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§1. Modern diplomatic contacts of Russia and Canada

In 2000 the centenary from the date of arrival to Montreal first Russian consul Nikolay Struve was executed. In spite of the fact that official diplomatic relations have been established by much later, interstate relations of the countries total century history.

In other words, studying of history of events of the Russian-Canadian relations top-level during enough long period allows to carry out the analysis of the reached results and to see possibilities which open now.

For the last century the Russian-Canadian diplomatic interaction was considerably enriched. By present time cooperation of the parties left on qualitatively new level. Such agreements, as the Contract on the consent and cooperation, the Russian-Canadian Plan of combined action on expansion of bilateral cooperation, the Joint Russian-Canadian statement for cooperation in struggle against terrorism, the Joint statement on the Russian-Canadian relations and on cooperation in Arctic regions and in the north became its basic elements. The parties supported stable political dialogue on all spectrum of the international problems within the limits of leading integration associations: «Groups of eight», the United Nations, OSCE, NATO and MAGATE. Interdepartmental communications of parliaments, the Supreme Courts, military structures and consultations on strategic stability were carried out.

Thus, in the XXI-st century beginning the Russian-Canadian relations have got lines of steady interaction. However in them still there is a set razdrazhitelej and unresolved questions, atmosphere of political trust till now is not created. Two largest northern powers, defending the national interests during negotiating process, maintain a distance, but tone thus observe the valid.

At the same time, competent diplomatic activity of special bodies of external relations of the states, including, in particular, preparation and the conclusion of international treaties, diplomatic correspondence, representation of interests akkreditujushchego the states in the receiving state, participation in work of the international conferences and the organisations, the official publication of the international certificates and documents is, etc. capable to provide effective functioning and cooperation between the states.

However diplomatic relations do not settle all variety of official relations and interactions between the states. The important place in this process is occupied also with the consular relations supported by special establishments, created abroad. Along with the questions, concerning state which have directly appointed them, on consular establishments the complex of functions on protection of the rights and interests and assistance rendering to citizens of this country being abroad and its legal bodies is assigned.

Diplomatic contacts between the states, including Russia and Canada, are carried out in frameworks and on the basis of the conventional principles (these are such principles as a sovereign equality of the states, a principle of non-use of force and threats by force, a principle of territorial integrity of the states, a principle of the peace permission of state differences, etc.) and the norms of international law regulating the relations between the states and other participants (subjects) of the international dialogue.

Thus main principles of modern international law in an international law science are understood as "the conventional norms having most great value for maintenance of normal functioning of interstate system and, hence, for the decision of the international problems».

[102]

Among the conventional principles and norms mandatory provisions (jus cogens), understood are allocated as norms of the general international law which are accepted and admit the international community of the states as a whole as norms, the deviation from which is inadmissible also which can be changed only the subsequent norm of the general international law having the same character (item 53 of the Viennese convention on the right of international treaties of 1969 [103]). The majority of norms of the general international law are optional, i.e. such from which the states can recede on mutual agreement. [104]

The basic source regulating bases of diplomatic relations between Russia and Canada, the international treaty acts.

Thus among international treaties a special place occupy the Viennese convention on the diplomatic intercourses 1961 [105] (become effective in 1964) and the Viennese convention on consular intercourses 1963 [106] (become effective in 1967); the Viennese convention on representation of the states in their relations with the international organisations of universal character 1975 [107] (our country ratified in 1978); the Convention on prevention and punishment of crimes against the persons using the international protection, including diplomatic agents of 1973, become effective in 1977; [108] Convention on privileges and immunities of the United Nations of 1946; [109] Convention on privileges and immunities of specialised agencies of the United Nations 1947 [110]

Besides, the norms concerning to diplomatic and consular intercourses, contain in bilateral agreements, for example in consular conventions in which, in particular, it is provided bolshy volume of immunities and privileges for consular establishments and their employees, than what is certain by the Viennese convention on consular intercourses of 1963

According to ч.4 item 15 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation from December, 12th, 1993 (further – the Constitution of the Russian Federation) [111] conventional principles and norms of international law and international treaties of the Russian Federation are a component of its legal system. If the international treaty of the Russian Federation establishes other rules, than statutory international treaty rules are applied.

In the Federal act «About international treaties of the Russian Federation» (item 5 item 3) [112] is established, that «positions of officially published international treaties of the Russian Federation, not demanding editions of interstate certificates for application, operate in the Russian Federation directly. For realisation of other positions of international treaties of the Russian Federation corresponding legal acts» are accepted. This norm testifies that the Russian legislation has apprehended the concept which has received enough a wide circulation of division of contractual positions on samoispolnimye and nesamoispolnimye.

Having defined position of international treaties of the Russian Federation in hierarchical system of sources of the internal law, the Constitution of the Russian Federation does not specify, which international treaties possess a priority in application in relation to the law: all international treaties irrespective of, at what level the decision on the consent to their compulsion, or only those is accepted, decisions on the consent to which compulsion are accepted in the form of the law. In the Federal act «About international treaties of the Russian Federation» also does not contain any restriction of priority application of rules of the international treaty in comparison with the law.

Despite position ch. 4 items 15 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, defined, that «if are established by the international treaty of the Russian Federation other rules, than statutory international treaty rules» are applied, the wide circulation was received by the concept, according to which a basis for the permission of collisions between norms of the internal law and norms of international treaties is the hierarchical system of sources of the internal law, and this position means, that a priority before laws all international treaties but only those, decisions on the consent to which compulsion are accepted in the form of the federal act possess not. Influence of this concept is traced in the Decision of Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation from October, 10th, 2003 N 5 «About application by vessels of the general jurisdiction of the conventional principles and norms of international law and international treaties of the Russian Federation». [113]

According to S.J.Marochkina, close interpretation ch. 4 items 15 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the Federal act «About international treaties of the Russian Federation» lead to a conclusion about priority fastening before federal acts of the conventional norms of the international law expressed in the contractual form. [114] as a whole the Russian researchers tend to that international law mandatory provisions, and also positions of the conventional norms of the international law, concerning the rights and freedom of the person and the citizen, possess a hierarchical priority before laws while international law provisional rules should be applied if there are no corresponding norms of the internal law. [115]

The constitutional Court of the Russian Federation in the decisions repeatedly underlined priority character of the conventional principles and norms of international law in relation to the Russian legislation. [116]

The states, being free not only in an establishment of an order and a choice of ways of realisation of the international treaty obligations, but also in definition of a place which is taken away to international treaties in hierarchical system of sources of the internal law, are not free in a choice of a basis for the permission of collisions between norms of the internal law and international treaties. According to a basic principle of international law - to a principle of diligent performance of the international obligations each treaty in force is obligatory for its participants and should be carried out honesty by them (item 26 of the Viennese convention on the right of international treaties of 1969) . Thus its item 27 excludes possibility of references of the state-participant of the contract on the domestic law (including on hierarchy of legal acts on degree of their validity in the state) as the justification for default of the contract by it. It means, that the accepted international treaty obligations should be carried out by the state strictly, nesmotrja even on contradicting positions of the domestic law and irrespective of, at what level decisions on the consent to compulsion of contracts and what status of certificates by means of which they are incorporated in the internal law are made. [117]

In Russia according to the Constitution of 1993 defining role in the international affairs is played by the head of the state - the President of Russia. On the basis of item 86 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation the President of Russia:

Presides at foreign policy of the Russian Federation;

Carries on negotiations and signs international treaties of the Russian Federation;

Signs instruments of ratification... ».

In the same, that directly concerns questions of diplomatic relations, the President «represents the Russian Federation in the country and in the international relations» (ch. 4 items 80), «appoint and withdraws after consultations of corresponding committees or the commissions of chambers of Federal assembly of diplomatic representatives of the Russian Federation in the foreign states and the international organisations» (the item item 83 "m") and «accepts accrediting and letters of recall akkredituemyh at it diplomatic representatives» (the item "g" item 86).

Powerful value in sphere of a world policy of Russia has also activity of the higher legislative and a representative body - Federal assembly of Russia. For example, according to item 106 of the Constitution of Russia obligatory consideration in the Federation Council is come under by the federal acts accepted by the State Duma concerning ratification and denouncement of international treaties of the Russian Federation; the status and Frontier Russian Federation protection; wars and peaces.

The government of the Russian Federation, operating on the basis of item 21 of the Federal constitutional law from December, 17th, 1997 N 2-FKZ «About the Government of the Russian Federation», [118] «carries out measures on maintenance of realisation of foreign policy of the Russian Federation; provides representation of the Russian Federation in the foreign states and the international organisations; within the powers concludes international treaties of the Russian Federation, provides meeting commitment of the Russian Federation under international treaties …».

Direct realisation of the diplomatic intercourses in the Russian Federation, as well as in the majority of other states of the world, is assigned, as a rule, to foreign policy department - the Ministry for Foreign Affairs [119] (in Canada the Ministry for Foreign Affairs and trade).

Analyzing, modern diplomatic contacts of Russia and Canada, the author of dissertation comes to conclusion, that their intensity has top-level begun in 2000

Start has been put by official visit to Canada V.V. Putin in December, 2000 [120] Canada it has appeared the first country on the North American continent, accepted the new Russian leader.

For V.V. Putin Sammit of "club of leaders» in 2000 in Okinawa also became debut. The Canadian journalists named it «a summit star» [121]. Ottawa was imposed V.Putin's by aspiration to use mechanisms of "Group of eight» as the tool of forming of close relations of Russia with the Western hemisphere, and also its appeals to multipolarity and collective leadership. As marked "Tajms", «the Russian president has convinced other leaders, that it is possible to communicate with it only on equal, and has brought in a course of the summit the contribution which has surpassed all expectations» [122].

It is possible to consider as doubtless success of a Russian side inclusion in the final communique of the formulation on the antimissile weapon. Russia demanded enforcement of the treaty СНВ-2 in full after the introduction its force, and also the prompt making contract СНВ-3, keeping thus the Contract on ABOUT as a basis of strategic stability and the further reduction of strategic offensive arms [123].

Also after V.Putin's visit to Pyongyang the head of Democratic People's Republic of Korea Kim Jong II has unexpectedly declared, that the North Korea namerena to refuse the further development of the rocket program and henceforth in space it will start only rockets of foreign manufacture. Canada should pay compliments results of negotiations of V.Putin as soon US president B.Clinton has declared inexpediency of realisation of the program on ABOUT. However with end of term of presidential powers of Clinton, effort of the parties on the given question it has appeared vain. Dzhorzh Bush-junior who has come to power, the beginnings actively to support toughening of a policy of safety of the USA [124].

At the Genoa summit of "Group of eight» important for Russia and Canada problems of the international safety and struggle against terrorism were not discussed, since they have been mentioned before the summit at a meeting of Ministers for Foreign Affairs.

It is necessary to notice, that in spite of the fact that the contract on ABOUT has a bilateral format of interaction, it infringes on interests and Canada which is directly involved in space defence of North American continent (NORAD). Thereof Russia is interested in attraction of the Canadian party in polnoformatnoe discussion of this problem and revealing of apparent defects of the American plans on construction of national safety.

In particular, Russia offered Canada as alternative judgements the Contract on universal prohibition of nuclear tests, carrying out of negotiations on not strategic ABOUT, and also multilateral studying of new rocket threats, initiation of the large-scale monitoring system behind non-distribution of rockets and rocket technologies (GSK) [125].

The Canadian administration not once expressed concern of possible destruction of the Contract on ABOUT, calling the United States to find the conciliatory proposal. However, contrary to objections of the USA, Canada participated in meetings of the international experts on GSK which have taken place on March, 16th, 2000 in Moscow. A year after Committee on defence of the House of Commons in the accelerated order has made decision to extend the arrangement on NORAD for the following five years' term.

At «the Summit of a millenium» in New York the Russian delegation has suggested to consider the problem, concerning legal aspects of application of force in the international relations in the conditions of globalisation. It is possible to consider this initiative as continuation of the previous Russian idea under the name «the world Concept in the XXI-st century» which meant working out of new mechanisms of behaviour of the states after cold war and maintenance of safety of the states on the basis of the United Nations and international law Charter.

That is characteristic, both initiatives closely intertwine with the report of the Program of development of United Nations (proon) on manpower resources and the Canadian foreign policy concept of "safety of the person» (human security). Therefore the unity of opinions has been confirmed as within the limits of "eight" on bilateral interaction of the United Nations, and at I.S.Ivanov and L.Eksuorsi's negotiations following the results of «the Summit of a millenium» where the problem of escalating of authority of these organisations [126] also was discussed.

The summit of "Club of leaders» in the city of Kananaskise, taken place in June, 26th, 2002, became the fourth meeting which was passing in territory of Canada, and became one of the most successful for all history of existence.

On the agenda there were the major for Russia and Canada questions, such as problems of struggle against the terrorism, the become frequent armed conflicts in Afghanistan and discussions of a condition of the economic, in particular concerning WTO activity. During the summit one of the major documents in safety sphere «Global partnership in the field of non-distribution of the weapon of mass defeat and materials for its manufacture» has been accepted. Participants of the agreement were obliged to create the fund which is engaged in prevention of leak of materials of mass destruction and liquidation of nuclear and chemical arsenals in Russia and the CIS countries. Within the limits of this initiative of G8 country have started to support to the projects connected with problems of non-distribution, disarmament, nuclear safety and counteraction to terrorism in territory of Russia.

Following the results of party negotiations have officially fixed, that Russia in 2006 for the first time becomes the mistress of the summit «G-8». The western community counted, that by that moment Russia will already enter the WTO and will participate in economic dialogue. In spite of the fact that integration into the WTO has not occurred, the summit in Kananaskise became a starting point when researchers have declared for the first time possible transformation «G-7» in «G-8» [127] that has soon found reflexion in speech of the president of Russia V.V. Putin in the annual message to Federal assembly of the Russian Federation [128].

In 2003-2004 the Russian-Canadian diplomatic relations have undergone essential changes. For the first time for some successful years of political dialogue "Putin-Kreten" there was an uncertainty. It, in our opinion, has been caused by two factors: sharp strain of relations of the countries-participants of "eight" because of the Iraq crisis and power change in Canada owing to what the meeting of "club of leaders» in the French city of Eviane became not a place of the permission of the international questions, and the next search of approaches to this or that partner.

In the end of 2003 after Jean Kretena's ten years' sentry on a post of the prime minister the power has passed to the Floor to Martin, its successor. [129]

The majority of critics have fixed cardinal change in politician Martin, having declared, that it will be essential to differ from policy Kretena and from «an era Trjudo». It is the most logical to spend similarity of political lines with the governments of such prime ministers, as L.Pirson and B.Malruni which supported a policy of the United States [130].

Power change in Ottawa has seriously enough guarded the Russian political elite, therefore it has accepted recoil from habitual political dialogue as the forced circumstance.

During P.Martin's visit to Moscow between two countries the important Joint Russian-Canadian statement for cooperation in struggle against terrorism on October, 12th, 2004 has been signed, [131] in which the awful acts of terrorism made recently in Russia, and especially unprecedented on the cruelty an attack of terrorists on innocent children of Beslan have been condemned.

For the purpose of assistance to strengthening of the international answer to a call of terrorism Russia and Canada have declared the further continuation of cooperation within the limits of the United Nations and other international, regional and functional organisations, and also on a bilateral basis with a view of prevention of new acts of terrorism, disclosing already made and attraction guilty to responsibility; «Groups of eight», OSCE, ATES, HARPS, the functional organisations, such as IKAO and IMO, and also in a format of Council Russia-NATO have acted in favour of the further expansion of multilateral counterterrorist efforts, including under the aegis of the United Nations; strengthenings of cooperation in the area of corresponding services in the field of information interchange expansion, a professional knowledge and experience in such areas, as prevention of certificates of androlepcy, stealing of air vessels and maintenance of safety of transport communications, and also on other questions.

At the same time Canada has occupied enough hard line in relation to attempts of the Russian diplomacy to use it as the additional lever of pressure upon the United States.

The following important meeting at the summit of the party have spent in 2004 in Si-Ajlende where on the agenda there was a main problem – struggle against the international terrorism in Iraq and Afghanistan. According to Canadian researcher Dzh. Kirtona, V.V. Putin has held a successful meeting in Si-Ajlende, it looked more convincing than the opponents. After a victory on V.V. Putin's presidential elections had a high rating in the country and did not feel pretenzionnoj loading owing to accepted decisions at the summit [132].

According to theory Kirtona - «models of a concert equal in rights», the success of the summit depends on a number of the events occurring before it and during action. This model has received a wide circulation in modern international law and the theory of the international relations, and the Russian president was marked time and again, as one of the most successful peregovorshchikov.

Subsequently the favorable internal conjuncture has allowed the USA and Canada to build dialogue with Russia on struggle against the international terrorism. The Russian president has noted affinity of positions with the American administration in sphere of maintenance of safety and has agreed to participation in the Initiative on safety in struggle against distribution of the weapon of mass destruction (IBOR).

This initiative has been offered by administration of the USA in 2003 with a view of creation of structure which would be engaged in operative revealing and suppression of illegal international carriages to the OHM. According to basic document IBOR - «to the Statement for interception principles» [133] with a view of check on presence to the OHM law enforcement bodies of the countries-participants IBOR had the right to an unobstructed stop and examination of air and sea transport [134]. Thus in the document it is noticed, that the above-named activity of one of the states concerning infringers will answer completely to norms of international law and national legislations of the countries which have joined the mechanism.

The Canadian partners paid compliments an involvement of Russia into the international political cooperation, and V.V. Putin in the light of the successes should use dialogue with the West for advancement of national interests of Russia. During direct diplomatic contacts and informal meetings of Russia it was possible to pass from the theoretical concept to practical realisation of partnership equal in rights with the largest states of the world.

Active interaction of Russia with partners in «club of leaders» has had favorable influence and on economic safety of the country. For all period of cooperation the western countries re-structured more than 70 bln. dollars of the Russian debts, the trust of the international business communities to the Russian economy has increased, and also there was an increase of a credit rating of the country. It is obvious, that about full conformity of Russia with economic indicators of the western countries, to speak it is not necessary. Russia still should increase efficiency, power consumption, incomes per capita, to reduce unemployment and inflation. During too time it 10 times surpasses partners in "club" in rates of economic growth [135].

The "eight" summit in St.-Petersburg in 2006 became the first action such for Russia. Here it has represented itself as the country-chairman. The basic themes of discussion of a steel of a problem of power and economic safety, ways of struggle against infectious diseases and questions of development of Africa [136].

V.V. Putin has defined a theme of power safety as the major at "club" negotiations. In a bilateral Russian-Canadian meeting Stephen Harper has underlined, that Russia and Canada are the unique countries – exporters of energy carriers among members of "eight" and the given circumstance provides to partners influence in the world and community of interests.

However other members «G-8» expected from Russia ratification of the Power charter and opening of the gas pipelines to other companies, having pressed thereby "Gazprom" [137]. It is not excluded, that thereof the Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization question revolved, and being the organizer of action Vladimir Putin has admitted some sharp remarks to leaders of the USA and the Great Britain in this occasion.

Considering that fact, that the "group" summit passed in conflict escalation in the Near East and tests of ballistic missiles by the North Korea, problems of the international safety were central during negotiations. Leaders of the countries should pay them attention as the information on developing events did not descend from the front pages of mass-media [138].

At a meeting heads of the largest states have accepted the Declaration on necessity of struggle against terrorism in which acts of terrorism were sharply condemned and acceptance of new measures on their counteraction [139] was supposed.

The decision was accepted to adhere results of the Declaration to antiterrorist program of the United Nations, on purpose to co-ordinate actions in struggle against the international terrorism together with participants of the United Nations Organization [140].

Discussion of these by that has proceeded after a year at the "G8" meeting in the German city of Hajligendamme. To discussed themes conferees have added also safety issues in Iraq, the nuclear program of Iran and placing of the American elements ABOUT in the Eastern Europe.

The given questions rose practically on everyone meetings of "group of eight», however special interest causes that fact what exactly after the summit in Hajligendamme experts have started to publish monitoring of activity and results of execution of obligations «G-8» [141].tak, an average index of execution of the decisions accepted at the summit, has constituted 51 % (or 330 decisions in 12 documents and statements of the Chairman). Undoubtedly, it is an absolute record by quantity of the accepted obligations.

One of the highest levels of effort of obligations were shown by Canada – 65 %, whereas Russia of only 30 %. However, as researchers believe, such result for Russia is high enough since in previous years its indicators had the lowest estimation.

On the summit agenda stood more than 20 questions covering spheres of safety, economy and public health services. The highest indicators of the level of effort of the country entering into "group", were shown under following obligations: struggle against climate change – 100 %, rendering of the humanitarian help to Darfur – 78 %, development of transport safety – 22 %, negotiations on the Contract on prohibition of split materials – 11 %.

It is necessary to notice, that the majority of the countries-participants separated from interaction in safety sphere. For example, Canada has not undertaken any measures for performance of the obligation in the field of transport safety whereas Russia, on the contrary, has received the highest estimation after coming into force of the new Federal act «About transport safety» [142].

The United States paid compliments activity of a Russian side on the given problematics as the law has in many respects fixed the basic requirements of "group". Protection of system of transport against terrorist threats, the analysis of level of safety of transport systems, the control and standardization of the organisations and the legal bodies responsible for safety of passengers concern them.

It is necessary to notice, that Russia also has executed a number of obligations according to recommendations FATF. So, in 2007 in the Federal act «About counteraction to legalisation (washing up) of the incomes received criminal by, and terrorism financing» changes in a control part of "a grey cash» [143] have been made.

Within the limits of the summit in Akvile (Italy) in 2009 leaders G8 have designated following priority directions of interaction: strengthening of legal base of the international cooperation; assistance to development; reforming and creation of new financial institutions which will provide long-term development and correction of a macroeconomic policy, and also will help to build new economic and financial architecture; power and ecology, use of "green" technologies, creation energoeffektivnoj models of development of economy.

The so-called Akvilsky initiative on food safety in which the Russian offers formulated following the results of the grain summit in St.-Petersburg (the Russian contribution to realisation of this initiative in 2009-2012 have been considered also has been accepted has constituted 330 million US dollars). The reflexion in documents Akvily was found also by efforts of Russia on stimulation of development of new legal frameworks of power cooperation, including the positions encouraging the international initiatives on development energodialoga, to improvement of the organisation of the power market and prevention of sharp fluctuations of the prices on it.

At the summit in Huntsville (Canada) in 2010 leaders «Groups of eight» declared three new interconnected initiatives on counteraction to global calls in safety sphere. These measures are directed on protection of civilians in the conditions of a confrontation, counteraction to terrorism, struggle against a piracy and transnational criminality and rendering assistance in creation of favorable conditions for economic growth, investments and democratic development.

Russia has brought the powerful contribution in preparation of the statement of leaders on struggle against terrorism and a plan of action of "Group of eight» on struggle against terrorism and the organised crime. Russia has actively supported the initiative of the Canadian presidency on rendering assistance to developing countries in reduction of parent and children's death rate - the so-called Muskoksky initiative, - having declared about allocation on its realisation during the period to 2015 75 million US dollars (since 2011 the cycle of annual scientifically-training conferences and seminars is started, there is a material assistance to developing countries by means of deliveries of the medical equipment and vaccines).

The agenda of the Dovilsky summit of "Group of eight» (France), first of all, has been focused on discussion of the most important events of 2011 - consequences of natural accident in Japan, and also a situation in the North Africa and in the Near East. Thereupon ways of increase of safety of atomic engineering (in the light of failure on atomic power station "Fukushima") have been considered, including corresponding Russian initiatives on strengthening of a global mode of nuclear safety are supported. The Dovilsky partnership with the Arabian countries, worrying a transition period is besides, founded.

At the initiative of Russia leaders had been approved the statement on non-distribution and the disarmament, containing the complex program of actions G8.

Questions of partnership with the countries of the Near East and the North Africa (BVSA), assistance to a sustainable development of Afghanistan in transitive (after a conclusion in 2014 of coalition forces) the period, strengthening of food safety in Africa, a number of aspects of maintenance energobezopasnosti and economic problems were priorities of a meeting of leaders in Camp-David (USA) on May, 18-19th, 2012.

The political agenda of the American presidency has been concentrated on a situation in Syria, nuclear programs of Iran and Democratic People's Republic of Korea, questions of increase of a role of women in mirotvorchestve, support of democratic process in Myanma.

At the initiative of a Russian side in total documents Camp-David importance of continuation of active interaction of "Group of eight» in anti-terror sphere, including taking into account new calls and the risks which have resulted events in region BVSA is confirmed. Also the problematics of struggle against the Afghani narcotraffic has been accented.

During the summit in Lough Erne (Great Britain) in 2013 settlement of the Syrian crisis became the central theme of the political agenda. At the initiative of Russia in the total communique of the summit base approaches to conditions stabilisation in Syria, including inadmissibility of imposing of any decision of problems from the outside have been reflected.

The Russian side actively advanced idea of package approach of "Group of eight» to questions of antiterrorist cooperation and an estimation of terrorist risks, maintenance of effective counteraction to terrorist threat on the basis of wide geographical and thematic scope of all aspects connected with it. In the total document necessity of struggle with radikalizatsiej public moods and distribution of extremism, financial feed of the terrorist organisations is noted, mutually acceptable approaches to a problematics of repayments for the hostages grasped by terrorists are adjusted.

At the summit the arrangement to accept joint efforts for international trade activization has been reached, to reduce protectionist barriers and not to create obstacles for counter streams of investments. It has been thus confirmed, that in development of universal international economic rules the World Trade Organization should to play the central role, as before.

For the first time «the Group of eight» has addressed to questions of perfection of tax systems, struggle against tax evasion and tax crimes.

On March, 24th and 25, 2014 there has passed the summit on nuclear safety in the Hague, having finally inconsistent results.

Representatives have taken part in the Hague nuclear summit more than fifty states, but actually the meeting in the Hague has turned to the emergency summit of "the Big seven» (the USA, the Great Britain, Germany, France, Italy, Canada and Japan), devoted to situation discussion in Ukraine, and also to actions of Russia in Crimea – and to joint reciprocal steps on these actions.

As a matter of fact, the Hague summit can be regarded as a conclusion of our country for "G8" limits (though on the threshold of this action some experts stated doubts, that the Russian Federation will be completely excluded from G8).

Anyway, at a meeting with heads of the European countries in the Hague the British prime minister David Cameron has declared: «it is absolutely clear, that the G8 summit this year in Russia will not take place». And the former ambassador of the USA in Moscow Michael Makfol in the article published in The New York Times, has openly urged to exclude Russia from "Eight". Also the head of the British government has declared in the Hague, that Russia risks to appear in the face of new sanctions in case the Russian armies will promote further on territory Ukraine (these words have sounded against the information circulating in the West on concentration of the Russian military men near the Ukrainian border). «These messages, – Cameron has declared, – cause anxiety and we should send very clear message to the Russian government and president Putin, that advancement to Ukraine will be completely unacceptable, and that it will cause sanctions from EU, from the USA and also other countries». [144]

The contract on prevention so-called «nuclear terrorism» should become the basic achievement of this meeting, but and has not been signed by all participants.

At the same time, such agreement could become the basic international tool, allowing to lower accessible quantity of the nuclear fuel including not only enriched uranium and plutonium, but also the highly radioactive isotopes, allowing to make «the dirty weapon» on the basis of cobalt-60, strontium-90 and caesium-137. The improved information interchange and close cooperation between the governments and the agencies providing the control over nuclear materials, should guarantee safety strengthening on a global scale. [145]

At the same time, some important steps to this direction have been reached. Almost half of all participants of the summit has signed the general declaration on necessity to develop new scientific technologies in the field of nuclear safety. The purpose consists in creation of the general international standards. The leading role is taken away cybernetic safety in the field of atomic engineering. The central problem in struggle against the international terrorism is maintenance of safety of the information systems which are carrying out the control over nuclear arsenals and radioactive materials.

Thus, in the beginning of the XXI-st century Russia and Canada have made successful start in cooperation of the parties on international scene. At the international meetings partners urged a pool of the largest states to adhere to the peace approach in the decision of the main problems of the present on a multilateral basis. Positions of the parties in questions of reforming of the United Nations, non-distribution of the nuclear weapon, maintenance of the European safety and increase of efficiency of the international operations on world maintenance have considerably approached.

2000-2014 became rather rich on events in the Russian-Canadian mutual relations. The impressive contractual base has allowed the parties to look ahead and put with confidence before itself global problems. At the same time, events in Ukraine, entailed application to Russia from EU and other leading powers of the world of economic sanctions, have considerably weakened the further development of diplomatic relations of Russia and Canada.

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A source: Abdullin Ajrat SHavkatovich. INTERNATIONAL LEGAL BASES of COOPERATION of Russia And Canada In SPHERE of the INTERNATIONAL And REGIONAL SAFETY. Dissertational research on competition of a scientific degree of the master of laws. Kazan-2015. 2015

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  8. Chapter 2. International legal bases of cooperation of Russia and Canada in sphere of the international and regional safety
  9. Chapter 1. International legal aspects of interaction of Russia and Canada in sphere of the international and regional safety in their historical prospect
  10. Abdullin Ajrat SHavkatovich. INTERNATIONAL LEGAL BASES of COOPERATION of Russia And Canada In SPHERE of the INTERNATIONAL And REGIONAL SAFETY. Dissertational research on competition of a scientific degree of the master of laws. Kazan-2015, 2015
  11. TEPLITSKY Anna Arkadevna. CHILDREN'S POPULAR SCIENTIFIC JOURNALISM of Russia, the USA And Canada AS the FACTOR of HARMONIOUS DEVELOPMENT of the PERSON. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Tver - 2016, 2016
  12. TEPLITSKY ANNA ARKADEVNA. CHILDREN'S POPULAR SCIENTIFIC JOURNALISM of Russia, the USA And Canada AS the FACTOR of HARMONIOUS DEVELOPMENT of the PERSON. The dissertation author's abstract on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Phil.Sci. Tver - 2017, 2017
  13. making of contacts on explored plates and crystals
  14. a problematics of the theory of language contacts
  15. § 3. Diplomatic protection of transnational corporations
  16. Canada.
  17. contacts of atoms in frame of proteins VirE2-VirE1
  18. 4.3. Joint venture in Canada.