an information field of a network the Internet as object complex kriminologicheskogo researches

On all extent of the development the civilisation always faced necessity of maintenance of own safety. At all times the mankind tried to protect itself from surrounding fauna in a primitive-communal system, from criminal and other illegal encroachments presently.

The special attention always gave a society to rising generation, after all children - our future, and education vysokomoralnoj, is moral the steady and physically generated person - pledge of progressive development of the state. It is no casual last years in Russia the emphasis on protection of the rights of minors, in particular against strengthening of one of such national threats, as destructive influence of the latent negative information on minors becomes.

The istoriko-Kriminologichesky analysis of factors asotsialnogo allows to establish influences on rising generation, that since the end of XIX century as [8] determinants of criminality newspaper chronicles about crimes »,"press"[9],"mass media"1, and in the last act«
Time - «an information field (content) and communications in a network the Internet» [10 [11].

Displacement of accent of information consumption is promoted substantially by availability of an information-telecommunication network and possibility directly to participate in information interchange. In the report for

2016 the International union of telecommunication specifies, that 95 % of the population of a planet live in the areas covered with a signal of mobile cellular communication, thus distribution of networks 3G and 4G has made the Internet even more accessible [12]. In

2017 of effort have been concentrated to working out of such appearing technologies, as the big data, 5G, cloudy calculations, the Internet of things (IoT) and an artificial intellect [13]. Development of information technologies allows everyone to receive and transfer the information worldwide.

Since 2014 in Russia connection to a network the Internet of settlements with number of inhabitants from 250 to 500 persons therefore 5 million citizens of Russia living almost in 14 thousand of such sparsely populated points, get access to a network the Internet is carried out. The granting system is created
The state and municipal services in the electronic form to which were connected more than 34 million Russians [14].

Users of the Russian segment of a network the Internet in 2017 became more than 88 million persons, i.e. 72 % of the population of the country from which depending on the subject of the Russian Federation where they live, from 54 to 60 % daily leave in a network, and among children from 10 till 18 years from 95 to 100 % depending on polovozrastnoj groups [15].

Analyzing the aforesaid, it is possible to approve, that the information field of a network the Internet became the habitual environment of ability to live of a considerable part of a society where each concrete user creates the daily world, lives and operates in it. Thus the network the Internet allows to consolidate in one social environment variety of users with different social both cultural differentiation and stratification, including with deviantnymi sights.

The carried out researches in the field of information technologies have not led to unequivocal definition of the Internet.

Practically all scientists speak about mnogolikosti and polysemies of this concept. In this connection the authors investigating questions of an information-telecommunication network the Internet, apply the whole set of terms.

The majority of them, making Internet definition, first of all characterise a technical aspect of its functioning (presence of necessary networks, systems, resources, infrastructures, the software etc.), simultaneously considering it as a global information network [16], the greatest computer network in the world [17], the network global automated
Information system, the electronic communication network connecting computers all over the world through telephone lines and cables from optical fibres [18], information-communicative complex [19 [20], version of an information-telecommunication network, i.e. The technological system intended for transfer on communication lines of the information, access to which


It is carried out with use of computer aids.

Thus depending on scientific specialities on which researches were carried out, authors underline a corresponding orientation of the Internet.

So, scientists-sociologists within the limits of spent researches focus attention on the Internet as the factor of socialisation of the population [21], thus the question of criminalisation of the population remains out of sphere of research and are not considered.

Scientists-jurists in the light of theory of law define the Internet, first of all, as the new space of human self-expression, the international space crossing any borders, the decentralised space which any operator, no state completely owns and does not operate [22].

By E.K.Volchinskoj's definition «the Internet represents global association of computer networks, information resources and various information-telecommunication services, i.e. It is the technological environment in which various legal relations are realised. Thus the considerable part of relations, as well as in a usual life, is characterised
Discrepancy of interests of their participants »[23].

Analyzing concept "information field", And. V.Manojlo comes to conclusion, that its modern value has developed as a result of evolution of the conceptual scheme of distinction in cumulative geopolitical space of the areas possessing properties, allowing to consider them as independent spaces with the borders, structure, resources and features of interaction of subjects of social relations. So, the geopolitical space gets new measurement, including space information.

Feature of an information field which allows to consider it from such point of view, that unlike other spaces where the physical geography is defined by the power, in an information field set structure of the power the information and knowledge [24] is.

The federal act from July, 27th, 2006 № 149-FZ «About the information, information technologies and about information protection» does not specify among the basic concepts a network the Internet, but makes definition informatsionnoyotelekommunikatsionnoj of a network which represents the technological system intended for transfer on communication lines of the information, access to

3 which the Internet - set of programs for electronic computers and other information containing in information system is carried out with use of computer aids [25] and a site in a network, access to which is provided with means is information - a telecommunication network the Internet on domain names and (or) to the network addresses, allowing to identify sites in a network the Internet.

The resulted definition, from our point of view, not to the full opens essence of the Internet, limiting its mission only transfer
Information, thus the legislator does not consider specificity of functioning of system, does not provide possibility of realisation of actions which are capable to result including to negative consequences.

Other definition is given in the modelling law on telecommunications where the Internet basic purpose specifies telecommunication, i.e. Transfer and reception on distance of a sound, a sign, the written text, the image, speech or other data by means of an electric or optical signal on wire, cable, optical, magnetic, radio-and to other electromagnetic systems [26]. However and in the given definition forms of social relations (including criminal), arising in unique social space are not considered.

In parallel with an information field in the scientific literature the term "cyberspace" is used. Proving necessity of application for domestic legal science of the given concept, D. V.Gribanov has suggested to define it as «set of the public relations arising in the course of use of the functioning electronic computer network, developing concerning the information processed by means of the COMPUTER, and the services of information character given by means of the COMPUTER and a communication facility of a computer network» [27].

There is no special sense to begin polemic that such information field of a network the Internet, and that such cyberspace, and than they differ. The term "cyberspace" (cyberspace) is borrowed from English language and is a synonym of a word "Internet". The author of the present work assumes, that an information field of a network the Internet and
Cyberspace should be used in the same value as synonyms.

V.A.Meshcherjakov from criminalistics positions named cybernetic space «area of a possible finding of the information presented in a kind, suitable for the automated processing having essential value for an establishment of true on the investigated crime, and formed by means of storage of the information, devices of the automated processing of the information (including computer aids), auxiliary means and systems, and also means and communication systems and the telecommunications, functioning according to the accepted report of processing of the information under control of corresponding program and with use of a necessary supply with information» [28]. Definition this exact enough, though, in our opinion, and a little overloaded with technical details. Some researchers operate with the term "cyberspace" as he helps «to realise the Internet as the new form of space which are not answering to material characteristics, but allowing to carry out in it or with its help various actions which can have real consequences» [29].

To allocate an information field of a network the Internet as independent object complex kriminologicheskogo researches, it is necessary for us to represent well its features not only as to technology, but also as information, social, legal and subcultural phenomenon.

The carried out researches testify that a key role in the Russian segment of an information-telecommunication network the Internet holdings play Yandex, Mail. Ru Group, Google and Rambler&Co.

The most popular search system among minors is transnational service Yandex. Results of the analysis 15 most
Visited projects speak about high level of a demand of the given resource teenagers. On the average within a month on Yandex 23 million times come. The most demanded is jandeks-search which 75 % of minors [30] use practically.

On the statistican the second place among search systems occupies holding Mail. Ru Group which most known project is the largest social network of the Russian segment of the Internet "VKontakte". According to WEB­Index for August, 2018 the target audience "VKontakte" constitutes 87,3 % from all minor users (88,1 % of young men and 86,1 % of girls). Thus by results of carried out by us research more than 90 % of young men and more than 94 % of girls [31] use a social network "VKontakte". According to WEB-Index, the social network "VKontakte" remains to the most demanded in the Russian segment so in 2013 the target audience of the given social network constituted 5746,5 thousand minors, i.e. 86 % from all


Minor users of a network [32].

The most demanded the social network "VKontakte" was in 2016 when its target audience constituted 96,9 % [33] from all minor users (96,9 % of young men and 96,8 % of girls). During the same period in a social network "VKontakte" the greatest volume of the information forbidden or limited for distribution contained. So, from 26 055 records brought in the uniform register: vk.com - 19 582 URL; youtube.com - 2291 URL; twitter.com - 1806 URL; mail.ru - 950 URL; ok.ru - 554 URL; blogspot - 370 URL; livejournal.com - 342 URL; tumblr.com - 82 URL; faceebook.com - 60 URL; yandex.ru - 18 URL.

The share of social networks (Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, "VKontakte", "Schoolmates") among resources on which distribution of the illegal information is carried out, constitutes:

- In the area of appeals to a suicide - 88 %;

- In the area of a children's pornography - 25 %;

- In the area of a drug trafficking - 20 %;

- In the area of gamblings - 6 % [34].

Thus, the researches carried out by us have shown, that the average Internet user any more is not limited for a long time to search system or mail and, as a rule, is signed at once on some social networks ("VKontakte", "Schoolmates", Facebook, Twitter, Instagram), news sites, blogs, thematic and help projects.

The basic feature of social networks is association of users in a format "friends", "groups" for the purpose of dialogue and information interchange. Criteria of such association can be socially useful, neutral and asotsialnymi, representing the greatest interest within the limits of an investigated theme as rather steady and steady dialogue makes the most notable impact on moral formation and behaviour of the person.

Serious danger to minors is represented by special forums in social networks. So, for example, for the purpose of increase in number of narcoconsumers participants of narcobusiness lead operative search of sellers and buyers. Use of a network the Internet allows criminals to carry out actively recruitment and check of new participants of criminal activity, to take the raised measures of conspiracy, intensively to communicate about ways of manufacture, cultivation, reception of narcotics, places of their acquisition, to carry out calculations by means of the electronic
Payment systems with use of virtual money [35]. It has led to a prompt rejuvenation of narcobusiness in a number of subjects of the Russian Federation (middle age sbytchika constitutes 19 years) [36] and to increase in number of the facts of involving of minors in a drug trafficking by means of a network the Internet [37].

Company Google in an information field of the Russian segment of a network the Internet is most known thanks to two projects: to search system Google with the same name (ru/com) and videohostingovoj the company rendering users of service of storage, delivery and video display youtube.com which target audience constitutes 74,4 % of young men and 87,5 % of girls.

It is a little less demanded, but at the same time the media portal Rambler which production use to 20 % of teenagers is widely enough known in the Russian market.

As of 201 8 in territory of the Russian Federation of access service to information resources in a network the Internet is rendered by 3599 communication statements. Thus the greatest quantity of the communication statements rendering services of access to information resources of a network the Internet, is registered in TSFO [38].

Electronic mass media, information systems, social networks [39], access to which the Internet is carried out with use of a network, became a part of a daily life of Russians. The Russian information society is characterised by a wide circulation and
Availability of mobile devices (on the average on one Russian it is necessary two user's numbers of a mobile communication), and also wireless technologies, communication networks [40]. Thus smart phones or kommunikatory which take an in the lead place among the devices used for Internet connection are mainly used.

The volume of Russia consumed by the population of the information in network space shows signs eksponentsialnogo growth [41]. By results of the analysis of the statistical reporting of [42] Ministries of Communications and mass communications of the Russian Federation it is possible to establish annual increase in service of access to the information with use infokommunikatsionnyh technologies (Internet). So, for 2007 the volume of reception of services of access to the information has increased in 2,6 times and has constituted 277 450 194 025 Mb, for 2008 - in 2,8 times (790 811 635 561 Mb), for 2009 - in 3,6 times (2 878 148 721 589 Mb) etc. Rates of access to the information with use infokommunikatsionnyh technologies and last years do not decrease. If following the results of 2013 the total amount of the information received by the population of Russia, has reached almost 15 mlrd Gb (+127,2 % in comparison with 2012) [43], in 2014 the given indicator has exceeded 19,3 mlrd Gb (+129,5 % in comparison with 2013) [44], in 2015 26,4 mlrd Gb (+136,5 % in comparison with 2014) [45], in 2016 32,4 mlrd Gb (+122,8 % in comparison with 2015) [46] in 2017 the given indicator has constituted 41,9 mlrd Gb
(+129,3 % in comparison with 2016) [47]. Thus, the volume of the received information with use infokommunikatsionnyh technologies for last 10 years has grown with 277 mlrd Mb to 41,9 mlrd Gb, or more than in 150 times.

Modern rates of development of technologies of creation, processing and information distribution have considerably exceeded possibilities of the majority of people in development and application of knowledge. Displacement of accents in perception of world around with scientific, educational and cultural on entertaining-help has generated the so-called clip thinking which prominent feature is the mass superficial and fragmentary perception of the validity. Such form of development of the information simplifies possibility of influence on sights and preferences of people, promotes imposing of models of behaviour that gives advantage in achievement economic both political ends to those states and the organisations to which posess technologies of distribution of the information.

Thus the Internet following specific signs are inherent in an information-telecommunication network:

1) the decentralised, transboundary character (functions in an information field, does not depend on frontiers, i.e. Exists in a virtual field and has nadgosudarstvennye properties);

2) anonymous character of dialogue (the person can act under the, an assumed name or in general without it);

3) anonymous the space Internet. To anonymous the Internet - to spaces concern DarkNet, DeepWeb, HiddenWiki, «the deep Internet». It is higher on degree of anonymity an Internet segment to which it is impossible to be connected through a usual browser. In it are concentrated
The communities which are engaged in illegal activity, including traffic in arms, bank cards, drugs etc. In it there is also a set of quite legal and harmless projects: libraries, literary magazines, etc. People choose this network for the sake of privacy and freedom of speech preservation (anonymous proxies-servers, virtual private networks VPN-services, Tor - a browser etc.).

Wide circulation of software product The onion router (Tor) technological decisions [48] and similar to it (VPN, I2Phдр.) by connection through a series of the virtual tunnels belonging to users of a network in other countries, instead of by creation of direct connection through public networks provides anonymity of the user in a network the Internet, confidentiality of dialogue, protection against supervision and the traffic analysis, hides the IP-address of the used technical device and, accordingly, its physical site. The given properties are reached at the expense of multilevel enciphering of the transferred traffic for the several any way chosen knots of network Tor and consecutive translation through these knots to the addressee.

Application of tools of detour Tor allows to reach the necessary direction or the content maintenance, to be connected even to the sites blocked by Internet providers. Latent services Tor allow users to publish the information on web sites and services, needlessly to open a site arrangement.

As practice of activity of law-enforcement bodies, use anonimajzera Tor shows allows to get access to the so-called invisible or "dark" party of a network the Internet (Hidden Wiki). So, with 2011 for 2013 in a zone.onion anonymous network Tor worked a trading Internet platform «the Silk way» (Silk Road), the majority of the sold which goods were illegal. 70 % of the goods constituted narcotics and psychotropic substances. On the data published by FBI after arrest of the founder of a platform
R.Ulbrihta, by means of a site for two and a half a year had been spent 1,2 million transactions on 9,5 million bitkojnov. Lawsuit documents over Ulbrihtom testify, that Silk Road was used by several thousand sellers of drugs and more than 100 thousand buyers [49].

High level of offences is characteristic for all Internet, and not just for its "dark" party. So, steady growth of number of the arrived references in the area of appeals to a suicide (on 104 %), a children's pornography (on 30 %), a drug trafficking (on 8 %), hazardous online games (on 1065 %) [50] now is observed.

In the European Convention on kiberprestuplenijam (to crimes in a cyberspace), accepted on November, 23rd, 2001 member states of the Council of Europe, kiberprestuplenie it is characterised as the actions directed against confidentiality, integrity and availability of computer systems and networks and computer data, and also abusings such systems, networks and data [51]. So, in the Conventions of a crime made in the information environment, against information resources or by means of information means are defined as kiberprestuplenija.

Thus it is necessary to consider various understanding of the term «information distribution» with reference to the material and virtual world.

In a material world information distribution is understood as the active actions of the concrete subject directed on finishing of the maintenance of the information to its consumers. The consumer can be
It is concretised, in this case the information will extend to the addresses specified in advance, and can be not concretised, then the information will be directed on an uncertain circle of persons. To the consumer it is possible to name such way of finishing of the information active distribution.

In virtual space along with the active passive distribution of the information when the subject is widely applied, wishing to finish the concrete information to defined (or uncertain) a circle of persons, places it on the site and expects the reference to it of consumers [52].

Thereupon the special attention is deserved, in our opinion, by the concept maintenance "virtual", extended in the publications devoted to a problematics of an information field of global networks («a virtual reality», «the virtual environment», «a virtual crime», «virtual traces», «virtual money», etc.) . According to the dictionary of foreign words, «virtual - possible; such which can or it should be shown under certain conditions; not having a physical embodiment or differing from real, existing» [53]. A virtual reality (in a translation from English virtual - potential, possible + reality - a reality, the validity) - an imaginary reality, imitation of real conditions by means of computer devices (a sound, visions, corporal, tactile sensations, for example, touch gloves) which is used mainly in the educational purposes (for preparation of pilots, tankmen, manipulators at the industrial enterprises, etc.) [54]. The virtual object is not identical to the imagined. Unlike the last it, probably, not having a physical embodiment, really carries out certain functions (on a virtual disk it is possible to write down data, in virtual space it is possible to receive the concrete information or an emotional charge etc.).

Thus, the information-telecommunication network can be considered the Internet as the virtual tool which is used in personal, public and (or) public ability to live. As any tool, it is possible to use it as for lawful, and the illegal purposes [55].

The concept of a virtual reality is perceived till now ambiguously. From philosophical positions «the virtual reality can be understood as the continuum created and reproduced by means of computer networks which recreates the maintenance and konstitutivnye mechanisms of individual and collective consciousness of the person, opredmechivaja complete experience of mankind and its culture» [56]. At the same time the virtual space covers not only the phenomena in a cyberspace of global networks, but also any interactions between the person and a hardware-software complex of the computing system at which the human consciousness passes in a special reality and does the person and the car by components of a certain uniform essence. Thus means model an image of the artificial world possessing special properties which basically can not coincide with properties of the real world. It is noticed, that «in a virtual reality modelling should be made for immersing in the real time, staged conditions should be simulated with high degree of realism, the user should have possibility to influence conditions with a feedback» [57]. As universal properties of a virtual reality allocate three characteristics: nematerialnost influences (the represented makes effects, characteristic for material); convention of parametres (objects are artificial and changed); efemernost (input freedom (an exit) provides possibility of interruption and existence renewal) [58].

The analysis of a contained information field of a network allows to draw a conclusion, that the Internet has dual character: on the one hand, it gives huge possibilities on maintenance of an information exchange, and with another - creates the problems connected with use of these possibilities by criminal elements. Hence, timely and its correct definition kriminogennogo potential is necessary for neutralisation of negative influence of an information content of a network the Internet on minors, including revealing and crime prevention [59].

We consider, that within the limits of a considered theme the fullest and such concept of an information field of a network the Internet which includes technical and kriminologicheskie elements will be objective. Thus, the information field of a network the Internet represents global, anonymous, not having accurate borders and to anybody not under control system formed by users independently by means of devices and gadzhetov, in itself not always generating criminality or crimes, but kriminogennye which properties lead to formation delinkventnogo behaviour of users.

Summing up complex kriminologicheskogo the Internet, it is necessary to notice researches of a content of a network once again, that, having overcome traditional geographical barriers, the Internet has opened unprecedented possibilities for information and communications distribution. Availability of the Internet and considerable number of users, especially among minors, for last 10 years has led more than to hundredfold increase in volume of Russia consumed by the population in the information that is beyond potential of the majority of people in development and application of knowledge and promotes formation of the so-called clip thinking which prominent feature is the mass superficial and fragmentary perception of the validity.

Electronic mass media, information systems, social networks became a part of a daily life of Russians which have ceased to leave in the Internet, and steels there is there constantly in a mode online. Minor users for a long time already it is not limited to search system or mail and, as a rule, are signed at once on some social networks ("VKontakte", Facebook, "Schoolmates", Twitter, Instagram), news sites, blogs, thematic and help projects. Besides reception and information interchange children communicate in an online mode in social networks, and also through ICQ, Messenger, Skype, Viber, Jabber, WhatsApp etc.

The given transformations promote essential strengthening of influence of a network the Internet on modernisation processes that is caused by leading positions of a global network among the basic sources of the information.

Vulnerability of children from an illegal content in informatsionnoyotelekommunikatsionnoj networks the Internet aggravates the problems connected with trade by children, a children's pornography and prostitution, a suicide, formation of extremist sights and ideology, the Internet promotes a rejuvenation of narcobusiness and increase in number of the facts of involving of minors in criminal activity by means of a network.

Thus, the modern architecture informatsionnoyotelekommunikatsionnoj networks the Internet with its general availability, an openness, a demand, detsentralizovannostju and anonymity gives rise to invulnerability comprehension that allows to extend a harmful content at users and to make actions with infringement of norms national and international law. Such combination leads to that the Internet becomes one of the most powerful tools of criminalisation and viktimizatsii minors. The given position testifies about kriminogennom potential of a network the Internet as tool of distribution of the forbidden information. It in turn causes necessity of consideration of an information field as independent object kriminologicheskogo researches for the purpose of its revealing
kriminogennyh possibilities, forecasting of consequences of its influence and development of a complex of all-round measures of the prevention of criminality and development prevention deviantnogo behaviour of minors.


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A source: Kuznetsova Elena Vladimirovna. PREVENTION DELINKVENTNOGO of BEHAVIOUR of the MINORS PRODUCED by the CONTENT of the NETWORK the INTERNET. The DISSERTATION on competition of a scientific degree of the master of laws. Moscow - 2019. 2019

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