezentirujushchih investigated makrokontsept. Definition of semantic components (this and sememes), the description of lexical value of a word-reprezentanta were the base procedures spent at the given investigation phase. Illustrative examples are taken from fund of the National case of Russian. The analysis of dictionary values of a lexeme children in explanatory dictionaries of modern Russian has given various data. The dictionaries quoted in the present work, were used in an electronic variant.

19 conceptual signs at makrokontsepta children have been allocated: ‘ people ’, ‘ the boy / the girl ’, ‘ cubs of animal / birds ’, ‘ a fruit, (developing / developing) in a womb of mother ’, ‘ small (on age people) ’, ‘ (young) generation ’, ‘ the naive / not skilled person ’, ‘ ignorant (person) ’, ‘ representatives of environment ’, ‘ representatives of an epoch ’, ‘ the reference ’ (to any person more low on age or the social status), ‘ parishioners ’ (in relation to the confessor), ‘ the reference ’ (the confessor to laymen), ‘ the son / the daughter ’, ‘ descendants ’, ‘ a plant fruit ’, ‘ generation ’, ‘ the rascal / the mischievous person ’, ‘ warm/loving (people) ’. It is necessary to notice, that last four conceptual signs (‘ a plant fruit ’, ‘ generation ’, ‘ the rascal / the mischievous person ’, ‘ warm/loving (people) ’) have been allocated on the basis of the analysis of the collected language material. Explanatory dictionaries do not allocate the given signs.

The carried out analysis makrokontsepta children has shown, that its structure is considerably sated at the expense of its first conceptual sign ‘ people ’. The first conceptual sign ‘ people ’ gipertrofirovanno is increased at the expense of such subgroups kognitivnyh signs, as vitalnye signs, somatic signs, pertseptivnye signs, antropomorfnye signs (of which 12,2 % make individual antropomorfnye signs and 25 % - antropomorfnye social signs, that specifies on bolshee attention to a social aspect of life of children in Russian lingvokulture).

The analysis of conceptual signs investigated kontsepta has shown an obvious warp towards actualisation of the first conceptual sign ‘ people ’,
Shown the highest rate (43,7 %), presented by different groups (vitalnyh - 23 %, somatic - 8,4 %, pertseptivnyh - 3,8 %) and subgroups kognitivnyh signs (antropomorfnyh social signs - 28,9 %, individual antropomorfnyh a sign - 14,2 %), ‘ representatives of an epoch ’ (4 %), ‘ the son / the daughter ’ (3,1 %).

The first conceptual sign concern pertseptivnye, among which not only traditional five ways of perception: ‘ sight ’, ‘ hearing ’, ‘ taste ’, ‘ sense of smell ’ and ‘ touch ’, but also such which it is accepted to name the sixth feeling: ‘ an instinct ’, ‘ intuition ’, ‘ a scent ’. In the first conceptual sign are included 18 vitalnyh signs and 40 somatic signs specifying in the importance corporal kognitivnyh of signs and signs of ability to live of a children's organism as a whole.

Average rate is noted at signs: ‘ small (people) on age ’ (2,5 %), ‘ descendants ’ (2 %), ‘ boys / of the girl ’ (2 %), ‘ naive / not skilled (people) ’ (1,7 %), ‘ representatives of environment ’ (1,3 %), ‘ ignorant (people) ’ (1 %),

Low rate is characteristic to such conceptual signs, as ‘ (young) generation ’ (0,9 %), ‘ warm / loving ’ (people) (0,6 %), ‘ the reference ’ (the confessor to laymen) (0,4 %), ‘ cubs of animal / birds ’ (0,4 %), ‘ generation ’ (0,3 %), ‘ rascals / mischievous persons ’ (0,3 %), ‘ a fruit, (developing / developing) in a womb of mother ’ (0,2 %), ‘ the reference ’ (to any person more low on age or the social status) (0,2 %), ‘ a plant fruit ’ (0,1 %),‘прихожане ’ (in relation to the confessor) (0,1 %).

As has shown the analysis antropomorfnyh conceptual signs makrokontsepta children, the dominating quantity is noted at social signs (67 %), individual kognitivnyh it is twice less than signs (33 %).

The big rate of actualisation is peculiar such social antropomorfnym to signs, as ‘ members of a family ’ (27,1 %), ‘ signs of employment ’ (11 %), ‘ emotivnye signs ’ (10,5 %), ‘ interpersonalnye signs ’ (9,5 %), ‘ ethical signs ’ (6,3 %), ‘ culture signs ’ (6 %), ‘ mental signs ’ (5,8 %), ‘ character signs ’ (3,4 %), ‘ native (by birth) / stepsons / of the stepdaughter = children from the first / second marriage ’ (3,2 %), ‘ natives of continents, the countries and cities ’ (2,9 %), ‘ representatives of the certain nation ’ (2,7 %), ‘ members of a sort (on the father) ’ (2,6 %). Average rate is characteristic such kognitivnym antropomorfnym to signs, as: ‘ religious signs ’ (2 %), ‘ will signs ’ (2 %), ‘ pupils / pupils ’ (1,2 %),‘законные / illegitimate children ’ (1,1 %), ‘ orphans ’ (0,9 %), ‘ successors of family property ’ (0,8 %), ‘ adopted / adopted ’ children (0,4 %), ‘ the son-in-law / the daughter-in-law ’ (0,3 %),‘биологический the status ’ (0,3 %). As we see, the first conceptual sign has incorporated all variety of displays of children in individual development and in society.

The Anthropotsentrichesky approach to studying kontseptov has allowed to isolate various individual antropomorfnye signs: ‘ the biological
The status ’, ‘ emotivnye signs ’, ‘ mental signs ’, ‘ character signs ’, ‘ will signs ’, ‘ signs of employment ’. It allows to speak about raznoaspektnoj realisations of children in various quality, both in a family and a society, and in individual display.

The structure makrokontsepta children develops. In it there are new conceptual signs to which the attention has been paid at studying of data of the National case of Russian.

The chapter III «Figurative and symbolical signs makrokontsepta children» reveals figurative and symbolical signs makrokontsepta children according to the National case of Russian. At the heart of their description - the analysis of conceptual metaphors and corresponding kognitivnyh models. Investigating conceptual metaphors and metonimiju, we reveal sochetaemostnye properties of a lexeme-reprezentanta, and also we deduce on a surface the difficult cultural, religious or mythological concepts fixed to it.

Thus, we have the basis to divide all groups of signs on two basic categories: not metaphorical at which revealing we do not analyze aforementioned means of expressiveness of speech, and metaphorical, describing which, we address to the given tracks. Not metaphorical we carry motivating and conceptual signs to a category, and the metaphorical concern figurative and symbolical.

Figurative signs makrokontsepta children have been investigated in a support on data of the National case of Russian. During the analysis groups of signs of elements, signs of substance, subject signs, vegetative and zoomorfnyh kognitivnyh signs have been defined. Figurative signs kontsepta is verbalizovannye visual, acoustical, tactile, flavouring, olfactory characteristics of subjects, the phenomena, the events reflected in our memory.

Children are compared or identified with nature forces majeure, with substances, with subjects (more often artefacts), animals, birds, insects and fishes. During research such metaphors where the specified subgroups of figurative signs, as «children ÷ air","children ÷ the earth are realised","children ÷ fire have been found out";"children ÷ a stone","children ÷ (small) loose substance","children ÷ metal","children ÷ kindled substance";"children ÷ (working) material","children ÷ an artefact","children ÷ the mechanism","children ÷ a thread","children ÷ flax","children ÷ silk";"children ÷ a plant (with vegetation phases)","children ÷ saplings","children ÷ trees","children ÷ mushrooms","children ÷ flowers","children ÷ fruits";" Children ÷ a brood "," children ÷ flight "," children ÷ herd "," children ÷ (wild / feral) animals / youngs of wild animal "," children ÷ foals "," children ÷ hares / zajchata/zajchiki "," children ÷ cats / kittens "," children ÷ of the mouse "," children ÷ of a dog / puppies "," children ÷ of a bird / baby birds (with wings / beaks) (in a nest) "," children ÷ sparrows "," children ÷ pigeons "," children ÷ eaglets "," children ÷ insects "," children ÷ moths "," children ÷ of a fly / of a front sight "," children ÷ a locust "," children ÷ tadpoles "," children ÷ a sponge "," children ÷ of a piranha "," children ÷ of fish »,
«Children ÷ extraction». In this list the metaphors which have met repeatedly in the collected language material are specified.

As it has been revealed, among symbolical signs makrokontsepta children are teomorfnye symbolical signs and future and past symbols. Children are understood as descendants of gods, gods. From positions of generations, children are the future the people, the country, mankind. From positions of the adult person, children are its happy (or unhappy) time of a youth, the joyful past. In Russian language consciousness representation that children - descendants of the earth-mother prevails.

The group teomorfnyh symbolical signs is formed by five blocks of signs: «children of the earth-mother», «children of the sky and heavenly objects», «children of the god», «дети=божества», «children of a certain deity = the people», «children of deities = representatives of a trade / of employment». The specified blocks are built in that sequence which corresponds to rate of realisation of these signs in the collected language material. As the main conclusion of the spent analysis following positions serve. The specified sequence of actualisation of symbolical blocks allows to see law of functioning of archaic signs makrokontsepta, going back to an ancient slavic cult of Mother-crude-earth. In language they have remained.

As shows the carried out analysis of symbolical signs makrokontsepta children, for Russian language consciousness dominating there are signs of children which mother is the earth (44,1 %). In it the continuity of an ancient religious code Russian lingvokultury sees. Average rate blocks of signs possess: «children of the sky and heavenly objects» (17 %), «children of the god» (15,2 %), "children-deities" (10 %), «children of a certain deity = the people» (8,5 %). Low rate is peculiar to the block of signs «children of deities = representatives of a trade / of employment» (5,1 %).

As the obtained data, the future and past symbolics, connected with children show, takes about identical positions in consciousness of native speakers (53 % and 47 % accordingly). The thinking of the living is directed in the light future with which we allocate with positive properties. We also address to the memory since last experience gives us soil for present residing.

makrokontsept children shows specificity of the structure: its considerable share is necessary on conceptual signs (86,3 % from total of actualisations kognitivnyh signs). On the second place by quantity of actualisations there are motivating signs (7,2 %), on the third - figurative signs (5,9 %), differing the big set kognitivnyh signs. The smallest rate distinguishes symbolical signs (0,6 %).

Figurativeness of perception of the world Russian people allows to see a variety of metaphorical carryings over and the forgotten symbols in the description of children.

In the conclusion the basic results of the carried out research reveal, prospects of the further studying on the given theme are shown. In the end of work lists of the used literature (232 names), dictionaries and encyclopaedias (18 names) are resulted. The appendix shows the revealed structure makrokontsepta children. The appendix includes 14 tables and 3 diagrammes with quantity indicators revealed kognitivnyh signs makrokontsepta children. In total in work 15 tables in which rate of the allocated signs investigated kontsepta is specified are resulted.

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A source: BASOVA Uljana Anatolevna. MENTAL FORMATION CHILDREN In RUSSIAN LANGUAGE PICTURE of the WORLD. The dissertation author's abstract on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Tver - 2019. 2019

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