criminal suicides in Russia and abroad: a historical retrospective show, the analysis of a modern situation

Complexity and many-sided nature of a phenomenon of suicide causes a variety of approaches to its explanation. In the first paragraph the basic attention has been given social, philosophical, moral and psychological approaches to suicide definition, there was neosufficed a religious aspect of a problem of the relation to suicides.

On the basis of religious representations gosudarstvennoyopravovaja the system of counteraction to suicides historically is formed and develops. As religious and legal aspects of suicide have close interrelation, they are expedient for considering in parallel.

From the most ancient times the religion made essential impact on the state and a society. That the church recognised as a crime against the God (a guilty act), automatically became also a secular crime. From the point of view of the basic world traditional religions (Christianity, Moslem, the Buddhism) suicide is a sin. However there are religious associations and the organisations of destructive character which justify suicide (their activity is forbidden in territory of the Russian Federation and equated to extremist).

From a right position there is a dilemma: whether «suicide by a crime Is?» As a principal cause of occurrence of interest to a suicide from the point of view of jurisprudence that fact acts, that after  destruction of the person there is a number of the legal issues connected with definition of a sort of death (murder, suicide, accident are possible), research of the reasons and motives of perfect act.

At different stages of development of a society the relation to suicide had the specificity. In an antiquity the suicide estimation was under construction on the relation to possibility voluntary to die and authorisation of such action by norms of morals and the law. So, in many tribes of Nigeria, Uganda, Kenya
To a suicide concerned as the evil deed deserving punishment. For example, a tree on which it was hung up suitsident, and its house gave to cleaning fire, and to relatives of the dead it was forbidden to approach to a corpse [76].

The majority of the people of Northern Europe considered, that voluntary leaving from a life is one of elements of a usual life, therefore they not only did not interfere with suicide, but also in some cases encouraged similar acts. The religion of Celts preached, that the soul of the person is immortal and capable to reincarnation. It encouraged suicide under certain circumstances, such as threat of restriction of freedom (defeat in war) [77]. The soldiers who were lost in fight got To kingdom Odina (the God of Germen) only. Women there were not supposed, except for husbands who have voluntary died after death [78]. According to customs of ancient Sweden, aged people did not wait natural death; they rushed with high «Rocks of ancestors» to the sea, including it more preferable, than death from an old age [79].

In the Ancient Greece opposed suicides. Socrat writes that the person not on the will has come to this world, therefore it does not have right to be eliminated from own lot. Platon divides its point of view and supplements with its following: «the Reason is given the person courageously to pass on a life full of sufferings». However, despite it, they consider, that if the person because of the weakness (through illness or an old age) becomes a burden for a society to commit suicide - its moral imperative for necessity for it is specified by gods [80].

In Athenes, Thebes, on Cyprus to suicides concerned extremely negatively: «.trup dragged on pletenke, faced to the earth, on streets and lanes, and then
Hung up... Leaving on worry to wild animals and birds »[81]. Them not only deprived of funeral honours, but also imposed a certain sort of encumbrance on families of the deads (the property came under to confiscation in favour of the state). Absolutely other approach was in case suicide was made from approval of the Areopagus (authority):« Let the one who does not wish to live more, will state the bases to the Senate and, having received the permission, leaves a life. If the life is impossible to you - die; if you are offended by destiny - drink tsikutu. If you are broken by a grief - leave a life. Let the unfortunate will tell about the sorrows, let the authorities will give it a medicine, and to its trouble there will come the end »[82]. Formulas of the laws resolving suicide were that. The voluntary death without the permission of the Senate was considered as the shameful certificate.

In Ancient Rome the similar relation to the considered phenomenon is observed. About refusal in burial of the suicide speak many sources of that time. In Digestah JUstiniana suicide «without the reason» as «the one who does not regret itself, will not regret also others» [83] is condemned. At the ancient Roman tsar corpses of suicides crucified Tarquinii Priske on crosses or left on worry by a wild animal and to birds. In Ancient Carthago punished women-suicides: their naked bodies after death exposed on a general review [84]. Caesar's epoch is famous for the history of suicide displays, well-known on names of the free Roman citizens, forced to commit suicide by order of the emperor, - as, for example, Seneka. However it did not concern slaves in which relation other law establishing a following rule operated: If the slave has made the suicide certificate within six months from the moment of making deal the seller is obliged to return money as has sold the "unusable" goods [85].

In Ancient India religious views approved suicide. Throughout many centuries there was a custom of self-burning on a fire of widows together with the died husbands. The voluntary death on funeral has been described in Northern India till the Empire Gupt period (IV century). Practice carried the name "anumarama". Self-sacrifices were voluntary, without a compulsoriness element, and extended not only on widows, but also on other relatives, servants, followers and those who wished to express the fidelity to the deceased thus. Sometimes it was a consequence of an oath of the fidelity given still during lifetime of the dead [86].

During the Middle Ages epoch essential distinctions between the West and the East in perception of suicide are observed. In the east the suicide was considered not as antisocial act, and is faster on the contrary, as an act causing respect from associates. So, medieval India practised "sati" (the funeral ritual tradition similar with drevnevekovoj "anumaramoj") [87]. Under the historical description, this funeral ceremony unlike "anumaramy", was compulsory, that allows to carry it to «controllable suicides» - when the "voluntary" death is appointed imperious bodies on the basis of ancient religious instructions.

Separately it is necessary to stop for suicide roles in the Japanese culture. For a long time world famous tradition of leaving from a life of Samurais by a hara-kiri (seppuku). This kind of the suicide certificate has appeared in XV century and the Given ritual has been extended up to its interdiction in 1873, being extremely painful and slow way of suicide, was considered as the most effective method of demonstration of bravery, self-control and resoluteness of the Samurai. The Japanese culture provided fulfilment seppuku or
On a sentence, as punishment, or voluntary when honour of the soldier [88] has been mentioned.

The loyal relation to suicide in the east in many respects speaks Buddhism distribution according to which doctrines of a shower of the person there pass many cycles by reincarnation from one condition in another that is why a suicide quite admissible phenomenon as it is an independent choice of the person [89].

To the opposite point of view adhered in the West. The special role is played here by Christian outlook. In days of early Christianity the suicide was frequently accompanied by a martyrdom aura that caused the big concern from Church. So, in IV-V centuries Avgustin Avrely considered the suicide concept as a crime kind in many known works, and also in basic work De Civitate Dei («About hailstones Divine»). Thus he leant against 6th precept - «not uby» - and approved, that it concerns both another, and to herself, therefore the suicide should admit the murderer [90].

Similarly concerned suicide iudei - the life was estimated by them as not passing value. In the Talmud suicide attempt was considered as a crime, therefore on the given fact there was a proceeding and punishment was appointed. However if suitsident operated in a frenzy condition (extreme degree of excitation) it was not exposed to criminal prosecution [91].

The first attempts of eradication of suicide as the phenomena have been fixed on pomestnyh cathedrals - gathering of bishops and other representatives pomestnoj
Churches for discussion and the decision of questions and affairs of dogma [92]. So, in 452 on the Arlsky cathedral where a suicide for the first time declared a crime, suicides were zaklejmeny as «filled with devil madness». In 533 the Orleansky cathedral, following a wish of judicial authorities, has entered restriction on Christian burial of the criminals who are committing suicide as was considered, that, having made the gibbet law, they left from the punishment put by it. The following step has been undertaken in 563 on the Brazhsky cathedral: concerning all suicides punitive sanctions which were expressed in refusal on burial and burial service ceremonies are entered. In 693 the Toledsky cathedral had been separated from church the persons who committed suicide or have admitted such attempt [93].

In England in the Middle Ages to a family suitsidenta confiscation of civil property along with the church sanction in the form of an interdiction for a religious funeral ceremony was applied. The exact date started of this practice is unknown, but this rule at king Edgare Peaceful in 967 has been described as follows: «Let the one who has committed suicide, will be deprived all property in favour of the mister: let it will not find a place of burial neither in church, nor in a church court yard; if illness and madness have not finished it to fulfilment of this crime» [94]. Henry de Brakton in the work «About laws and customs of England» wrote: suicide is a crime (felodese), therefore application of a rule of confiscation quite obosnovanno [95].

Approximately at the same time suicide already on a general law has affirmed as grave crime, a religious interdiction. Foma Akvinsky in «the theology Sum» has approved interpretation Avgustina of the sixth precept and has expanded religioznoyonravstvennoe the divine instruction, arguing, that "natural death"
Demands self-preservation, and thereof, forbids suicide. These principles have been actually mentioned in parliamentary debates concerning the project of the antisuicide law. Since the moment when they have been offered for discussion, and till XVI century everywhere was considered, that suicide is forbidden by the law Divine [96].

In the English right the long period of time suicide carried to felonies (felony). Till 1823 in England there was a custom to drag corpses of suicides on the central streets, having pierced them kolom and to bury deceased without religious ceremony at the big road that was not povadno another. Even in the beginning of XX century here it was not accepted to bury suicides on a cemetery. The arch of criminal laws of the State of New York (1881) ranked suicide as a crime, and the persons attempting for the life, sentenced to imprisonment for a period of 20 years [97].

Eventually the relation to suicide in the world varied. If earlier suitsidentov considered as criminals gradually them began to equate to persons with mental deviations. The legislation has as a result changed also.

France was the first country, ceased to consider suicide by a crime, during the French revolution in XVIII century In Germany the criminal liability for suicide has been cancelled Fridrihom I in 1751 [98] In the Great Britain it there was only in second half XX century According to the Certificate about a suicide from 1961 a suicide and suicide attempt have ceased to be considered as a criminal offence. Now in the West European countries even more often officially proclaim freedom from doctrines of any one religion, but actually the uncooperative altitude dictated by Christian tradition to voluntary leaving from a life there continues to dominate.

In Russia Orthodoxy also had the big influence on the general relation to suicides which were equated to criminals and under the ecclesiastical law
Lost a Christian ceremony of burial. Those persons who have voluntary died for honour and self-sacrifice reasons, and also in a condition of insanity [99] did not come under to punishment.

Still in Slavic kormchej XI century (one of collections of rules of Russian orthodox church) it was spoken: «Ashche who will kill itself, either will pin up, or will strangle, the gift will not be brought for it, tokmo ashche there will be no truly a mind has ruined» [100].

Cathedral Ulozhenie did not provide responsibility for casual (innocent) causing of death 1649. So possibility of differentiation of suicide and accident [101] was provided.

Peter Mogily's breviary of 1646 and the Instruction of Patriarch Adriana popovskim to heads or decent inspectors from December, 26th, 1697 forbade to bury (item 21) at churches or on cemeteries suitsidnikov and victims from various kinds of a violent death: «And which person obesitsja, or will be killed, or, bathing and pohvoljasja and playing, will sink, or the fault opetsja, or about a swing will be killed, other death over itself, the hands will make, or on robbery and on larceny what will be killed: and those died bodies at church Divine not to bury, and over them to read the burial service not to order, and to order to put them in wood or in the field, except a cemetery and poor houses» [102]. The instruction of Patriarch Adriana was a part further of Full meeting of laws of Russian empire.

Up to the beginning of XVIII century to suitsidentam punishments of exclusively religious maintenance were applied. However at Peter I board to suicides and their relatives have started to be applied including legal measures. The criminal legislation equated suicide to a special sort to murder where the victim and the executor is one person. So арт.164 gl. XIX Army regulations of 1716 says: «If who will kill itself, the body comes under to its executioner in a disgraceful place to drag away and dig, dragging before on streets and a transport... And if who
Will make in unconsciousness, illness, in a melancholy this body in osoblivom, but not a disgraceful place to bury. And that for the sake of should, that while such suicide will be buried, that judges beforehand about circumstances and the reasons were originally notified and through a sentence would define, how it pogrebsti »[103].

Later, in the Sea charter of 1720, punitive sanctions against suicides have been toughened: «Who will want to kill itself and it in that will find, that to hang up on rajne and if who will kill itself, that and dead for feet to be hung up to has». Unlike the Army regulations, for example, fulfilment of the suicide certificate as a result «tortures or intolerable taxes», «some exceptions here have been registered in unconsciousness», «in fire or melancholic illnesses» [104] which gave to an interdiction for suicide fulfilment conditional character.

Under the Criminal code of 1754 attempting upon suicide punished pletmi and committed to prison for two months. In the Criminal code of 1766 softer punishment which is expressed in a church repentance and fall in a rank [105] is observed.

In the Code of laws of Russian empire 1832 suicide and attempt at it concern crimes against a life, therefore, if such actions have been made without the reasonable excuse is was equated to murder or attempt at it. Also, without dependence from the reason, the suicide lost Christian burial [106].

Ulozhenie «About punishments criminal and corrective» 1845 (item 1427) were defined by the following: «the person who has committed suicide not in madness, loses the right to the will; the believer thus forfeits the right to burial according to religious practices». In a case if the attempted suicide made
Believer, it was prevented by the foreign person, for not taken place suitsidenta it attracted a church repentance.

The medical charter of 1857 (item 923) obliged the doctor who has fixed the fact of intended suicide, to direct a body in «a disgraceful place and there to dig in» [107].

In the Code of laws of Russian empire 1882 (item 378-380 items) for attempting upon suicide were provided a hard labour, as for murderers [108].

In the Criminal code of 1903 suicide and attempt at it any more were not considered as crimes, however there was a responsibility for the acts promoting fulfilment of the suicide certificate: granting of tools and means of fulfilment of suicide if such acts nevertheless have entailed suicide (item 462), and assistance to suicide fulfilment podgovorom, council or the instructions, removal of obstacles (item 463). Punishment for similar act sorts was severe enough: in the first case the conclusion in a reformatory or in a fortress for the term of no more than three years, in the second - penal servitude for term not over eight years [109].

During the Soviet period of development criminally-legal relations in UK RSFSR has been fixed norm about responsibility for assistance or podgovor to suicide of the minor or the person 1922, obviously incapable to understand properties or value it made or to supervise over the acts if suicide or attempt at it have followed (item 148).

In UK RSFSR to the provided criminally-legal act also has been added 1926 responsibility for causing somebody to commit suicide or attempt at it of the person who are in material or other dependence, cruel treatment or other similar by (item 141).

In UK RSFSR 1960 the given norm has been specified regarding ways of causing somebody to commit suicide or attempt at it of the person who are in material or other dependence on the guilty; the legislator has specified along with the severe
The reference with sustained on regular humiliation of personal advantage of the last (item 107).

In our opinion, the most successful statement of the norms, concerning a criminal suicide, RSFSR First is 1926 item 141 UK, it includes both causing somebody to commit suicide, and assistance to it or podgovor. Secondly, at causing somebody to commit suicide there is opened a list of ways as in article it is specified: «...ili other similar by...». Sanctions by both parts of article correspond the aforesaid in UK RSFSR 1922 and 1960 On character and to degree of the social danger the legislator carried assistance or podgovor to suicide to a category of crimes of small weight (imprisonment for the term up to 3 years), and causing somebody to commit suicide - average weight (imprisonment for the term up to 5 years).

After disintegration of the USSR the new criminal legislation of the Russian Federation, unlike a number of the countries of the post-Soviet territory, has left in UK the Russian Federation only causing somebody to commit suicide - item 110 UK the Russian Federation in that kind in which it has existed till June, 2017 High degree of the social danger of criminal activity of leaders of groups of death has caused of current legislation updating in this connection the Russian Federation "Causing somebody to commit suicide" have been partially changed and added by item 110 UK, and also two new articles are entered: 110 [110] «Declination to fulfilment of suicide or assistance to suicide fulfilment» and 110 [111] «the Organization of the activity directed on prompting to fulfilment of suicide» UK РФ1 - and as a whole is toughened punishment for the specified structures преступлений2. According to a part of the interrogated respondents (27 % of representatives of the judiciary, Office of Public Prosecutor, Investigatory committee of the Russian Federation, territorial bodies of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia (further - representatives judicial
And law enforcement bodies) and 32 % of employees PDN OVD), in the resulted formulations of new items of item 110, 110 [112] UK the Russian Federation does not suffice a reality and consequently the official treatment of some concepts for rendering of effective counteraction criminal суициду1 is required.

It is difficult to present the Kriminologichesky characteristic of any phenomenon without statistical data which reflect application practice ugolovnoyopravovyh norms. One of the first who has shined and has analysed statistical data on quantity of suicides in Russia there was academician K.Herman [113]. In the report «Research about number of suicides and murders in Russia for 1819 and 1820» it compares number of suicides and murders on separate provinces and regions and compares them with drunkenness, an economic and sociopolitical situation in the country (for example, consequences of a Patriotic War of 1812 in Smolensk province where the raised level of suicides was marked); specifies in the main reasons of the considered phenomena which consist in human extreme measures: in wild customs or the refined civilisation, in anarchy or political oppression, in poverty or excessive riches [114]. Having investigated the given problem, the scientist comes to conclusion, that dynamics of number of murders and suicides for a number of years reflects a moral and political condition of the people. K.Herman's scientific work has not been published in Russian, as, according to the minister of national education of Ampere-second. Shishkov, «similar articles indecent to promulgation of these... It is good to inform on good affairs, and such as smertoubijstva and suicides, should plunge into eternal oblivion».

Data on suicides of times of pre-revolutionary Russia are known also thanks to the Department of moral statistics organised in 1918 of M.N.Gernetom as a part of the Central statistical management (further - TSSU). It investigated influence of various factors on a suicide indicator, in particular consequences
Military actions. It marked reduction of quantity of suicides in days of the First World War in the at war countries and with some lateness - in a neutral territory. The similar tendency was marked in days of the Second World War and after its termination [115].

In Russia the beginning of XX century is characterised by growth of protest (revolutionary) moods, political crisis is observed. Dynamics of suicides these years is illustrated on an example of capitals. So, from the resulted data it is visible, that in 1915-1917 recession of quantity of suicides is observed, which long lifting follows (the appendix 1, table 1) [116] see. Similar changes in level of suicides occurred as in the countries which were taking part in military actions, and in territory of the neutral states [117]. Research of the reasons of reduction of a suicide indicator during this period allows to assume, that a principal cause of such decrease is people rallying a difficult minute (an appeal on war of a considerable part of the man's population, work of women and children in back). However in post-war years the increase in a suicide indicator [118] is observed. It is possible to name the reason for that feelings of a devastation tested by the people and irreplaceable loss which in some families are so great that any other feelings hammer.

More visually to present dynamics of suicide displays, we will consider corresponding indicators during post-war time. Thanks to the materials prepared TSSU, and M.N.Gerneta's proceedings it was possible to receive the information on quantity of suicides in RSFSR for 1923 (4010), 1924 (4681), 1925 (5846), 1926 (5934). Apparently, suicides during the specified period of time tend to growth. The similar situation was observed in parallel all over the world (for example, an average suicide indicator for
1923-1927 in Austria - 27,3, Hungary - 27,9, Germany - 22,3, France - 19,5, Switzerland - 23,5). Nevertheless, despite it, the USSR continued to remain among the countries with low level of suicide activity (8,6 [119].

The data received from various statistical sources allow to track also dynamics of suicides in republics USSR for 1975, 1985 and 1988, and also in Russia and the post-Soviet territory countries for 2000 and 2012 (see the appendix 1, table 2) [120]. The quantity of suicides paid off under the formula of a suicide indicator by means of statistical data on number

3 population during the considered period, received from various sources [121]. Besides it, having studied the special literature, and also having used data Rosstata, it was possible to collect data on level of suicides during 1986-2007 (see the appendix 1, the histogram 1) [122].

The presented data serve as reflexion of political events of that time. In Khruschev's "thaw" (1965) suicides in the USSR have average indexes. Then growth of quantity of suicides is observed. The dead season is characterised by a certain melancholy, belief loss in «the beautiful future». Level of a suicide indicator in 1980 has reached the maximum values: in the USSR - 26,9; in RSFSR - 34,5. Especially high it has appeared in Baltic republics: in Lithuania - 35,1; Latvia - 32,6 and Estonia - 33,7. The first years of board of M.S.Gorbachev are accompanied by small reduction of quantity of suicides.
In the conditions of the begun reorganisation, struggle against drunkenness the people have believed in new ideals, there was a hope of improvement of economic, political and social conditions in the country. As a whole across the USSR and its republics reduction of number of suicides was marked. However beginning since 1988 the gradual increase in a suicide indicator that corresponds to growth of discontent of the population of the country and changes of political conditions (struggle for the power, processes of system decomposition in a national economy, social structure, public and political spheres) is observed.

After disintegration of the USSR there have come crisis times for the population as Russian Federation, and the post-Soviet territory countries. Unemployment, economic decline, a population impoverishment, falling of moral values, criminality and gangsterism growth - all it has affected sharp increase in quantity of suicides. In many subjects the suicide indicator has exceeded a mark for 1980, namely [123]: Ukraine 23,4 - 1980, 29,8 - 2000, Byelorussia - 24,4 and 35,5 accordingly, Kazakhstan - 21,3 - 1980, 37,6 - 2000, Lithuania - 35,1 and 44,9 accordingly etc. For all analyzed periods is marked contrast of these indicators among various subjects. For example, in 2012 level of suicides has constituted: in Russia - 19,5, Kazakhstan - 23,8, Byelorussia - 18,3, Lithuania - 28,2, and in Azerbaijan - 1,7, Georgia - 3,2.

Unfortunately, hereinafter to make the detailed comparative analysis of a suicide situation among the various countries, using statistical data the CART for 2015-2016, is not given possible. In 2018 the CART has changed system of an estimation of death rate (now to calculation there is also a certain percent of latent suicides, that, in our opinion, is not absolutely correct) [124]. For this reason data given the CART do not coincide with official national statistical data and are non-comparable with earlier
The estimations published by them [125]. During dissertational research calculation of a suicide indicator was made proceeding from quantity of death from suicides in a year, delennogo on the population and increased by 100 thousand persons. Not to break objectivity of process of a parity of a suicide indicator both between the countries, and in time space, the decision in the present work not to consider the updated indicators the CART was accepted.

Since 2000 in Russia rather steady tendency on decrease in a suicide indicator that testifies not only to certain adaptation of the population to a new social and economic structure and the developed political situation after disintegration of the USSR and the period «dashing 90», but also, the main thing, about real improvement of a life of citizens of our country [126] is observed.

Separately in the Russian history of suicides it is necessary to note the period 2002-2004 which is characterised by occurrence of "clubs of suicides». The majority of experts occurrence of such clubs connect with the beginning of activity of "Father Grigory" (V.M.Lure's present name), created the Center on prevention of suicides, the basic which direction of activity had been declared rehabilitation suitsidalno the adjusted patients (basically it there were persons, at the age from 15 till 25 years). However any medical personnel in the centre was not. V.M.Lure spent not rehabilitation, and some kind of social experiments with people which addressed to it for the help. For removal of stress he recommended to use drugs, alcohol; told about life and death philosophy, its nonprofessional actions have caused a boomerang effect - have provoked a wave of suicides at wards of young men. Besides, he tried to hide the facts of suicides, refused to co-operate with official authorities, carried out anonymous reception of "patients" [127]. Actually it had been created a prototype
Modern groups of death. In 2004 the centre has ceased to function because of the big public resonance (for half a year it has been fixed six suicides from which four - minor persons) [128].

As already it has been noted earlier, the suicide as the phenomenon is characteristic practically for all countries: and slaborazvityh, and advanced. «A black phenomenon» - so Americans name a suicide - for a long time enters into first ten causes of death in the world, and by 2020, under forecasts of experts, the quantity of suicides can reach 1 500 000 persons in a year [129]. Now every year 800 000 persons die of suicides from above;


It is the cause of death of young generation second for frequency [130].

Studying of data on a suicide, the presented 172 countries in the United Nations, has shown, that in 2012 in comparison with 2000 in 52 countries the suicide indicator has grown, in 112 - has decreased, and in 8 countries - practically has not changed (fluctuations have constituted ±0,5) [131]. On a suicide indicator the CART allocates 3 groups of the countries:

1) the First group: high and very high level of suicides (from above 20 persons on 100 thousand population). 14 countries Here enter: Butane, Gyana, Zambia, India, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Maldive Islands, Mozambique, Nepal, Incorporated Republic Tanzania, Republic Korea, Surinam, Sri Lanka.

2) the Second group: an average index (from 10 to 20 incidents on 100 thousand population). 56 countries, among which: Australia, Byelorussia, Hungary, Denmark, Madagascar, Poland, the Russian Federation, the USA, Slovenia, Turkmenistan, Southern Sudan, Estonia, etc.

3) the Third group: low level of suicides. It is marked in 102 countries, among them: Azerbaijan, Algeria, Brazil, Ghana, Georgia, Egypt, Spain, Italy, Colombia, the United Arab Emirates, Peru, the United Kingdom Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Jamaica, etc.

By data the CART, the annual global indicator of frequency of suicides standardised on age in 2012 was equal 11,4. The given indicator a little above in the countries with high level of incomes in comparison with the countries with low and an average level of incomes (further - SNSD) (12,7 and 11,2 accordingly). However in SNSD the most part of the world population lives considerably, therefore on them 75,5 % of all suicides in the world [132] are necessary.

Among SNSD in six the triple disorder of values of an indicator of frequency of suicides, from 6,1 in region of the countries of America to 17,7 in South East Asia is marked. The CART considers as one of the reasons of such disorder that fact, that in 2012 in territory of South East Asia number of inhabitants constituted 26 % of the world population, and number of suicides - 39 % from global value (see the appendix 1, the diagramme 1).

Distinctions in indicators are more considerable at comparison of data on separate subjects. In 172 countries the suicide indicator varies from 0,4 to

44,2, that represents 105-fold disorder. Thus such tendency remains stable in time: in 2000 the range of values of an indicator of frequency of suicides between the countries has constituted from 0,5 to 52,7 (a 103-fold difference).

At an estimation of data of death rate from suicides it is necessary to take into consideration a number of the important circumstances:

1) only in 60 from 172 member states the CART included in the review, there are reliable given civil registrations which can be used directly for calculation of quantity of suicides. The estimation of level of a suicide indicator in the others 112 states (on which it is necessary about 71 % of suicides on a global scale) is inevitably based on modelling methods. It is logical to assume, that reliable systems of civil registration with much bigger probability exist in the countries with high level of incomes. On 39 countries of this category 95 % of all suicides, however on 21 SNSD with reliable data of record of certificates are necessary approximately
Civil condition it is necessary only 8 % from the general estimated number of the suicides made in SNSD.

Despite the resulted thesis, economic development of the country is not a determinative promoting fulfilment of a suicide. So, in Russia, by data for 2012, on 100 thousand inhabitants 19,5 cases of suicides are necessary. In comparison with 2000 this indicator has decreased for 44,4 %. In 2012 the suicide indicator was equal In the USA 12,1, that on 24,2 % more low, than in 2000;

2) official statistical data on suicides have certain errors and lacks. As has shown research, real quantity of perfect suicides considerably above figures of official statistics. In particular, as factors which lead nedouchetu suicides, it is possible to allocate the following:

- Personal and sotsiokulturnye [133]: aspiration of relatives to hide a true cause of death because of feeling of shame and condemnation by others. Cultural-religious specificity of the Muslim countries provides a taboo on suicide, that also causes in the family suitsidenta desire to conceal the happened;

- The professional: the conventional attitude of representatives of separate subjects of preventive maintenance to performance of the duties assigned to them, first of all, this unwillingness in details to understand an establishment of true motives of perfect suicide and absence of time for such specific direction of precautionary activity (it is considered by the majority of subjects as minor in comparison with preventive maintenance of administrative violations and crimes);

- The political: special attention of the government to the decision of demographic problems. The policy of demographic development in modern Russia is focused on creation of a high-grade society, free from the negative
The factors interfering high-grade development of the person [134]. The priority of decrease in death rate from the external reasons (where the greatest share occupy dorozhnoyotransportnye incidents, murders and suicides) generates such situation at which at regional level the problem of the decision of these problems is reduced to aspiration to diminish their scales. Thus operating now МКБ-10 it is generated in such a manner that among all external reasons of death rate suicides to hide most easier by means of the formulation «damages with uncertain intentions» (further - PNN) [135]. And if intentions of fulfilment of suicide to reveal it was not possible, in the health certificate on death it is underlined - «the death sort is not established». According to recommendations the CART in PNN those cases of death about which «the accessible information has not enough that medical and legal experts could draw a conclusion on get, whether is the given incident by accident, self-damage or violence (physical or mental influence of one person on another) [136] for the purpose of murder or drawing of damages» [137]. Besides, some suicides can get to statistics as accidents (the person was run over by a car as a result of a suicide, and the real motive of fulfilment of such act is unknown to experts as to define true, proceeding from available objective data, it is impossible).

It is possible to tell, that the official statistics of suicides represents only an iceberg top. For example, according to the formula of experts the CART [138], on «n» complete suicides, is necessary 10-20n parasuicides, 8n relatives and relatives suitsidenta (entering into group of the raised suicide risk),
100n people who think of suicide or carry out autodestruktivnye actions at subconscious level.

Using formulas the CART, where a unit of account «n» is officially registered 20055 suicides in Russia for 201 7 (operative data without definitive health certificates on death) [139], it is possible to draw a conclusion: about 440 thousand persons tried to commit suicide; about 160 thousand people enter into group of the raised suicide risk; 2 million people, have «an internal suicide discourse». The CART turns out, that, according to a design procedure, in a problem of suicide behaviour can be included as a whole to 2,6 million people, or 1,8 % from the general population of the Russian Federation (146 880 000 people).

According to the approach offered by experts of Children's fund of the United Nations (further - UNICEF) to define real level of suicides with the account latentnosti it is possible by their comparative analysis with those deadly cases which have the similar mechanism of realisation [140]. The given approach does not give exact values of real quantity of made suicides, however allows to reveal the potential sizes of latent losses from suicides, and also more objectively to estimate scales of a problem of suicide behaviour.

For revealing of latent level of suicides we had been analysed external causes of death behind a deduction from their quantity of suicides, the murders, all kinds of transport accidents and casual alcoholic poisonings. In the remained category following reasons of death rate are considered: casual utoplenie, casual suffocation, other casual poisonings, falling, a jump or colliding from height with uncertain intentions, the accidents caused by action of fire-arms, etc. Own research of latent level of suicides was spent on the period with 2008 on 2017

In view of absence of data for more long time interval. It is necessary to notice, that in 2008-2009, i.e. in the greatest negative influence of world financial crisis, on territories of Russia death rate growth for the selected reasons is marked.

Assuming the big share of suicides among episodes of death rate from casual suffocations, poisonings, falling from height and gunshot wounds etc., it is possible to approve, that level of latent suicide death rate decreases considerably smaller rates, than officially registered indicator. For 2008-2017 latent death rate from suicides has decreased approximately on 32 %, level of officially registered suicides - 49 % [141]. Not less important conclusion consists in the following: if in 2008 the parity of latent and official suicides constituted approximately 3:1 in 2012 level of latent suicide death rate has exceeded data of official statistics in 4 times. For the considered period the number of latent suicides in relation to officially registered incidents has increased with 320 to 415 % [142]. It means that, despite the steady positive tendency to reduction officially suicide recorded instances, there is high a degree of their probability nedoucheta official statistics.

By results of the research of interrogation carried out in frameworks, over 80 % of representatives judicial and law enforcement bodies, including employees PDN OVD, faced in practice suicides of minors. Thus over 20 % from them have noticed, that incidents were coherent with causing somebody to commit suicide (declination to suicide). Among representatives of the general educational organisations - teachers, social teachers and psychologists - only 25 % met suicides or attempts of their fulfilment that speaks the purposes, problems and specificity of their professional work.

Speaking about the statistics characterising suicide dynamics, it is necessary to notice, that the peak of suicides in our country is necessary on
Second half 90th of the last century with indicators of 40 suicides on 100 thousand population (by criteria the CART as much as possible admissible or threshold value should not exceed 20 cases of suicides on 100 thousand population). The tendency of decrease in this indicator is observed last 16 years [143].

Following the results of 2017 the quantity of suicides in Russia has decreased to 13,7 cases on 100 thousand population [144]. However against positive dynamics of decrease in total of suicides on number of the registered children's and teenage suicides our country continues to remain one of world leaders: in 2015 736 incidents, in 2016 - 752 (see the appendix 2, the histogram 1, 2) have been registered.

In Investigatory committee of the Russian Federation which employees according to positions of item 151 UPK the Russian Federations about the competence are engaged in investigation of the facts of fulfilment of criminal suicides, have noticed, that the statistics of children's suicides has increased in 2016 at once in 40 of 85 regions of the Russian Federation. Only in to Moscow and the Moscow area in 2016 about 150 children have made a suicide (cases of approach of death without attempts of suicides are considered only) [145].

Thus so dangerous social phenomenon develops not only in territory of Russia, but also abroad - in Latvia, Bulgaria, Poland, Hungary, Germany etc., and also in the post-Soviet territory countries: to Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan [146].

In the Russian Federation in 2014 737 incidents, in 2015 - 736, in 2016 - 752, in 2017 - 692 [147] have been registered. Because of stably high suicide indicator among minors and also whereas the considered phenomenon directly is connected with questions of is social-psychological adaptation, mental stability and formation of the person, the criminal suicide of minors deserves separate attention.

According to data of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia on quantity of suicides and attempts of their fulfilment for 2015-2016 and to data Rosstata on a population the table reflecting as general suicide conditions, and among minors, and also the histogram 1 and 2, showing level of a suicide indicator on districts [148] has been constituted. Unfortunately, to compare these expanded statistical data to indicators for 2014 and earlier it is not obviously possible in view of absence of such statistical account of suicides of minors during earlier period. The similar situation develops and with indicators for 2017 as data for 2015-2016 have been received as a result of carrying out by experts of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia uzkoprofilnogo inquiry on all subjects. Besides, in 2018 Reports about results of work regional UMVD Russia on preventive maintenance of offences among minors in whom data on the facts of teenage suicides also contained have been cancelled. Absence of uniform system of the statistical account complicates analysis process, and also forecasting of the situation developing in sphere of a children's and teenage suicide a little.

Comparing the general data on a suicide indicator with private, concerning minors, it is necessary to notice, that a situation with suicides on regions it is essential raznitsja. Direct dependence of increase of level of suicide moods among minors from the general increase in quantity of suicides it is not observed, except for the highest indicators
In both directions in the Siberian and Far East federal districts. Rather safe suicide situation is observed in North Yokavkazsky federal district. Especially disturbing condition on a teenage suicide indicator is observed in Uralsk federal district as in 2016 it has increased by 88 % in comparison with previous year. Thus the general suicide background has been lowered on 12 %. Practically without changes affairs in the Central, Northwest and Southern districts are. Indicators for 2016 are similar to data for 2015 - are rather stable, have an average level of danger [149].

At srednerossijskoj to frequency of suicides from 15,75 to 17,35 in to Moscow this indicator is equal to 3-5 cases on 100 thousand persons, and in St.-Petersburg - 7-8. According to criteria such level is considered the CART low. In 9 regions the suicide indicator fluctuates from 0,1 to 5,0. These are Republics Altais, Ingushetia, Dagestan, the North Ossetia, the Chechen Republic, etc. In 17 subjects frequency of a suicide exceeds 30 cases on 100 thousand population. Republics Buryatiya concern them, Komi, Kurgan, Amur, Arkhangelsk areas, Nenets autonomous region, the Perm edge, etc. In some subjects of federation this indicator exceeds a mark of 45 incidents in 100 thousand population. It is Republic Buryatiya, the Jewish autonomous region, Transbaikalian edge, Chukchi autonomous region, etc. Such distribution does the Russian Federation by the unique country of the world in which distinctions in values of frequency of suicides in regions reach tens times [150]. The greatest propensity to a suicide is not casually marked at indigenous population of Udmurtiya, Komi, Nenets autonomous region. At northern people pagan roots till now are strong. In Buryatiya and Tuva the Buddhism is extended. As we marked earlier, Buddhists often wrongly consider suicide by an act, worthy respect [151]; many trust in
Reincarnation according to which the life proceeds after death thanks to a chain of regenerations (though, the traditional Buddhism condemns suicide, however the relation to suitsidentam not so strict, as in Islam or Christianity) [152].

The separate attention is deserved by the criminally-legal statistics of a criminal suicide. At federal level the number of the crimes qualified under item 110 UK the Russian Federation, and a share of the persons condemned for given socially dangerous acts, are rather insignificant. Concerning guilty the court, as a rule, applies punishments in the form of imprisonment, thus is appreciably conditional. In 2013-2015 the court as the basic punishment applied freedom restriction. Also took place the termination of criminal cases owing to reconciliation convicted with victims, clearing guilty from the criminal liability or punishment under criminal law owing to the edition of certificates about amnesties, and also a recognition of defendants deranged with their clearing of the criminal liability and with application to them of forced measures of medical character [153].

Despite fluctuations present at the histogram, on official data of Judicial department at the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation (the form № 10 statistical reportings, approved 30.06.2016), throughout ten years goes the general reduction of number condemned for a considered kind 3

Crimes [154] that it is impossible to tell about quantity of registered crimes on causing somebody to commit suicide [155]. If in 2013 this indicator was equal to 139 units, in 2014 - 221, and in 2017 - 308. Thus quantity of preliminary investigated crimes on the given category, and also criminal cases about which are directed to court, last years practically does not grow. And taking into account quantity of the registered crimes for 2017 the given indicators correspond as 1:10. The given situation testifies to a considerable quantity
otkaznyh the materials formed recently on causing somebody to commit suicide. The quantity of crimes besides, has three times increased, criminal cases about which are suspended on ch. 1 items 208 UPK the Russian Federation.

As to item 110 [156] item, 110 [157] UK the Russian Federation owing to that they have been entered only in June, 2017, to compare statistical data on them is not obviously possible (for 2017 under item 1101 UK the Russian Federation 22 crimes, under item 1102 UK the Russian Federation - 3) have been registered.

Speaking about the mechanism of fulfilment and high level latentnosti considered crimes, E.K.Volkonskaja pays attention that suicides owing to finishing and suicide without finishing correspond as 1:201. The reason for this A.A.Tsyrkaljuk finds in juridiko-technical imperfection of article, and also in complexity and ambiguity of definition of criminal character of suicide and causing somebody to commit suicide and murder differentiation (item 105 UK the Russian Federation) 2. And. V.Agafonov comes to conclusion, that «any essential and certain judiciary practice on such affairs at present practically is not present, and the initiated affairs stop subsequently in the absence of understanding of elements essential to the offence and do not reach a judicial stage» [158].

Summing up the paragraph, it is necessary to notice, that the suicide phenomenon has arisen in an antiquity and has passed up to now, refracting through a prism of public opinion which constantly varied. The relation to a suicide as to the individual behavioural certificate and the is social-negative phenomenon throughout all history of a human civilisation it was formed from the point of view of dominating moral and religious representations that was directly reflected in rules of law.

In the East countries suicide treated more favourably, rather than in the West. With development of Christianity suicide has strongly affirmed as heavy
Crime. However in due course the relation to suicide displays began to get everywhere more loyal character that was reflected in softening of the criminal legislation.

For territories of the Russian Federation allocate 3 basic of the period of suicide activity:

1. With 1990 on 2000 the death rate tested considerable fluctuations. In 1999 in relation to 1990 growth of a death rate from suicides has constituted 146 %. It was a consequence of disintegration of Soviet Union, and also economic crises 1991 and 1998

2. With 2000 on 2013 - decrease in a suicide indicator. Development of such positive tendency was promoted by stabilisation political and sotsialnoyoekonomicheskoj to a situation, however after 2008 rates of decrease in death rate from suicides were slightly slowed down, that has been connected with negative consequences of world financial crisis

3. Since 2014 and on present time the suicide situation in the country has started to become aggravated. Experts consider, that as one of principal causes of growth of the given negative phenomenon distribution of groups of death, and also suicide games (for example, «the Dark blue whale») in social networks acts.

For the reason specified above the tendency of an aggravation of suicide behaviour of teenagers in the European countries is observed.

Besides, now in Russia high level latentnosti suicides, first of all among minors is marked.

In our opinion, suicide serves one of the important indicators of a social, economic, political condition of a society. Finding out dependence of a suicide on social processes, it is possible to approve, that at the heart of this deviation the general social reasons lay. Level and dynamics of a suicide are influenced by economic, political, social, moral-cultural and other factors. All it means that at suicide studying as the phenomena is necessary to consider the specified reasons in a complex.

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A source: Puchnina Margarita Jurevna. the CRIMINAL SUICIDE of MINORS: KRIMINOLOGICHESKY And CRIMINALLY-LEGAL MEASURES of COUNTERACTION. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the master of laws. Voronezh - 2019. 2019

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