Is social-psychological signs of the person of the criminal - of the terrorist

In system of counteraction to process of formation of the person of the criminal-terrorist essential value has studying sotsialnoyopsihologicheskih signs of the person. As marks I.O.Koshevoj, «the psychological aspect of the given problem, assuming to consider personal motives and specific features of subjects of terrorism» [81] is important.

One of significant is social-psychological signs kriminologicheskogo "portrait" of the criminal are such characteristics, as valuable orientations, moral both legal sights and installations. «Heightened interest to a terrorism and extremism phenomenon is caused not only social danger and shaking of bases of a political system, but also generation by it new sotsialnoyopsihologicheskih processes and the events influencing a psychological climate in a society, and in turn promoting

To increase of extremist activity »1. In our opinion,

Valuable orientations are a basis of radical behaviour.

It is possible to tell, that valuable orientations of terrorists determine their extremist behaviour. As an example we will illustrate S.B.Raduev's extremist biography, «which has created the criminal society, there were the organizer of acts of terrorism, captures of a considerable quantity of hostages, murders of many peace citizens, encroachments for a life with special cruelty of military men and workers of law enforcement bodies, kidnappings, a fire-arms, manufacturing of an ammunition and explosives» [82 [83].

As is known, terrorists from persons with lawful behaviour differ valuable orientation, sights and social installations. As correctly marks A.V.Serikov, «development of youth extremism represents special danger because it is connected with insufficient social adaptation and development« anormnyh »installations in group consciousness of young generation that influences the values, preferable samples of behaviour, an estimation of social interaction» [84]. Therefore in system of counteraction process of formation of the young man by the terrorist should pay to studying of valuable orientations special attention.

By the spent research also it is defined, that engines of an extremist spirit of the young man are requirements, aspirations and interests. It is necessary to agree with I.V.Lebedev's opinion, that
«Motives of criminal behaviour are connected with outlook of the person of the terrorist, interests, social orientations, abilities, skills, habits» 1.

According to some scientists, basically criminals-terrorists have no generated interests. But, as is known, the person of the criminal-terrorist can be characterised not only sotsialnoyopozitivnymi, but also negative interests, requirements, values. Potential terrorists spend a free time in extremist communities. The carried out research has shown, that for criminals - of terrorists leisure sphere are communities of extremist character. In these communities at young men extremist sights are formed. It is easy to persuade them to commit a crime of an extremist and terrorist orientation.

The system of sights, estimations and preferences at potential criminals-terrorists starts to be guided by the extremist environment which has hypnotic influence on young men more and more, leads to formation of the person potentially ready to fulfilment of crimes of a terrorist orientation.

One of examples is extremist behaviour T.A.A., «which made armed assaults, fire-arms plunder, acts of terrorism, capture and deduction of hostages, being a member of the organised group. On January, 9th, 1996 the group headed A-vym, delivered the weapon in Kizlyar, has occupied a maternity home building, made explosions, arsons. During an attack have been grasped and hostages, as civilians (including lying-in women and women in childbirth), and workers of law enforcement bodies» [85 [86] were kept.

Features of members of extremist communities of youth age are characterised by such deviations in behaviour, as: loss of interest to study in secular educational institutions, aversion of requirements of a society; absence of plans for the future; estrangement from a family (if it leads a secular way of life); indifference to the problems which are in the centre of attention of a secular society; hatred to public agents.

At potential criminals-terrorists the indifferent relation to the future work, a trade is marked. In our opinion, «ability to dream, plan the future somewhat serves one of the basic signs distinguishing the potential criminal-terrorist from young men with lawful behaviour (inability to reflect on itself, about tomorrow, in particular, it is possible to define under answers of respondents to a question:« What dream at you? What successes you would like to reach? »)» [87]. Absence at representatives of radical currents of youth age of plans for a life, and also the perspective positive purposes represents potential danger. According to our research, the person of youth age which do not have dream or the purposes for a life, quite often become "extraction" of representatives of the terrorist organisations. As an example we will result criminal case № 2-45/12: « On May, 12th, 2011 in Khasavyurt Republics Dagestans of Century of M. N has entered preliminary arrangement with I-vym I.T., under which offer Pyatigorsk for explosion realisation in a populous place for what has received from it an explosive consisting of a 600-gramme trotyl draught, being explosive, the electric detonator of industrial manufacturing which are an ammunition, the self-made device for transfer on a chain of an electric signal on a detonator, and also the device for check of serviceability electric has decided to go in
Chains of this mechanism, and on May, 14th, 2011, taking all aforesaid with itself, there has arrived in Pyatigorsk. On road service station of of Pyatigorsk has been detained by employees GOVD »1. On criminal case materials it is possible to notice, that Century of M. N has even no secondary education, did not work, led a parasitic, aimless way of life.

Since 90 goals of the XX-th century extremist installations, preferences at persons of an early age, unfortunately, develop. The analysis and generalisation of materials of interrogation have shown, that every seventh interrogated young man supposes possibility of formation by a member of community of extremist sense. In research us the reasons of occurrence of young men in communities of extremist sense also interested. On desire to follow belief, to "pure" Islam have specified 35 %; on influence of parents, relatives, the friends familiar - 30 %; on compulsion - 10 %; desire to forget vital problems - 5 %, intention to revenge for

Injustice of public agents - 15 % of respondents. Such results speak about confusion of some part young and young men, loss of positive ideals. «The extremism suits youth Mirages« collectivist »and maximal decisions, illusion of the found ideal» [88 [89].

Deep deformations of moral and legal valuable orientations of potential criminals-terrorists are shown in a choice of the purposes and means of their achievement. The vital purposes are displaced at potential criminals-terrorists towards psychological comfort in group of extremist sense. Justifying acts of an extremist orientation, they aspire to improve motives in every possible way. At potential criminals-terrorists the position of approval or "understanding" of crimes extremist is fixed and
The terrorist orientation, made on religious motives. Such behaviour in many respects depends on special extremist installation. In I.V.Lebedev's fair opinion, «behaviour stereotypes, installation and other have the direct relation to motivation of criminal behaviour and the person of the terrorist» 1.

Extremist installation gives a corresponding orientation neutral by the nature to qualities of the person: to temperament, will, emotions of potential criminals-terrorists. In such cases it is possible to speak about an extremist will. For involving in terrorist activity extremists use ajat 3:169 the Koran where it is said that those who on a way Dominical has been killed are not considered dead. This rule becomes the engine of all life of many fanatical representatives of a radical current of Islam. On a way of realisation of the ideas and to deserve paradise, they are ready to offer the young lives.

Considering, that in parallel with valuable orientations at potential criminals-terrorists the self-estimation is formed, we investigated the given line of the person. «The self-estimation is realised in feelings and emotions which arise at young men in relation to itself, appearance, to features of character» [90 [91]. By research it is established, that the majority of criminals-terrorists sees in themselves more than negative qualities, than men-terrorists. It testifies to a low self-estimation, criminals-terrorists samokritichnee, they are in the conflict to self, are more disturbing and are strained, feel sincere discomfort more sharply. By research it is proved, that young women with
Low self-estimation it is easier to involve in fulfilment of crimes of a terrorist orientation.

In our research for studying of emotional sphere of criminals-terrorists the technique of "not Finished offers» is used. For experiment 55 not finished offers were offered to the condemned women and men. Offers revealed moral-legal sights, a self-estimation, requirements, desires, interests, the relation to vital values.

By research it is proved, that at some part of youth with lawful behaviour negative values are shown. It is connected with the tendency of formation of extremist installations, preferences at young generation. For revealing of dynamics of change of moral values at youth we have carried out the comparative analysis of the given similar researches of V.S.Muhinoj in 1977-1979 1 and D.Z.Zijadovoj in the nineties the XX-th centuries. For many teenagers and young men of 70th years of the XX-th century the most significant value was the world on the earth. The given value stood on a leading place and at studying youth of 90th years. As correctly marks D.Z.Zijadova, «some safety factor on positive values at teenagers in the nineties the XX-th centuries still remained, but this layer« istonchalsja »as oxygen in an ozone gap» [92 [93]. The interrogation spent by V.S.Muhinoj, has shown, that young men in the seventies on the first place had such values, as the world, happiness, health, a family, formation. The research carried out by us by sociological methods has shown, that for modern young men on the first place there is a riches, greatness, aspiration to success any ways. By results of interrogation, ideals and
Values of modern youth were accepted by the extremist shade, therefore the given problem became especially sharp.

For many young men value of a human life also has undergone serious changes. Interrogation among young men has shown, that 14 % suppose possibility of fulfilment of crimes against person and a society on religious motives.

Within the limits of research we have studied motivational features of terrorists. It is necessary to agree with A.S.Palazjan's statement, that «the motivational structure of legal behaviour of the person contains ideological (valuable), pragmatical (rational) and psychological (emotional, irreflexive) the components which are in difficult, continuously changing interaction» 1. The analysis of materials of judiciary practice shows, that motives of fulfilment of crimes of a terrorist orientation at men and women differ from each other. By results of the spent interrogation in correctional facilities № 8 and № 4 FSIN the Russian Federation on RD women do not wish to receive material benefits by means of terrorist activity, to raise the authority. In terrorist activity of women by the basic motives are «revenge for the killed close and native people», «support native». For example, D.K.P. Serving time in a corrective colony for fulfilment of the crimes provided ch. 3 items 30 - the item "and" ch. 2 items 205 and ch. 2 items 222 UK the Russian Federation, assuming the  destruction during fulfilment of act of terrorism, has left mothers a note explaining motive of the act.

Similar results are received during the mass interrogation which has been carried out in frameworks of research by L.N.pankovoj, JU.P.Averin, I.D.

1Палазян A.S.legal behaviour of the person in the conditions of formation of a civil society in modern Russia: Dis. kand. The philosopher. Sciences. - Rostov-on-Don, 2000. - With. 7. - 133 with.

Gorshkovoj, A.I.Sushko, V.A.Sushko: « 38 % interrogated consider, that participation in the terrorist organisations gives to people first of all feeling of vengeance »1. It is necessary to agree with J.M.Antonjana's opinion, that« women almost never try to raise the social status by fulfilment of crimes of terrorist character, as, however, and in other spheres of punishable activity. The basic motive of fulfilment by women of terrorist crimes is the revenge for the killed relatives or for the husband, but on revenge they are pushed usually by men from whom they are in the psychological dependence in most cases generated by ethnoreligious culture »[94 [95]. Thereupon the alarm is caused by ease, from which woman dare at fulfilment of crimes of a terrorist orientation, including acts of terrorism. The interrogation spent to 2010-2017 Among the women to some extent concerning "wood" brothers, has shown, that they do not think that can become victims of the developed situation.

Research also has shown, that unlike men at women in a basis of extremist behaviour the motive justifying their actions is put in pawn. The critical estimation of behaviour at women-terrorists is expressed very poorly. It is necessary to notice, that such motive is characteristic also to some terrorists. During session of the court terrorists find many arguments for the justification of the behaviour during committing a crime of a terrorist orientation. Such behaviour of terrorists was promoted by the extremist ideology imposed to young men by separatists. Separatists act under a black banner of jihad, urge Moslems to make jihad all over the world and
Win round as much as possible supporters from among youth.

On extremist behaviour appreciable influence is rendered by character and temperament type. In our opinion, at youth age on criminal behaviour special influence renders temperament type. Features of young terrorists are «insufficiency of life experience and knowledge, their propensity to imitation, easy suggestibility, decision-making in a concrete situation under the influence of emotions or from reasons of prestige which complicate a choice of a correct line of conduct» 1.

At the same time, as correctly marked Z.A.Astemirov, «to predetermine kriminogennost only as temperament it is impossible. The criminal behaviour depends on influence of various social conditions, circumstances and factors, vital situations in which there is a person with that or other type of temperament.

However it is impossible to exclude and that the person depending on the temperament can perceive in own way influence of real conditions and develop in itself adequate qualities, bents and vital installations »[96 [97].

Among terrorists there are representatives of all types of temperament. The analysis and generalisation of materials of criminal cases have shown, that among criminals of the given category there are more than representatives with a combination of two types of temperament.

The carried out research, as well as conclusions of other scientists [98], has shown presence of aggression and uneasiness at criminals with radical,
Extremist behaviour. Comparative research among representatives of a radical current of Islam and students has revealed, that at the first respondents aggression and uneasiness (the test «uneasiness Definition») is more expressed. It is possible to explain such behaviour and that «in the conditions of system crisis of the Russian society absence of effective legal ways of overcoming of" social hopelessness ”leads to aggression accumulation, a condition frustratsii which find the expression in forms of regeneration of ethnoreligious forms of violence as compensating factor» 1. As correctly marks J.M.Antonjan, «in many cases“ heavy ”character leads to conflicts to the associates, sometimes developing into crimes» [99 [100] [101]. High level of aggression at criminals-terrorists was confirmed also with results of questioning (whether the questionnaire «Not too you are aggressive?» ). Data of this questioning confirm, that at criminals-terrorists tool aggression prevails. For them the violence acts as means of achievement of any significant purpose, it «even more often use as a way of the permission both vital, and other problems» [102].

Aktsentuatsija, that is extreme variants of a norm of behaviour, time changes of character in youth age are shown at many criminals-terrorists. It does not concern the pathological phenomena. Many researchers aktsentuatsii character among young people

Consider as the pathological phenomenon. When we pay attention on terrorialnoe behaviour of condemned men, the persons committing bloody crimes of a terrorist orientation (for example, androlepcy at school of of Beslan), often arises a question: whether «Are they mentally normal and adequate people?». As scientists-psychologists correctly mark, the behaviour of such terrorists is abnormal and includes a pathological component. It is possible to tell, that terrorists of such category do not have mental derangements, and certain lines aktsentuirovany (are strongly expressed). At the same time certain lines aktsentuatsii have a shade heavy psihopatii.

Some researchers notice, that the immediate cause of formation of the person of the criminal-terrorist consists in shifts and defects of the social and psychological characteristic. Researchers say about the expressed deformation of interpersonal relations at criminals-terrorists that leads subsequently to an extremist orientation of the person.

We cannot agree with opinion of the scientists considering intellectual backwardness of one of the reasons, forming criminal-terrorist. The carried out analysis of materials of criminal cases has shown, that among criminals-terrorists the share mentally retarded constitutes only 6 %. Though last years among theorists and experts discussions concerning the one who prevails among terrorists - normal people or people with deviations in mentality are led. As scientists correctly mark, roots of terrorist behaviour lay not so much in psychology, how many political, economic and other social relations. And crimes of a terrorist orientation are made by people not owing to mental anomalies. Still in the nineties L.Modzhorjan's XX-th centuries noticed, that «destroying and killing, terrorists pursue the remote aims, and
Murders are considered by them as means of achievement of objects in view »1.

It is possible to tell, that among criminals-terrorists many socially started persons. They are characterised by alienation from a family, mastering of extremist norms, values and installations. As correctly marks J.M.Antonjan, «in the environment of this semicriminal youth the future terrorists can grow up. Formation of the person of the terrorist passes in two age stages. On the first, youth, the person is involved in any, sometimes even quite lawful, protest behaviour, in overwhelming majority of cases connected with possibility (or a reality) violence applications at upholding of certain sights. At the second stage already more or less mature citizens are involved in terrorist activity, first of all on the basis of formation of that personal installation, that at them are not present and cannot be in a life of other way» [103 [104]. As to suicide bombers, especially women - of "shahids" very few people from them osoznanno goes on suicide for the sake of belief. Them specially choose from a category of women of certain type.

In M.A.Adamova's research allocates «the typical scheme of preparation of the woman-smertnitsy: 1) search of potential candidates; 2) methods of involving of women in the terrorist organisation. The chosen victim postpone from a family which to it replaces dzhamaat (vahhabitskaja a community) where all each other« brothers "and" sisters ». In a community to women allow to read the special literature of the religious-extremist direction, which purpose - propagation of jihad and shahidstva; 3) psychological processing. It is one of the major stages of preparation smertnits. A desirable element thus is isolation of women in the closed environment, for example, in one of preparation camps. At their initial stage
"Process" also women, but, as a rule, an average or advanced age. With the future shahid almost round the clock communicate, recollecting killed, winding a victim emotionally, speak about paradise, rest, a debt, struggle; 4) special preparation. Is the closing stage of "training" future smertnits, proceeds, as a rule, some months and include studying of elements of explosive business, rules of conspiracy, receptions and ways usual and a safety communication etc. »[105].

The carried out research has allowed to allocate following stages of formation of extremist behaviour at criminals-terrorists (as an example we will illustrate stages of formation of the suicide bomber who have blown up in Republic Dagestan of sheikh Saida Afandi Chirkejsky).

The first stage. The extremist orientation only starts to be formed. (A.Saprykina before formation on an extremist way led a secular way of life, acted in known dancing collective, has ended high school with distinction. Teachers considered as its very talented and diligent student. It became the Moslem under the influence of the first husband who studied together with it in actor's skill, danced a break-dans in group "Снэтч".) the person for the present does not have accurate extremist position. At this stage the great value has counteraction to process of transformation of the person in the terrorist. The aversion of preventive measures leads to the second stage.

The second stage is logic continuation of the first. The person of youth age is in the extremist environment where its extremist sights are formed, values and ideals. (After marriage Anja Saprykina took a surname of the husband, became Aminat Kurbanovoj, has accepted Islam,
Has given up work at Russian theatre of Republic Dagestan as it mismatched its new religious sights.)

At the third stage the extremist behaviour of the potential criminal-terrorist accepts the realised and purposeful character. (After death of the first husband (has been killed during special action in 2012) Kurbanov A four times was married, each time connecting the life with the next member of a gangster underground after  destruction of the previous spouse.)

The fourth stage. At this stage the young man finds the place in a microhabitat with an extremist spirit, finds the status and a recognition. (Kurbanov A was verbovshchitsej a gangster underground and it was searched for partnership in the double act of terrorism made in to Makhachkala in May, 2012. Recruitment of women for insurgents was its "specialisation". Within several years was engaged also in recruitment of potential terrorists. In the neighbourhood with its house in Makhachkala the brother and sister Rizvan and Muslimat Alievy lived. In the end of April, 2012 they have disappeared from the house, and on May, 3rd, 2012 on a post of traffic police of of Makhachkala there was a double act of terrorism at which 14 persons were lost, more than hundred have been wounded. Alievy have been enlisted Kurbanovoj A)

At the fifth stage the person of youth age becomes the active conspirator of extremist sense. There is a sharp crisis in its development, it is very difficult to it to live in a secular society and a family (after death of next husband Kurbanov A began to be going to become «a live bomb». Within a year it was registered in lists potential smertnits, the photo of the terrorist was in all departments of the Ministry of Internal Affairs).

The sixth stage. At this stage the terrorist himself makes decomposing impact on other persons, commits crimes of a terrorist orientation. (According to operatively-search service, law enforcement bodies had been prevented act of terrorism on
Preparation stages. One year prior to Kurbanov's A committing a crime Makhachkala - Moscow went by the trip bus. Having suspected, that behind it supervision is carried out, it in Saratov has got rid of "shahid's belt", has returned back to Republic Dagestan.)

The seventh stage. At last stage the criminal-terrorist makes act of terrorism (to make the act of terrorism which has carried away a life of sheikh Saida Afandi Chirkejsky, of his wife and five pilgrims, including 11-year-old boys, 30-year-old Kurbanov A has told, that is pregnant and badly itself feels, and it have dropped to the spiritual instructor without turn. Daily in the house of the spiritual instructor located in settlement Chirkej, people came to listen to its sermons. Of this pretext the terrorist also has taken advantage, having come in the house under the pretext of palomnitsy. Kurbanov A has told to the sheikh that would like to accept Islam, and, having approached to the sheikh, has given effect to "a belt of the condemned man», fixed on its body).

It is necessary to agree with opinion of researchers, «preparation of the condemned man is the process changing consciousness, the lasting 3-4 months, not demanding the big material inputs» [106] which end result is fulfilment of act of terrorism. At the same time timely acceptance of measures under the prevention of extremist installations at early stages can suspend process of transformation of the person in the criminal-terrorist.

In summary we will notice, that the analysis of materials of the investigatory, judicial and criminally-executive practice, the given sociological interrogations among various categories of the population has allowed to allocate following is social-psychological qualities of the criminal-terrorist of the first category (leaders, heads of terrorist communities, the organisations;
Recruiters, vovlekateli in terrorist activity): on features of character - ability to convince, mislead other people, lobbying the mercantile interests, avidity, aggression, ruthlessness, desire to show the power over people, intolerance to opinion of others, deep deformations of moral and legal values; on moral-psychological qualities - the generated radical sights, ideas, installations, valuable orientations, ignoring legal and moral standards, indifference to the problems which are in the centre of attention of a secular society, hatred to public agents, disrespect for religious feelings of representatives of other religions.

Is social-psychological qualities of the criminal-terrorist of the second category (executors, helpers, participants of terrorist communities, the terrorist organisations) also differ from terrorists of the first category on many parametres: on features of character - isolation, reserve, uncertainty, a dissatisfaction with the private life, ability to self-sacrifice for the sake of imaginary ideas; on nravstvennoyopsihologicheskim to qualities - inability to dream, plan the future; absence of the perspective positive purposes, a low self-estimation, the uneasiness, the limited thinking; on obrazovatelno-cultural and it is functional-otnoshencheskim to qualities - loss of interest to study in secular educational institutions, aversion of requirements of a society; estrangement from a family; limitation of use of channels of the cultural information, preference to means of reception of the extremist information, interest communities of extremist character; Absence of plans for the future; the indifferent relation to the future work, a trade.


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A source: Buchaev Said Maratovich. Criminological problems of countering the process of formation of the identity of a criminal-terrorist. Thesis for the degree of candidate of legal sciences. Grozny - 2019. 2019

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