the purpose, problems and an experimental research technique

The problem of the permission of lexical ambiguity is connected with predyostavlenijami about storage of values of ambiguous words in mental leksiyokone and access to them. To find out, how osushchestvljayoetsja access to values of an ambiguous word and that influences a choice of this or that value in the conditions of presence or absence of a context, we had been made psycholinguistic experiment.

In article «About triple aspect of the language phenomena and about experiment in linguistics» in 1974 L.V.ShCherba noticed, that an experiment method be the most successful for research of "live" languages while isyosledovanie "dead" languages it can be spent only on a basis obyorabotki a language material - texts. The lion Vladimirovich noticed, that "dead" languages become when they «cease to serve as the tool of dialogue and thinking in human collective, to develop and priyosposablivatsja to expression of new concepts and their shades, in them prekrashchayoetsja that can be named jazykotvorcheskim by process» [SHCHerba http]. According to the scientist, the error of many linguists consists that they use identical methods at research of "live" and "dead" languages. Actually the data received experimental by, differ objectivity, the present and are as much as possible approached to a reality.

L.V.sugar [Sugar 1989] noticed, that supporters traditsiyoonnyh methods of the linguistic analysis have a number of objections in otnosheyonii experiment. Usually they are reduced to the following.

Materials of experiments are very interesting, but whether a little that examinees on the instructions of the experimenter can tell? How to prove, what in eksyoperimente really language rules come to light?

In experiment obviously artificial situations are created, that for natural functioning of language and speech is not characteristic.

In spontaneous speech that any experiment to organise is sometimes shown it is not possible, i.e. possibilities of experimental techniques doyostatochno ogranichenny.

Answering the first question, L.V.sugar says that differently, than through speech on language to leave it is impossible. And if to study language through spontaneous texts is possible, hence, quite really to study it cheyorez the texts received in experiments. Experimental situations as the author marks, it is impossible to name unequivocally natural or iskusstvenyonymi. Some features revealed, in experiment, are characteristic for speech activity and in others, not experimental situations. Psychoyolingvistichesky researches as marks L.V.sugar, not ogranichivayojutsja only an experiment method, and have in the arsenal as well lingyovisticheskie research methods. The author asserts, that the psycholinguistics variously uses a linguistic material, but under a little bit other corner of sight, in wider context and a material, and methods - «uchityyovaetsja both speech, and a nonverbal context, and the general conditions of activity, both a plan kommunikanta, and a condition of participants of communications» [Sugar: 115].

According to the researches spent for the purpose of finding-out of a role konyoteksta at a choice of value of an ambiguous word, there are different points of view. By results of some experiments, in the conditions of absence of a context, also as well as in cases when the context can assume different values of an ambiguous word, most chayostotnoe value, and then already all first of all is activated the others [Schvaneveldt, Meyer and Becker 1976; Simpson 1981; Simpson, Burgess 1985].

If the context is unequivocal, value, naiboyolee approaching on a context which not always is the most frequency and after that Ii at first is activated. Gets access to all values [Simpson, Burgess 1985; Swinney 1979]. Thus, during experiment the worker giyopoteza, according to which overcoming of lexical ambiguity osuyoshchestvljaetsja in the presence of two factors - relative rate znacheyonija words and support on a context was checked.

Experiment is the basic method for verification of hypotheses in psycholinguistics. It is noticed, that «having constructed from the facts some otvleyochyonnuju system, it is necessary to check it on the new facts, i.e. to look, whether the facts of the validity deduced from her» [Belyanin 2003] answer. Differently, whether experimentally theoretical data received during the analysis of the various literature and data slovayorej which not in forces to capture so-called «psychological kompoyonent» which consists that Ii prove to be true. Work with a word meaning in «a use mode» that allows to allocate and some neosoznavaeyomye value components [In the same place].


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A source: BELJAEVA Victoria Mihajlovna. STRATEGY of OVERCOMING of LEXICAL AMBIGUITY In the conditions of EDUCATIONAL BILINGVIZMA. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Tver - 2015. 2015

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