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the Basic kriminologicheskie the determinants promoting increase of efficiency of execution of punishment under criminal law in the form of restriction of freedom

For the decision of the problems considered in the previous paragraph, and also for the purpose of working out of algorithm of appointment and execution of punishment in the form of freedom restriction, it is recommended to be based on results of the analysis of following factors during forecasting:

- detailed kriminologicheskaja the region characteristic;

- personal characteristics and psychological features condemned to punishment in the form of freedom restriction;

- the factors promoting occurrence of aspiration to pravoposlushnomu to behaviour at such persons;

- an estimation of efficiency of use of electronic means of tracking the persons condemned to restriction of freedom;

-productivity of work of criminally-executive inspections at execution of punishment in the form of freedom restriction.

Detailed kriminologicheskaja the characteristic of territory represents itself as the main condition successful kriminologicheskogo forecasting, and also criminality counteraction. Apellirovanie to these data will promote the decision of the problem connected with insufficiency and unauthenticity of data on a condition of criminality (which we considered in the first paragraph of the present chapter). However, as it was marked earlier, accuracy of such forecasting is interfered partly by absence of due quantity of attention from researchers to studying of regional features of criminality. So, for example, in the Chechen Republic level kriminologicheskoj workings out of the given problem at regional level far mismatches its actual importance, that, in turn, is negatively reflected in practical activities under the prevention of fulfilment of socially dangerous acts in regions and on results of crime control in republic as a whole. As a result workers of law enforcement bodies of considered region, in view of absence of the necessary information, cannot carry out with peak efficiency work on preventive maintenance and criminality counteraction.

Punishment under criminal law in the form of freedom restriction assumes an establishment to the condemned person of certain interdictions and the legal duties connected with movement. For reception of the necessary information at modelling detailed kriminologicheskoj territory characteristics it is obviously important to change essentially gathering system, and also fixings of data about the occurred event of crime. The existing system of the account often leads utere to some information on groups of criminal acts. Such situation
is caused by algorithm of fixing of data about the perfect or preparing crimes at which persons responsible for it have a possibility of concealment of data. As the purpose of such infringements artificial increase of indicators of work of organs of inquiry acts.

we Will consider a kriminologo-psychological portrait condemned to punishment in the form of freedom restriction. Revealing of personal features allows to define presence (or absence) a steady criminal orientation to plan preventive actions for the organisation of correction of behaviour [146] .

Analyzing age condemned to which freedom restriction has been applied, the following law has been revealed. According to Judicial department at the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation in the first half of the year 2018 from the general number of persons by which the given punishment has been appointed, 85 % constituted men. Bolshee the number of the condemned got to an age category of 30-49 years (53 %).

17 % - persons at the age of 18-24 years and only 3 % minors [147] . In 2017 the share of men has constituted 84, 5 %, minors - about 3 %. It is possible to make the conclusion, that in bolshej degrees to freedom restriction are condemned mainly persons of average age group, that is the period of the greatest social and intellectual activity of the person.

As is known, educational level and level of mental abilities is one of the main characteristics of the person of the person as a whole and condemned in particular. Being based on statistical data of Judicial department at the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation in the first half of the year 2018, it is possible to notice, that at 36 % condemned average vocational training, at 10 % - the core the general, or
an elementary education, or it is absent. Only at 8 % of the condemned there is a higher education.

the Majority condemned to a considered measure are able-bodied (95 %). Among the employed persons workers (21 %) prevail. But at the same time 63 % of the specified persons at the moment of their condemnation by labour activity have not been occupied [148] . It, in our opinion, it is possible to prove social and economic problems existing in the country, but, on the other hand, absence of desire at the given persons to provide itself, and also the family.

the Statistics of the persons consisting on account UII during the period since 2011 for 1 th quarter 2014, has shown, that 73 % from them were sudimy for the first time, 27 % - already had a previous conviction the early. In 2017 among condemned to restriction of freedom a share of persons with not removed or not extinguished previous conviction - 16, 7 % [149] . Also special attention it is necessary to find for unlawful conduct condemned during enduring the punishment. For March, 1st, 2018 the share condemned, consisting on account UII of the Chechen Republic which were earlier sudimy, has constituted 26 %. 38 % have not been employed or did not study. Concerning 2, 9 % initial search actions were carried out, and 1,7 % were wanted.

For the purpose of studying of level of criminal motivation of the persons condemned to restriction of freedom, the test questionnaire "SOP" by A.N.Orla («Propensity to deviating behaviour») (the Appendix 2 see) [150] was used. As a result of spent diagnostics it has been established, that high level of propensity to overcoming of norms and behaviour rules is observed ó12 % condemned to freedom restriction, the average level of studied propensity is shown by 48 % condemned, low level of studied propensity has been revealed at 40 % condemned to freedom restriction.

On an indicator «propensity to aggression and violence» was found out the following differentiation. High value is observed at 12 % condemned, an average level - at 50 % and low level - at 38 %.

Hence, freedom condemned to restriction in the Chechen republic show low level of legal nihilism. Only at small percent steady propensity to unlawful conduct is observed.

As a whole it is necessary to notice, that the given kind of punishment will allow to lower in the near future quantity of the condemned persons in the places of confinement, and also will promote the successful decision of questions resotsializatsii offenders.

it is necessary to pay special attention on an indicator of number of persons, before committing crimes (46, 6 %), including the persons having a previous conviction earlier (34, 6 %) [151] . The cited official statistical data testify that relative density of persons which committed earlier crimes has increased. Number growth sudimyh before persons can say that in each third of cases functions of punishment have not been realised and the purposes provided by the legislation are not reached. By results of the questioning spent by us it has been revealed, that for 35 % of the interrogated citizens was available two or more previous convictions (the Appendix 5 see).

the Psihologo-educational actions spent by employees of criminally-executive inspections, have an ultimate goal: aspiration formation to pravoposlushnomu to behaviour. The reference to data on the country about relapse among condemned to freedom restriction allows to define characteristics of persons from a risk zone that will raise a forecasting effectiveness.

the Prevention of crimes and offences the persons consisting on the account in inspections, is one of three cores

indicators of efficiency of application of restriction of freedom. According to O.L.Degtjarevoj, for condemned to restriction of freedom level of repeated criminality has constituted 2,9 (3479 persons in which relation criminal cases for the crimes made after statement on the account in UII are initiated, of 120897 persons consisting on the account in UII with 2013 for 2017). The increase in level of repeated criminality in 2014 was observed at condemned to restriction of freedom as a principal view of punishment to 2, 64, that is on 0,82 % in comparison with 2013 (by 2015 the given indicator was stabilised and has constituted 1, 85). In 2016 UPP has decreased on 0,09 %, that is it became equal 1,76. In 2017 the positive tendency of decrease in the given indicator of criminal activity condemned to freedom restriction has proceeded, having reached value in 1,56 [152] .

the data obtained by us do not contradict results of other researches. According to researches N. V.Olhovik, among the persons who have committed crimes in execution of this punishment, men (82 %) prevail, relative density of women constitutes 18 %. Thus the number of women among condemned to freedom restriction reaches 12, 7 %. Half of recidivists are persons at the age from 18 till 30 years (50 %). In group of recidivists, in comparison with a lump, there were no persons is more senior 60 years. Among condemned, committed a new crime, 12, 5 % had children in comparison with 56 % of such persons in a lump condemned to freedom restriction. This indicator N. V.Olhovik fairly defines as significant. The number sudimyh in group of recidivists more than twice exceeds earlier a similar indicator in a lump condemned to freedom restriction (54 against 26 %). Besides it, other important criteria have been allocated also. 89 % of the persons who have committed a crime during the period of enduring the punishment, anywhere did not work and did not study [153] .

Educational level of recidivists, according to researches, a little bit more low, than among a lump condemned to freedom restriction [154] . In this criterion also specifies And. V.Kolbasova in the dissertational research. She fairly notices, that for the decision of the problems assigned to educational actions, employees of inspections should use the lexicon accessible to understanding condemned, being guided by their educational and cultural level [155] . Researchers carry To the most effective educational methods: belief, trust, a personal example, criticism, encouragement and punishment [156] , compulsion, suggestion, stimulation, psychotraining [157] , and also conversation [158] . The third chapter of the present research is devoted use of a method of stimulation.

Features of formation pravoposlushnogo behaviour. On the one hand, freedom condemned to restriction are deprived the negative influence tested condemned to imprisonment within the limits of the closed world correctional facilities, having got in which they can get considerable criminal experience. However, on the other hand, at enduring the punishment in a place of the residence the condemned is in the same conditions of the microsocial environment which promoted fulfilment of criminal actions by it.

Considering a question of efficiency of application of punishment in the form of freedom restriction, it is important to underline, that it is inexpedient to appoint in case of committing a crime on household soil. For example, if relations between the criminal and the victim carry ­ semejnobytovoj, or household, dosugovo-household, or
industrial-household character [159] . In this case it will be practically impossible to achieve the object corrections condemned to freedom restriction as invariable there will be conditions of its stay though and with certain restrictions. More likely on the contrary, the similar situation will promote fulfilment of new crimes. Stay of a victim and the criminal in same social conditions can lead subsequently to escalation of violent actions. Freedom restriction as punishment for violent crimes on household soil cannot warn occurrence of new similar criminal actions as more often they are made the at home, concerning close relatives and neighbours, and also friends living nearby and acquaintances [160] . Thus, at awarding punishment the court should consider all factors accompanying committing a crime, to analyse consequences of application of concrete punishment for condemned and its relatives.

So, the sentence by Factory regional court of of the Eagle concerning V.V. on November, 1st, 2017 has been pronounced. Mikheyev. It has made socially dangerous act, already being condemned to 1 year of restriction of freedom (under the item "and" ch. 2 items 116 UK the Russian Federation). Mikheyev, being in a condition of alcoholic intoxication, at an entrance of the house on a ladder has met one of neighbours (FIO). Between them there was a quarrel. In its course Mikheyev has pushed the neighbour that has led to its falling from a ladder. As a result of falling FIO has received a craniocereberal trauma, in four months after that incident has deceased from its consequences. V.V. Mikheyev has been recognised by guilty of the committing a crime, provided by item 116 UK the Russian Federation. To it punishment in the form of imprisonment for the term of 1 year [161] has been appointed.

the Court at appointment of the first punishment (in the form of freedom restriction) has not been consider that fact, that by V.V. Mikheyev has committed a crime on
to household soil. We believe, that application in this case freedom restrictions is inexpedient. This measure in the considered situation not only does not promote achievement of the preventive purposes, but also, on the contrary, will promote fulfilment of returns to crime. Besides, socially dangerous acts were made under the influence of alcohol. However to the condemned passage without fail course of treatment from alcoholic dependence which the condemned, for certain, suffers has not been appointed.

Being based on the analysis of judgements, we suggest to bring in the text of the Decision of Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation from 22. 12. 2015 ¹ 58 (red. From 29. 11. 2016) «About practice of appointment by vessels of the Russian Federation of punishment under criminal law» point 22. 1 following maintenance: «At the decision of a question on expediency of awarding punishment in the form of restriction of freedom the court should consider presence or absence of such factor, as fulfilment guilty crimes on household soil. In each concrete case it is necessary to take into consideration all circumstances has put for an establishment of possibility of correction of the person at application of this kind of punishment».

Condemned should understand, that at enduring the punishment on freedom its way of life and behaviour should correspond legal both to moral standards and principles, differently freedom restriction can be replaced with imprisonment. Comprehension of the given circumstance should stimulate at condemned pravoposlushnoe behaviour.

By results of the questioning of the persons who are serving time in the form of restriction of freedom spent by us, obligatory and correctional labour, it has been revealed, that 38 % from them supposed evasion from serving of the appointed punishment. To 73 % of infringers disciplinary measures for evasion from enduring the punishment (as a rule, the prevention in writing about commutation by other kind - 91 %) were applied. Thus
only 58 % interrogated believe, that applied disciplinary measures were fair (the Appendix 5 see).

It is thought, that as stimulus for formation of appropriate behaviour of the condemned the system of disciplinary measures and encouragement is used. The special system of similar measures exists at application of restriction of freedom. However it is necessary to mean, that in comparison with probation, and also with imprisonment punishment in the form of restriction of freedom does not assume parole condemned from punishment owing to its appropriate behaviour. Meanwhile on representation UII the court can partially cancel only interdictions and restrictions [162] .

Until the corresponding standard legal act is approved, it is rather inconvenient to understand and define object, methods, ways and means of appropriate supervision and the control. However it is probable, that application of means substantially will raise efficiency of execution of corresponding punishment and efficiency of application of measures of exacting character, and also will essentially simplify work of criminally-executive inspection. Certainly, use of similar means promotes correction condemned and to their stimulation pravoposlushnogo behaviour, that, in turn, is one of crime prevention components.

Efficiency of use of electronic means of tracking the persons condemned to restriction of freedom. Kontrolno-supervising actions are directed on supervision over behaviour condemned for detection of infringements of an order of enduring the punishment. These measures can be divided on local and the general. The first are carried out in that territory on which powers of inspection extend. Them concern visiting condemned corresponding inspection for registration or phone calls of the condemned. The general kontrolno ­
supervising actions are connected with application of electronic devices of tracking which give the information on a site of the under control person.

Local kontrolno-supervising actions have essential lacks. So, obligatory visiting of criminally-executive inspection though is a duty condemned, but is based on its desire and motivation. Activity of inspectors can be shown only at default of this duty. The actions connected with the control by means of phone calls, can be impracticable in view of absence in houses or apartments of stationary phones. Therefore it is necessary to address also to the general kontrolno-supervising measures.

According to positions of the Governmental order of the Russian Federation from 31. 03. 2010 ¹ 198 «About the statement of the list of audiovisual, electronic and other means of supervision and the control used ­ ugolovnoispolnitelnymi by inspections for maintenance of supervision for condemned to punishment in the form of restriction of freedom», to one of means of personal supervision and the control is the electronic bracelet. This means is applied to the persons condemned to restriction of freedom [163] .

the Electronic bracelet - the electronic device which is put on on condemned to punishment in the form of restriction of freedom for the purpose of its remote identification and tracing of its site, intended for long carrying on a body (more than 3 months) and having the built in monitoring system of not authorised removal and case opening. On appearance the given control device reminds electronic clock.

the Electronic bracelet has three variations. The first kind includes a set from a bracelet and the base station located on a residence
of the condemned. If he leaves the house during unstated time, in UII the signal about it will be transferred. It will entail visit of the inspector to the house condemned for finding-out of the reasons of a stopping delivery of a signal. The second kind of the device of tracking is presented by the complete set consisting of a bracelet and mobile station which through system of satellite navigation traces moving of the condemned. If the condemned departs from the device on distance bolshee, than is established (100-150 metres), in criminally-executive inspection are transferred a signal. The third variant of an electronic bracelet is called "trekker".

Tracing of a site condemned is carried out on signals of the global navigating satellite system GLONASS/GPS having the built in monitoring system of not authorised removal and opening of the case. This kind of the device has the limited term of operation (about 3 months) [164] .

SAMPLE FSIN of Russia (system of electronic monitoring of under control persons) serves following purposes:

- maintenance in the country of execution of punishments and corresponding measures of criminally-legal influence with freedom restriction, and also a preventive punishment which is not assuming imprisonment;

- the fulfilment prevention condemned criminal acts;

- the prevention of infringements of an order and enduring the punishment conditions;

- data gathering about perfect crimes.

It is obviously important to notice, that since January, 1st, 2010 on account UII freedom restriction consisted about 60 thousand condemned, leaving, including in relation to 20 thousand from them was applied electronic the SAMPLE.

By data for November, 2012, by means of the specified control devices 6 459 infringements of a mode of enduring the punishment have been revealed,
which subsequently have been confirmed [165] . As of January, 1st, 2015 under the electronic control was 11, 5 thousand condemned to restriction of freedom, consisting on the account in UII. During the first half of the year 2017 by means of system of electronic monitoring the control concerning 5 833 (11, 7 %) condemned to freedom restriction is provided. So, by means of control means 1 314 infringements of a mode of enduring the punishment in the form of freedom restriction (in the first ïîëóãîäèè2016 - 3 506) [166] have been revealed. By means of electronic monitoring for all time of functioning of this system it is revealed more than 30 thousand infringements of a mode of enduring the punishment. As a result more than to four thousand persons recognised as malicious infringers, punishment in the form of freedom restriction has been replaced with imprisonment. On 9 959 from them additional restrictions [167] have been assigned. As of January, 1st, 2014 these figures were much more low. Commutation has been made more than 2, to 5 thousand persons. On 6 thousand persons the court on representations UII assigns additional restrictions. In total with 2011 to 2014 only 87 % condemned to this punishment are struck off the register on

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to the positive reasons [168] .

In relation to condemned to freedom restriction the low interest of satisfaction of petitions for replacement of restriction of freedom with imprisonment is observed. Average value for the Russian Federation - 55, 6 %, for the Chechen Republic-40 % of cases. We believe, it is caused by the difficulties interfaced to proving of infringements from persons, serving time.

in the form of freedom restriction in the Chechen Republic the features are inherent in Execution of punishment. Since 2013 the small increase in number of persons which the given measure as the basic punishment was appointed is observed. Growth of number condemned, sentenced to serving of restriction of freedom as additional punishment thus was outlined. Application the SAMPLE originates since 2012 the Chechen Republic is among regions where tracking means were applied with peak efficiency. Chief FKU UII UFSIN the lieutenant colonel of internal service Umarpasha Ahmathanov has told: « Thanks to spent actions in comparison with last year in the Chechen Republic among our condemned returns to crime have decreased on 38 % and constitute 0,3 %. Thus, the republic takes an in the lead place in subjects of Russia in this direction » [169] . Thus in the country as a whole the persons who are serving time in the form of restriction of freedom, in 2013 make 1 123 crimes, in 2014 - 1 044 (that constitutes 1, 6 % from the general number condemned to the given measure) [170] .

the Share condemned, made return to crime, on ­ North Caucasian federal district for 2012-2014 gradually decreased from 4 to 0,2 % that shows the return tendency in relation to all-Russian as during 2010-2014 level 3 criminalities of considered persons systematically increased in our country [171] .

we Believe, that increase in number of the persons who have made return to crime, can be caused a number of the reasons:
-has increased;

- means of electronic tracking for condemned began to be applied is more often, hence, evasion began to come to light more often;

- use of electronic bracelets facilitates process of proving of perfect infringements and promotes disclosing of latent crimes.

Among the persons, leaving restriction of freedom and made offences, there were only for whom this measure has been appointed as the basic. We will notice, that more often data condemned made those or other kinds of plunders.

However the persons who are serving time in the form of restriction of freedom, without the electronic control the SAMPLE committed crimes in economy sphere (approximately in one and a half time) is much more often. Along with it they twice made the acts connected with illegal circulation of narcotic and psychoactive means less often. It is not observed an essential difference in number of perfect crimes against a life and health (the Appendix 1 see).

Results of interrogation of chiefs FKU UII UFSIN of Russia on the Chechen Republic reflect following features (the Appendix 4 see):

1. Activity of the criminally-executive inspections considered by us has the similar lines connected with control for condemned to restriction of freedom in which relation electronic bracelets as control devices are applied. Such persons under surveillance of the person are checked by inspectors daily. And in three inspections the condemned are checked not less, than three times a day.

2. In those inspections where the electronic means of tracking condemned to restriction of freedom are not applied are checked daily (71 %). In other establishments (29 %) - monthly.

3. Heads of inspections have spent an estimation of satisfaction condemned to restriction of freedom, carrying electronic bracelets, enduring the punishment conditions. In seven establishments persons under surveillance of the person have shown partial satisfaction, in two -
have been completely satisfied, in two - are not satisfied (Branch UII on October area, Branch UII on Factory area).

4. The opinion of heads of criminally-executive inspections on the Chechen Republic concerning efficiency of application of electronic means of tracking for realisation of preventive problems is ambiguous. Half of interrogated consider, that their application does not correlate with increase or reduction of number of returns to crime. Two heads of inspections believe, that freedom condemned to restriction in which relation electronic control devices have been applied, with smaller probability will make new offences.

5. Interrogation of chiefs of criminally-executive inspections has allowed to reveal, the SAMPLE they estimate what aspects of application as significant for increase of efficiency of execution of restriction of freedom:

- seven heads have noticed, that bracelets facilitate control of the condemned;

- six of them have underlined, that the given devices of tracking are auxiliary means for revealing and fixing of the infringements admitted by persons, leaving freedom restriction;

- five chiefs have noted increase of a level of responsibility of the condemned;

- three have underlined the important role which can play the SAMPLE in activity on preventive maintenance of fulfilment of new crimes.

6. Heads express different opinion concerning what quantity of visitings of inspection for registration condemned, carrying a bracelet, is expedient. According to 11 chiefs, the double quantity of visitings in a month is optimum. One of them believes, that the unitary suffices. Other head considers, that there is a necessity of visiting of inspection four times a month. Also one chief approves, that registration of such condemned is absolutely not necessary.

7. Heads of inspections have expressed the opinion concerning categories condemned to freedom restriction in which relation it is necessary to apply electronic means of tracking necessarily:

- five heads have noticed, that bracelets should be applied to persons who are inclined to offences;

- four believe, that tracking means should be applied to condemned, living in cities;

- four heads consider, that definition of such persons should be based on character and severity level of the crimes made by them;

- one chief expresses opinion, that tracking means should be applied to all condemned if it does not appoint punishment in the form of imprisonment.

Workers of criminally-executive inspections on the Chechen Republic have noted reduction of quantity of the illegal acts made condemned to restriction of freedom if to them electronic means of tracking were applied. Such situation can be caused that the persons supervised by means of special devices, showed the big consciousness and discipline. They understood, that all infringements admitted by them will be revealed and fixed with bolshej probability, than without application the SAMPLE. It keeps such persons from non-observance of the interdictions established by court and performance of duties.

In spite of the fact that many employees of criminally-executive inspections mark numerous positive aspects of application of electronic devices of tracking, their operation is not deprived complexities. The SAMPLE is connected with work a number of technical problems:

- false operation of a signal;

- probability of that the accumulator of the mobile control device can be discharged;

- small radius of action of the control device established permanently that causes complexities if the condemned moves on pridomovoj territories;

- unstable reception of a signal of cellular communication in some areas of the Chechen Republic;

- district maps are insufficiently detailed.

the Basis for sentence execution is the sentence which has entered validity with the order about its execution, hence, from the moment of declaration of a sentence till the moment of its introduction into validity the control over the person, the probationeer is not carried out. The given period can be as insignificant, so idostatochno long (some months) in the event that appeal from judgement occurs in an appeal or cassation order. During this time the condemned can commit a crime, however responsibility for its fulfilment lays down on criminally-executive inspection as it has not taken appropriate measures of preventive maintenance. Objectively speaking, employees of inspection should could take preventive measures, they, in effect, even could not put on the account condemned as about a sentence with the inspection bench warrant it would be known after fulfilment of a similar crime.

we Believe, that increase of efficiency of execution of restriction of freedom will be promoted by a correct choice ­ vospitatelnoprofilakticheskih actions. Their choice should be based on data about personal characteristics condemned, including about labour employment, and also about quantity of previous convictions. Nevertheless from an aggregate number condemned to restriction of freedom which consist on the account in UII, on the beginning of 2014 - 24 285 (À1Ï1Ã [172] - 11 539), are not occupied by work or study - 8623 (À1Ï1Ã - 4129). By results of spent by us
questioning of the persons condemned to restriction of freedom, obligatory and to correctional labour, 65 % from them were the unemployed, 31 % were constituted by workers (the Appendix 5 see).

Substantial increase of efficiency of execution of restriction of freedom will be promoted by introduction of completely automated program on system of registration and the crime reporting, fixation local/regional kriminologicheskih problems, unsuccessful areas in a city/region and their characteristics, and also for definition of efficiency of activity of law enforcement bodies that would include the declared components of algorithm kriminologicheskogo forecasting.

the control over activity of the law enforcement bodies, giving data, significant for the exact forecast of criminal activity Is thought, that, it is necessary to redirect on a vertical line upward. For example, in hierarchical system of supervising bodies at level of regions or in similar body of the similar competence which can be interested in effective investigation and the crime reporting. It will allow to exclude cases of rendering of pressure in the form of payoff, threats, manipulations, the relationship relation, and also mutual responsibility and other from workers of law-enforcement structures. It is represented, that a site of supervising body - Moscow or other region. Thus it is necessary to keep confidentiality of the information on employees of the given body, and also the information which of divisions of police and the body registering crimes, are under supervision.

For improvement of statistics raskryvaemosti crimes policemen resort to concealment of the data which have arrived about them. In this connection some statements and messages do not come under to registration. One of ways of the decision of this problem is absence of personal interaction between the employees, making the decision about
criminal case excitation, and those who will investigate it subsequently. If the information is transferred by means of the automated program without instructions of names of the persons responsible for a certain stage, the infringements connected with concealment of data, becomes much less [173] . Use of such method will allow to lower artificial latentnost crimes. Data about perfect illegal acts become more objective and authentic.

the Body which is carrying out the control over various stages of investigation of a crime, should be authorised to carry out the control at all stages and to influence process in case of revealing of infringements of positions of the legislation or duty regulations.

Taking into account automation of some processes, and also great volume of data about features of a crime, kriminologicheskoj district characteristics on which the crime has been committed, psychological features of the person of a victim and the criminal, and also other data concerning a crime, it is obviously possible to create interactive «a card of crimes» the city area, as a whole the city, and also certain region. System «cards of crimes» can be under construction on the basis of geoinformation systems (GIS), for a long time used in Internet space for the characteristic of this or that district on climatic, geographical and ­ sotsialnoekonomicheskim to signs. For the purpose of the evident image of rise in crime, and also problems of criminology GIS were already used in program CompStat in the USA, New York.

the Given cards of crimes will allow to trace in real time street criminal activity in various points of a city, region, any territorial units of the Russian Federation. Proceeding from it,
it becomes clear, what kinds of crimes are peculiar to this or that territory, and also what their specificity and dynamics, relation of number of crimes to a population of territorial unit and other kriminologicheskie to a detail. Certainly, it is impossible to overestimate similar system for creation detailed kriminologicheskoj territory characteristics. In effect, the interactive card of crimes containing the comments of the expert-criminologist, is detailed kriminologicheskoj the characteristic of territory which will allow to define a criminality condition, its kinds and structure, and also degree of criminalisation of territory. There is a probability of use kriminologicheskih territory characteristics (interactive cards of crimes) departmental services and citizens. The analogue the given programs does not exist now.

the Prospective model of work will promote creation of the real mechanism on gathering exact, a trustworthy information about level and a criminality condition in this or that territorial unit of Russia, including its estimations with the least influence latentnosti statisticans. At the same time the given approach will promote bolshej to efficiency of activity of law enforcement bodies, and also will allow supervising bodies to analyse and correct efforts of employees of law enforcement bodies in those or other cities and regions.

It is represented, that in view of an urgency and the importance kriminologicheskogo forecasting in each department of law enforcement bodies presence of cards-forecasts which would contain the information on certain sites of the raised danger in the form of assumed kriminogennyh situations, potential crimes and ways of a withdrawal of suspects from places of the crimes made by them would be expedient.

Conclusions under the paragraph:

For an estimation of efficiency of execution of punishment in the form of freedom restriction it is recommended to be based on results of studying of following components:

- detailed kriminologicheskaja the region characteristic;

- a kriminologo-psychological portrait condemned to punishment in the form of freedom restriction;

- the psihologo-educational actions spent by employees of criminally-executive inspections;

- the conditions necessary for maintenance pravoposlushnogo of behaviour of persons, condemned to punishment in the form of freedom restriction;

- an estimation of efficiency of use of electronic means of tracking the persons condemned to restriction of freedom;

-productivity of work of criminally-executive inspections is connected with execution of a considered criminally-legal measure.

the Steadfast attention to these aspects of application of restriction of freedom will allow to solve a number of the problems named in the previous paragraph. For example, the number of the latent crimes connected both with underestimation of regional features of criminality, and with sense of justice of employees of law enforcement bodies will decrease. Also, we assume, that there will be an increase of efficiency of use of electronic means of the tracking, caused by improvement of their design, cost reduction, service life increase. As a result the control over the persons condemned to restriction of freedom, will be carried out at higher level as it becomes much easier to reveal the infringements admitted by them during enduring the punishment.

efficiency Increase kriminologicheskogo forecasting will be promoted by introduction of completely automated program on system of registration and the crime reporting, fixation local/regional kriminologicheskih problems, unsuccessful areas in a city/region and their characteristics, and also for definition

efficiency of activity of law enforcement bodies. We believe, that these purposes will be served by introduction of "cards of crimes» which are created for the purpose of geoinformation systems (GIS), for the characteristic of this or that district to climatic, geographical and social and economic signs. The supervising body which is carrying out the control over activity, connected with granting of data, significant for the exact forecast of criminal activity, should settle down or in other region, or in Moscow. In our opinion, for increase of an overall performance of law enforcement bodies, establishments and bodies ­ ugolovnoispolnitelnoj systems followed regularly komissionno with the assistance of experts-criminologists, scientific, researchers,

pravoprimenitelej to spend kriminologicheskoe forecasting of a condition of criminality in territorial units of the country.

2.3.

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A source: Hodzhaliev Saleh Ajsaevich. the Theory and practice of restriction of freedom as punishment kind. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the master of laws. Grozny - 2019. 2019

More on topic the Basic kriminologicheskie the determinants promoting increase of efficiency of execution of punishment under criminal law in the form of restriction of freedom:

  1. the Factors influencing forecasting of efficiency of execution of punishment under criminal law in the form of restriction of freedom
  2. the Modern condition and problems of a legal regulation and practice of appointment and execution of punishment under criminal law in the form of freedom restriction
  3. CHAPTER 2. The KRIMINOLOGICHESKY COMPONENT of EFFICIENCY of EXECUTION of PUNISHMENT In the form of FREEDOM RESTRICTION
  4. the Technique of definition of efficiency of punishment under criminal law in the form of restriction of freedom taking into account the business factors accompanying application of electronic means of tracking for condemned
  5. CHAPTER 3. STIMULATION PRAVOPOSLUSHNOGO OF BEHAVIOUR CONDEMNED TO FREEDOM RESTRICTION AS THE DEFINING FACTOR OF EFFICIENCY OF EXECUTION OF PUNISHMENT
  6. the Retrospective show of evolution of punishment in the form of freedom restriction in Russia
  7. Chapter 2. Appointment and execution of punishment under criminal law in the form of arrest
  8. Chapter 2. Problems of increase of efficiency of precautionary influence of punishment under criminal law
  9. § 3. The account of a parity biological and social in criminal behaviour as one of directions of increase of efficiency of punishment under criminal law Discussion about biological and social in behaviour of the person and the precondition to its renewal.
  10. 1.1. Essence, the maintenance and the form of punishment under criminal law in the form of arrest
  11. § 1.3. Freedom of civil-law contractual regulation and the form of its restriction
  12. § 2. Concept «efficiency of punishment under criminal law» and model of its estimation
  13. § 3. Criteria of an estimation of efficiency of precautionary influence of punishment under criminal law
  14. § 3. The prevention of crimes as the punishment under criminal law purpose. The mechanism of precautionary influence of punishment under criminal law
  15. § 3. An estimation of efficiency of punishment under criminal law for bribe reception
  16. Chapter 3. Problems of efficiency of punishment under criminal law
  17. Criminally-executive disciplinary measures for condemned, serving time in the form of freedom restriction