a problem Urgency.

the terrorism problem in XX century finds special value owing to its globalisation and, hence, and growth of scales of its threat. Russia considered in this context, posesses rather considerable place both in the past, and in the present.
On a boundary of centuries our country was a field of extremely high terrorist activity where the given kind of criminal activity has found professionalism signs. During the Soviet period, terrorism as the mass phenomenon has been suppressed. Therefore still more recently at us it was perceived as something alien. In the USSR, at least last decades its existence, the terrorism was invariably considered as the integral attribute of a life of foreign countries in spite of the fact that the world community, having faced this problem during the post-war period, by that moment is already enough persistently and purposefully searched for ways of effective struggle against it and has saved up in this respect rather solid experience. Developing today kriminogennaja the situation forces to speak again about terrorism as to the major component of social being. For Russia of the end 80 - 90th years the terrorism became some kind of the sign phenomenon. Following the results of the research spent by fund źPublic opinionź and concerning life of Russians in 1997, the terrorism along with failures, accidents, earthquakes, flooding and fires on the importance has been put by respondents on the third place after shortage of money for articles of prime necessity and delays of payment of the salary among from eighteen problems offered by sociologists exciting most of all within year. 54 % of employees OVD interrogated during special research, spent within the limits of work on the dissertation, established at the moment terrorism growth in served territory (interrogation was spent to 1997) 1. Terrorism growth in Russia occurs against the general growth of number of its displays in the world. This process is continuously observed approximately from the middle of 60th years. So, during the period with 1968 for 1970 scales of terrorist activity on a planet were doubled, and between 1970 and 1980 it has increased again in an interval twice. For a year in the world within 1980th years 800 acts of terrorism were on the average made. For 12 years with 1968 on 1980 it became known about 700 similar actions in which course it has been killed 3668 and it is wounded 7474 человека1. If to look the absolute figures characterising a condition of terrorist activity in the world, dynamics is that: if in 1980 on a planet 500 terrorist certificates, in five years in 1985 - 8002 have been fixed. Growth is available. The exact statistics on the middle-end of 1990th years is not present. From the most known and large terrorist formations operating and operating on a planet in the XX-th century it is necessary to name źthe Irish republican army╗ (IRA), źFraction of red army╗ (RAF), źthe Basksky terrorist organisation╗ (THIS), źDirect action╗ in France, "Tupamaros" in Uruguay (until recently were the most powerful in the world grouping such), źSendero luminoso╗ in Peru, źIslamic movement of resistance╗ (HAMAS), Japanese źRed army of Japan╗ (KAJA) and źAUM Senrike╗, operating in international масштабе3. And it is far not the full list.
Developing in the Russian Federation kriminogennaja conditions are characterised by development of some the dangerous tendencies having including a terrorist orientation. Along with carrying out of acts of terrorism and terrorism certificates growth of the crimes connected with application of explosives and explosives is marked. In this sense of the statistican only one of terrorism forms looks rather convincingly: in 1994 in various state governing bodies 200 messages on threats of fulfilment of the certificate of terrorism with application of explosion, an arson or other actions creating danger of ádestruction of people have arrived. It three times exceeds quantity of messages such for 19911992. The terrorism becomes daily practice of the decision of territorial disputes, section of spheres of influence, achievement of other illegal purposes. The probability of fulfilment of acts of terrorism because of political extremism remains. Serious danger is represented by the illegal armed formations created by various informal associations. The so-called commercial terrorism becomes the extremely dangerous. For 1993 it has been made about 100 custom-made murders (in 1992 - 32), and in 1995 - 500 concerning a different sort of businessmen. For 1994 in territory of Moscow 107 crimes with application of explosives and explosives have been carried out. For 11 months 1995 this figure has increased to 130. In 1996 580 murders on which as the basic version the order for murder acted are registered. The economic and financial contradictions which have arisen because of competitive struggle in most cases took place. Also for 1995 in one only to Moscow has occurred about 300 androlepcies for the purpose of repayment reception. Under article 213 (3) - Terrorism (UK RSFSR) in 1994 18 crimes, and in 1995 - 464 have been registered. The False message on the terrorism certificate - item 213 (4): in 1994 - 331 case, in 1995 - 1035. Androlepcy - item 126 (1): in 1992 - 0, in 1993 - 51, in 1994 - 118, in 1995-1135. In 1997 of certificates of terrorism it has been registered 32 - item 207 UK the Russian Federation. Does not cause doubts that the terrorism has turned today to the major factor of threat of national safety of Russia and, considering general political, social and economic conditions in the country, it is possible to assume, that its influence the next years will amplify. Nevertheless, in domestic jurisprudence, and in particular, in criminology, the terrorism problem in time present yet has not received sufficient reflexion and working out. The work purpose consists first, in complex kriminologicheskom and criminally-legal nauchnolg genesis, a condition, tendencies, characteristic lines and the terrorism prevention in Russia taking into account foreign experience. Secondly, the given dissertational research is focused on that in any measure to meet for the present existing lacks in working out and treatment of problems of terrorism in domestic criminology. It is attempt to give the general analysis of a problem which could become base for carrying out and deepening of the further workings out of separate kinds and forms of terrorist activity, and also to plan ways of its overcoming or neutralisation. For achievement of objects in view following problems are put: From a criminology position to analyse concept terrorism, its versions, to consider a causal complex of terrorism in our country at the present stage, to investigate psychological and kriminologicheskie characteristics of the person of the terrorist, to consider foreign experience of antiterrorist activity and possibility of its use in our country, to develop some offers and the recommendations directed on perfection of the criminal legislation and system of preventive measures on struggle against terrorism, and also activity OVD on this direction. Object and object of research. As object of dissertational research the terrorism as the is social-legal phenomenon acts. An object of research - kriminologicheskaja the characteristic of the given kind of crimes and a measure of its prevention.
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A source: Nazarkin Michael Vladimirovich. Criminological characteristics and prevention of terrorism. Dis. ... Cand. legal sciences - M.. 2007

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