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2. Formation of standard regulation of pre-election campaign in Russia.

Any phenomenon or process can be opened to the full only after studying of the basic stages of their development. The Russian suffrage regarding pre-election campaign not an exception; to comprehend its valid nature out of a historical context it is impossible.

The patrimonial concept "propaganda" has appeared in our country late enough - in second half of 19 centuries - and first time had negative value. In particular, in «the Explanatory dictionary of live great Russian language» V.I.Dalja published in 1880, propaganda is treated as «national or class distempers, podgovory, instigations and excitement, alarm». In turn the propagandist named «volnovatelja, the instigator, smutchika, the instigator of mutiny». [62] And only in the first years of the XX-th century the sense of a word has changed in a positive side; propaganda began to consider in close to modern value.

The concept of "pre-election campaign" of the Russian legal thought has appeared only in the beginning of the last century. Till this moment that or similar to it in general was absent.

About «propagandas at elections» we find the first mention in V.V. Vodovozova's monography «the Suffrage in Russia and Europe», published in 1906. In the same place there are concepts «selective propaganda» and «elective propaganda». [63]

In Russia the institute of elections has appeared already at the beginning of statehood as the form of display of political amateur performance of the population. Veche was body of direct national board, and on it there was an election and "calling" of princes. The board varjazhskogo prince Rjurika, the founder of the dynasty correcting prior to the beginning of XVII century appears as result of the realised political decision of incorporated slavic and Finnish tribes. Unsuccessful revolts in Novgorod against newcomers testify that occurrence of Varangians was preceded strained by «pre-election struggle».

Novgorod on boundary XI-XII began to differ centuries the political system from other earths, these features have been connected with activity vecha which was the elected body of self-management contrasted of the princely power. For the higher state posts there was a political strike which accepted various forms. Vechevye the reading and writing regulating procedure of election of the higher officials, did not contain concrete instructions 10 times pre-election campaign. However, as S.F.Lisovsky marks, all palette of means of propaganda took place. «Payoff of participants vecha, charge of the political opponent in change or a usual criminal act, beating by its servants or hired gangsters, secret arms of the supporters and, at last, murder and plunder, direct armed conflicts of the parties - all it not casual excesses, and normal practice of a political life of medieval republic».

C formation of the Russian state necessity for existence vecha has disappeared. «As the state body it was not necessary for the centralised monarchy of veche, - writes L. V.Cherepnin. - But to it other institute on change vechu and in exchange to it was necessary: soslovnopredstavitelnyj body..., which would support a policy of the power, through [64]

Which the power would learn about public inquiries and would address to a society. Such institute also were zemskie cathedrals ».

About any rules of carrying out of propaganda at that time speech could not go, literacy level even among representatives of the higher estates was lowest, accordingly and the role of propaganda materials on paper carriers was minimum.

The course of election campaigns XVI - is in detail shined XVII centuries by domestic historians. [65 [66] it is possible to conclude, that all questions dared kuluarno, during personal meetings of participants of cathedrals and in public statements during sessions.

The epoch «educated absoljutizma» empresses Catherine II has acted as a major landmark in formation and development of the suffrage of Russia. Considerable the document of 1785 - «Letters patent is represented to nobility» which defined an order of election of the district leader of nobility, established term of its powers. However the given document did not contain rules of carrying out of pre-election campaign.

XIX century can be considered as a bright stage of a periodization of the suffrage. In particular it is necessary to allocate accepted century 1892 Gorodovoe ulozhenie which has weakened the elective beginning in the organisation of public institutions, has limited their independence and independence, has hardened position of nobility and has disfranchised a considerable part of the population, that is actually was step back in the course of suffrage formation in Russia. The given document did not contain the positions, concerning pre-election campaign.

The history shows, that till XX century pre-election campaign as the independent structural element of the suffrage has not been issued, and, it is obvious, that in the development it considerably lagged behind rates of formation of the suffrage.

In selective struggle in Russia in the XX-th century beginning actually propaganda campaign took far not the first place. On election returns the basic influence was rendered by other factors, first of all — the selective legislation.

From 1905 on 1917 in Russia it was replaced four Positions about elections in the State Duma. The first was accepted in August, 1905 and intended for elections in so-called "bulyginskuju" the Duma. [67] pre-election campaign has been resolved only among voters. It was limited to carrying out of preparatory meetings of voters and electors in the closed premises, the input in which was supervised by police. The police had the right to close preparatory meeting at any moment.

On October, 12th, 1905 the Decree of the Emperor «About an establishment of provisional measures in addition of decisions about meetings» had been brought the specifications concretising situations at which the police had the right to close preparatory meetings. Such cases concerned: 1) when the meeting has obviously deviated a subject of its employment; 2) when in meeting the judgements initiating enmity of one part of the population against another express; 3) when in meeting the gathering of the money resources which have been not connected with a subject of meeting is made; 4) when the meeting order «is broken... Rebellious exclamations, or statements, eulogy or the justification of crimes, excitation to violence, either disobedience to the authorities or distribution of criminal appeals, or debate and, owing to that, the meeting has accepted the character menacing to public peace and safety...». [68]

In development of positions of the Manifesto from October, 17th, 1905 «About improvement of the state order» which has proclaimed a freedom of speech, meetings and the unions and attraction to elections of various strata of society, in March, 1906 imperial decrees «About the time have been published

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Rules about societies and the unions "and" About time rules about meetings ». These decrees established an order of creation and activity of public associations, including activity in election campaigns.

So, not public meetings could be spent without the permission of the authorities, and meeting open-air — with the permission of police or the governor, and the place of their carrying out should be removed from a place of stay of the Emperor, the State Council and the State Duma on two versts. It was forbidden to arrange public meetings in public catering places. About a place, and a meeting theme it was necessary for time to warn police for three days. [69 [70]

On March, 8th, 1906 there was a Decree «About a protection of freedom and correctness of elections in the State Duma and the State Council, and also unobstructed activity of these establishments», [71 [72] which provided punishment under criminal law for following actions: 1) «hindrance to the voter or the elector threat, personal violence, abuse of authority or an excommunication from dialogue freely to carry out the right of elections», thus civil servants for such infringement came under to discharge from a post, 2) «excitation to counteraction to elections... Or to mass abstention from participation in these elections», [73] this article has been directed first of all against

The socialist parties calling for ballot strike in 1st Duma; 3)

«Declination by means of an entertainment, a gift or the promise of personal benefit

The voter or the elector to giving... Voices in the advantage or another

Persons »; the voter or the elector also was punished,

soglasivshijsja to sell the voice, [74 4) «hindrance to employment

Pre-election meetings, meetings at elections... And the elective commissions

Threats, personal violence, abuse of authority,

Damage of the premise intended for meeting, and also

Artificial infection in it of air », [75[76][77][78][79] 5)« the deliberate

Abusings at collecting or the account of voices », 6)« abduction or

Deliberate damage of service records, elective notes or

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Manufactures, and also their false drawing up ».

The above-stated positions promoted the statement of more civilised procedure of selective process as freedom of pre-election campaign, elections and correctness of vote tabulation have formally been protected. *

«Position about elections in the State Duma» 1905 in 1906 has been included in the arch of the Basic state laws. Thus, the electoral law has found the status of the basic state

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The certificate. Articles 77-83 of the chapter V «About manufacture of elections» were devoted to pre-election campaign.

On June, 3rd, 1907 2nd State Duma has been dismissed and on June, 7th Position about elections »which changed an electoral system is published new«. It essentially redistributed rates of representation from various curia, having provided undivided rule at provincial selective meetings of landowners' curia, as has defined finally prevalence right in 3rd and 4th Dumas.

The new electoral law essentially did not change an order of carrying out of pre-election campaign. [80]

Pre-election campaign during election campaigns in the State Duma has been regulated in such a manner that inevitably got social-class character as it has been resolved only at level of meetings of voters under categories (or to estates). At the same time any opposition of social interests during pre-election campaign was categorically forbidden.

The autocracy, limiting discussion most the vital issues of the state life in the closed class pre-election meetings of voters and electors under the police control, did not create conditions of the coordination of positions of social strata, political parties, and finally, societies and the authorities during election campaigns. It inevitably generated the conflict between the State Duma which owing to the selective legislation though and ogranichenno, but represented the Russian society, and the imperial power, aspiring to preserve an autocratic system. Thus, in Russian empire legislative regulation of election campaign as a whole, and pre-election campaign, in particular, could not execute function inherent in it effectively.

February revolution of 1917 has opened road for introduction in Russia so-called "chetyrehhvostki" - the general, direct, secret and equal suffrage which has constituted a basis «Positions about elections in the Constituent assembly». [81] the Given Position regulated also pre-election campaign.

Posting of appeals, distribution of brochures and posters, distribution of selective notes, pronouncing of speeches and in general any pre-election campaign »was forbidden indoors for elections, and also in the street near an input in it,«. [82] the list of offences (in comparison with the Decree from March, 8th, 1906), encroaching on a normal course of election campaign Has been added. Into it have entered: «autocratic removal, razorvanie, closing or change of publicly exposed selective appeals, notifications or lists";"autocratic intrusion into a premise intended for pre-election campaign and at disposal of a group of voters";"destruction or damage of the literature intended for pre-election campaign";"threats or violent actions in relation to representatives of parties";"disclosure of false messages on the facts concerning the person of the candidate, or private his life";" Pronouncing by the ecclesiastic «speeches, distributions of compositions» or attempt «otherwise to influence elections», made «during divine service or is direct after that in a temple or other place intended for divine service». [83]

Infringement of the above-stated norms was the basis for attraction to administrative or the criminal liability.

Position about elections in the Constituent assembly became qualitatively new stage of development of institute of pre-election campaign. It has essentially deepened the theory of legal study of an order of carrying out of propaganda and has enriched practice of its application.

In October, 1917 the new Soviet system of the power began to affirm as the country. There were Councils - bodies of political self-organising of working and country weights which kept the lines inherent soslovnoklassovym in formations and elections in them carried still soslovno the closed character. Councils of working, country and soldier's deputies were separately selected. Representatives of other social groups in elections did not participate.

Functions on coordination and a management of propaganda activity have been assigned simultaneously to an agitation-and-propaganda department of the Central Committee

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RKP () and the National commissariat of education.

In circulation People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs «To all Councils of working, soldier's, country and farm-labourer's deputies» from December, 24th, 1917 it was spoken: «At the organisation of Councils... It is necessary to mean..., that in them there was no place to fists, dealers and other supporters nasaditelej

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Enslaving relations ». In the declaration of the rights of the worker and the maintained people it was established:«... To exploiters there can not be a place in one of authorities. The power should belong entirely and exclusively worker to weights... ». [84 [85] [86]

The constitution of 1918 openly approved class character of an electoral system. Citizens «extracting means of living productive and socially useful work» used the suffrage, and also soldiers and sailors, irrespective of a floor, a nationality, creed, settled way of life etc., since 18 years, and local councils could lower last norm at own discretion. [87] city workers and employees had fivefold advantage before rural voters.

Completely of elections have been discharged, along with mad, consisting under guardianship and deprived by court of suffrages for «mercenary and discrediting crimes»: 1) the persons resorting to wage labour for the purpose of extraction of profit; 2) the persons living on the unearned income, as that: percent from the capital, incomes from the enterprises, receipts with

Property, etc.; 3) private dealers, trading and commercial intermediaries; 4) monks and spiritual attendants of churches and religious cults; 5) employees and agents of the former police, the special case of gendarmes and security branches, and also members of the house reigning in Russia. [88] list lishentsev periodically replenished, that did not contradict positions of the Constitution of 1918 which allowed to deprive, «being guided by interests of working class as a whole», the rights «of separate persons and separate groups of persons», «which use them to the detriment of interests of a socialist revolution». [89]

So, the instruction about re-elections of the Village Soviets of 1918 specified: «those exploiter elements, landowners, fists, miroedy which have been deprived the property in the course of revolution should not render any influence on elections. Yesterday's exploiters cannot accept voting of Councils. Re-elections will have revolutionary sense only then if Councils are selected by the rural poor and average labour peasantry». [90]

The instruction of 1924 has expanded the list of the former employees of imperial administration, having included in it of all persons, «expressly or by implication supervising activity of police, gendarmerie and retaliatory bodies as at an imperial system, and is equal in the territory which were engaged

The counterrevolutionary governments (Kolchaka, Denikin and others) ».« Ministers and their companions, directors of departments of the ministries, the governor general Here have got... Military and civil governors, vice-governors, provincial and district leaders of nobility, officials for special commissions... Members of provincial boards »etc. [91]

The instruction of 1926 had been deprived suffrages already all «the former officers and officials of white armies, and also heads of counterrevolutionary gangs». [92] Under last category the former commanders of army Mahno, recent allies of Bolsheviks got, for example. Also under deprivation the were have got not only operating, but also «... Attendants of all religious cults». [93]

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In 1930 the list lishentsev has again replenished. The peasants leasing gardens and vineyards, in particular, have got to it «for the purpose of trading and commercial operation», [94] and also the earth «on the conditions recognised as the regional fiscal commission enslaving for deliverers». [95]

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The decision of IV session of the Central executive committee of the USSR of VII convocation had been approved on July, 9th, 1937 «Position about elections in the Supreme body of the USSR». [96] the Given Position contained the norms devoted to pre-election campaign. So in article 70 it was established: «Each organisation which have exposed the candidate, registered in District electoral commission, it is equal as each citizen of the USSR, the right of unobstructed propaganda for this candidate at meetings, in the press and different ways is provided, agrees articles 125 of the Constitution of the USSR». [97]

The constitution of 1936 gave possibility of realisation of the political rights only according to interests of workers and with a view of strengthening of a socialist system. Within 40 years the positions regulating an order of carrying out of pre-election campaign, did not change. Its characteristic feature was that the pre-election initiative appreciably proceeded from the state and party bodies, instead of from candidates and voters. She guaranteed to citizens a freedom of speech, the press, meetings, meetings, street processions and demonstrations. It was established, that pre-election campaign begins District electoral commission with the moment of registration of the candidate. [98] article 82 «positions about elections» defined norm, according to which elective propaganda «... In a selective premise during giving of voices it is not supposed». [99] restrictions concerning methods of carrying out of pre-election campaign were established. So «. . To everyone who by violence, a deceit, threats or payoff will interfere with the citizen of the USSR in realisation of its right to select and be selected in the Supreme body of the USSR »punishment in the form of imprisonment for the term up to two years was provided. [100] a word the legislator and about possibility to agitate against the candidate has not mentioned.

The control over the organisation and elections was assigned to electoral commissions within their territorial powers. Final judgement under complaints to illegitimacy of actions in election campaign was the decision of the Central electoral commission which carried out the general control over execution «Positions about elections in the Supreme body of the USSR».

C 1937 by preparation of elections in various public authorities propaganda points start to be used widely. They were created in the most various places (clubs, schools, hospitals, establishments), including is quite often direct on polling districts. These points during all campaign, including ballot day operated. One party organisation was fixed to each of them at least, and the current management was assigned to managers who affirmed on a bureau of a district committee of party. As a rule, managers were

The skilled, politically correct and convinced communists having the long-term experience of propaganda activities. [101]

Value of propaganda points for achievement of the purposes of elections was is very great. C one party, they represented the centres massovopoliticheskoj works among the population, and with another - were a popular place of collective leisure. In them not only meetings of voters with candidates, individual and group conversations, reports, lectures, meetings, readings of newspapers were held, evident propaganda materials extended, but also exhibitions, collective visitings of cinema, theatres, excursions in museums, amateur performances concerts were arranged, bulletin board newspapers (peredovichki) were issued, konsultatsionno-help work etc. [102] Especially great value propaganda points was actively led had in the remote and remote areas of the country where possibilities of carrying out of a free time were limited. In our opinion propaganda centres played very important role in propaganda activity in the conditions of communication media poorly developed during this period and information sources.

The important role in public opinion formation on elections was played also by evident propaganda. Slogans, headers concerned it, cards of a various sort, pre-election posters etc. the Last were published in the USSR in huge circulations, on neskolku millions copies at once. For example, in 1961 by preparation for elections in local Councils it has been let out about 35 million various sort of pre-election posters. [103]

Appeared in 40th years of mass-media, have acted as one more powerful resource of party which it also rather effectively used. Originally (in 30-40th years) newspapers and magazines were popular only. The newspaper based still in 1912 "Truth" was considered as the main publication of the country. It was an example for all other central, regional and local newspapers and magazines according to events both internal, and the international life. Newspapers "Work" concerned the central, "News", «the Komsomol truth» and «the Red star» also. A little bit later distribution has received radio. According to the Soviet statistics, already in the late sixties broadcasting was accessible to overwhelming majority of citizens of the country, and to the middle of 70th years the TV became popular. In 1975 more than 70 % of the population already had own TVs. [104 [105]

The selective legislation has undergone changes after acceptance of the Constitution of the USSR of 1977.

At IX session of the Supreme body of the USSR of IX convocation «the Law of the USSR on July, 6th, 1978 has been passed About elections in the Supreme body of the USSR» which has accurately designated standard frameworks of election campaigns. Direct or indirect restrictions of suffrages on polovozrastnym, social, racial, national, educational, religious and to occupation characteristics were forbidden. The order of participation of citizens in preparation and elections through public organisations, labour collectives, meetings of military men on military units, pre-election meetings of voters was established. Citizens could realise this right by means of promotion of candidates, free and all-round discussion of political, business both personal qualities of candidates and propaganda at meetings, in the press, on TV, on radio. Each citizen who is present at meeting on promotion of candidates, could participate in discussion of nominees, support offered nominees, or to make offers on their tap. [106] public organisations, labour collectives, meetings of military men on military units should notify the population about

The put forward nominees through the press, TV and radio. The specified associations of citizens possessed the right to support the candidates, put forward other associations of citizens. It propaganda possibilities for candidates still extended before they have been registered in electoral commissions. Also public organisations of republican, regional, regional, city level possessed within the limits of election districts to discuss the put forward nominees and for this purpose to organise pre-election meetings of representatives of the organisations, labour collectives and military units. The above-stated associations of citizens had the right to cancel the decision on promotion or support of promotion of the candidate at any time to elections. For a meeting with candidates public organisations could assemble meetings of voters which had character of pre-election campaign.

According to item 46 the pre-election campaign right was given to public organisations and labour collectives which put forward candidates or acted in their support. Premises for meetings and meetings, time in mass media were free of charge given to such candidates. To the citizen the right to participation in pre-election campaign was guaranteed. [107]

Thus, according to the Law on elections of 1978 the basic subject of pre-election campaign public organisations and labour collectives acted. Citizens could realise the right to pre-election campaign only by means of passive participation in pre-election actions. Such possibility was given also to candidates who possessed the right to participate and act on pre-election meetings, meetings, meetings, in the press, on TV and radio. Thus the right to the organisation of the pre-election

Meetings and meetings it has been given only to public organisations and labour collectives, instead of candidates.

Means for carrying out of election campaigns were allocated with the state. The central electoral commission carried out distribution of corresponding means between subordinate selective комиссиями.111

The law on elections of 1978 acted the basic standard base defining an order of the organisation and carrying out of pre-election campaign in the conditions of the Soviet political system which was regulated by the Constitution of 1977. At the similar organisation, considering, that all elections were uncontested, the pre-election campaign essence was reduced only reaching the maximum indicators of an appearance of voters, having shown indestructible unity of the block of communists and non-parties.

In days of "reorganisation" the electoral system began to undergo changes. In 1987 as experiment elections in some Councils were spent on multimandatory election districts which were created by association of several districts in one. The total of the registered candidates in such district was more numbers of the places which are coming under to replacement in elected body.

On December, 1st, 1988 the novel of the USSR «About elections of People's Deputies of the USSR» which was standard base of elections of 1989 has been accepted. According to the given law elections to one-mandatory election districts where some candidates could be put forward were provided, than possibility of real realisation of the right of citizens on a choice was provided.

By the law on elections of 1988 it was established, that citizens have the right to participate in preparation and elections not only through

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Associations of citizens, but also it is direct. Citizens possessed the right to put forward candidates not only at meetings of public organisations and labour collectives, but also at meetings on a residence. [108 [109] participants of similar meetings could put forward unlimited number of nominees; also possibility of self-promotion of citizens was provided. [110]

The law on elections of 1988, unlike the Law of 1978, has given to candidates for People's Deputies more ample opportunities of influence on a course of the election campaign. The candidate for People's Deputies has acquired the right publicly to state the electoral programme on a stage of carrying out of district pre-election meetings. [111 [112] [113] the registered candidate for People's Deputies had the right to demand from the state and public bodies, heads of the enterprises, establishments and the organisations, bodies of public amateur performance of the population

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The organisations of meetings with voters.

The law established certain restrictions on pre-election campaign conducting. In particular, it was recommended, that the electoral programme of the candidate should not contradict the Constitution of the USSR and Laws of the USSR. Unfair methods of pre-election campaign were forbidden. Law item 13 provided possibility of impeachment of persons which published or a different way extended falsehoods about the candidate for People's Deputies. Also propaganda in day of elections was forbidden.

One of preparation and elections principles was the publicity principle. Electoral commissions, state and

* Public organisations, labour collectives should provide

Unimpeded access on all actions connected with elections, to mass media.

f the role of electoral commissions in the organisation Raised

Election campaigns. The law to them assigned a duty to organise promotion of candidates, to assemble and spend district pre-election meetings, to provide the edition of posters with biographic data of candidates, to organise meetings of voters with candidates. [114]

At carrying out of pre-election campaign electoral commission

Should give to the voters organised in a place

Residence, to public organisations and labour collectives,

^ Proposed the candidate, the equipped premise for meetings and

Meetings, and also mass media for conducting the pre-election

Propagandas. Also electoral commission together with the corresponding

Council of People's Deputies or its presidium, public

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The organisations should organise meetings of voters. The control over observance of guarantees of inviolability of the candidate in

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Deputies it was assigned to the Central electoral commission.

The law on elections of 1988 was a legal basis for legitimation of the selected public authorities, gave possibilities for accumulation of experience and acquisition of skills of legal culture in carrying out and the organisation of pre-election campaign in the conditions of changing political system. For the first time for long time there was a possibility of an alternative choice; the norms regulating an order of elections started to operate and be filled with the real maintenance directly.

On elections of 1989 it has been registered about 6700 candidates for People's Deputies on 1068 election districts, that is almost on 7 applicants for one mandate. «In 1989, - writes A.E.postnikov, - for the first time in national scale an election on which in rather free and equal conditions candidates for the People's Deputies of the USSR representing not« the indestructible block of communists and non-parties »competed, and the most various sights at ways of political development of the country have been held. Voters for the first time for many years could

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osoznanno to make a real choice between several candidates ». Meanwhile the competitiveness principle yet always carried a binding character. As specifies S.A.Avakjan,« the legislation did not demand indispensable promotion of two and more candidates, elections were spent and in the event that there was one candidate. And it is frequent it really there was one on election district. At the voter in that case function was rather passive — to receive the bulletin and to lower it in a selective box ». [115 [116]

Considering the above-stated, in development of the Soviet pre-election campaign it is possible to allocate three stages: the first with 1917 for 1936, the second with 1936 for 1977, the third with 1977 for 1993 Each of these stages, from the point of view of realisation of the legislation on pre-election campaign, is in own way unique, but at the same time the Soviet suffrage and system, and also pre-election campaign as separate podinstitut, it is characterised by certain general signs.

First, characteristic line of pre-election campaign of the Soviet period is absence of a principle of competitiveness in the conditions of uncontested elections. Propaganda had especially formal character and any real influence on results of voting did not render, since. The future deputies were known to the population already in advance.

Secondly, at the heart of preparation and pre-election campaign carrying out methods laid, characteristic for is command-management system. In structure of machinery of state at all its levels there were special bodies which directly were engaged in propaganda and propagation affairs.

Along with party and state bodies, officials, active participation in propaganda carrying out was accepted by electoral commissions. Forms of such participation were the diversified. For example, they published special propaganda newspapers to which urged citizens to come on elections (that is, actually, propaganda had one more purpose) and to vote «for the uniform candidate of the indestructible block of communists and non-parties». Moreover, according to commands of time of the commission quite often entered in sotssorevnovanie among themselves. Naturally, indicators were a 100 percent appearance of voters and 100процентная giving of voices for the candidate

Thirdly, many years activity of specially selected and prepared people - propagandists was the main method of the Soviet pre-election campaign. The power fairly considered this widespread and carefully organised channel of influence on voters as the most effective among all other methods of influence on the population. In the Soviet literature it was called, as a rule, as oral propaganda. At the heart of this method the principle «laid to reach each voter».

One of the main functions of propagandists consisted in acquainting citizens with the biography of the candidate, to convince them to come on elections and to vote for this candidate. Such work was under construction mainly on a residence of voters and assumed direct dialogue with the population. Propagandists bypassed apartments and houses, talked to voters, extended the special literature. Simultaneously it allowed the power to solve a problem of mobilisation of the so-called "unorganized" population (pensioners, housewives etc.). «The propagandist was the welcome guest in any apartment, - writes A.M.podtrebkov, - him met as the friend, a companion, to him attentively listened, with it shared the most secret thoughts».124

Since 40th years, the leading part in system of methods of the Soviet propaganda began to pass gradually to mass media. The Soviet mass-media were carried out during election campaign by two main tasks: created a picture of national support of a policy of the party and simultaneously formed in consciousness of voters an ideal, impersonal image of the future Soviet deputy. As a rule, to elections in all mass-media the new headings specially devoted to election campaign opened. The population in detail informed on pre-election meetings on promotion of candidates, meetings of candidates with voters, work of propagandists and opening of new propaganda points, about spent sotssorevnovanijah etc. According to N.M.Melikovoj, in such form the power tried to show to the people, it spends what grandiose efforts and resources for preparation for elections. It put them in one number with other national projects (all-Union buildings, virgin soil development etc.) In which active participation of all citizens страны.125 also was supposed

Fourthly, pre-election campaign was traditionally considered inseparably from propaganda political and in interrelation with other kind of ideological work of party - propagation. For the first time this basic position has been formulated by V.I.Lenin. Strictly speaking, in the proceedings it allocated two more integrally uniform and connected with specified above a direction of work of party - its theoretical and organizational деятельность.126 However further such division was levelled, and differentiation began to spend basically between propaganda and propagation. Was considered, that these two different, but at the same time

124 podtrebkov A.M.political propaganda among voters. Kuibyshev, 1950. With. 12.

125 Melikova N.M.historical experience of functioning of the Soviet electoral system (1936-1985):Дис... kand. istor. Sciences. M., 2001. With. 125.

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126 Lenin V. I. Full collected works. T. 41. M., 1977. With. 95.

Complementary forms of ideological and political work are directed on achievement of overall aims - education of communistic consciousness of the people and mobilisation of weights in the direction specified by party.

According to Century M Yakushev, it is possible to differentiate propaganda and propagation to several signs. «The first of them, - it specifies, - it is possible to name conditionally« quantitative »: propagation gives at once« many ideas », i.e. takes up a question in different communications and oposredovanijah, propaganda gives one idea, bringing an audience to a certain conclusion. Second sign - complexity level: propagation is more difficult for mastering, than propaganda, she demands certain preparation of the person as the difficult interrelation of ideas cannot be understood all at once. Third sign -« qualitative »: propagation is more and more deeply explains, operates on minds of people, preferring logic means, propaganda influences more feelings, initiates weight, using mainly emotional receptions».127

Fifthly, the Soviet pre-election campaign had mass character. This feature that propaganda was spent not to support of concrete candidates, and the state system in whole and Communist party in particular speaks. The power considered it as the major channel of finishing of the official information to each citizen and consequently aspired to total scope of the population of all country. Thereupon it is interesting to notice, that, for example, in 60-70 years on

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Each 80 voters of the country one propagandist had.

Sixthly, pre-election campaign in Soviet Union has been directed on the decision not the problems peculiar to it leaving far for frameworks of selective process

As elections passed on an uncontested basis, the main function of pre-election campaign consisted in political education

127 Yakushev V.M.Gnoseologicheskie and psychological bases of propaganda and propagation: Dis... kand. filos. Sciences. Lvov. 1966. With. 114-120

128 Brovikov V. I. Some theoretical problems of political propaganda: Dis... kand. filos. Sciences. M., 1969. With. 20.

The population. It has been urged «to promote formation of communistic outlook of workers, to bring up people in the spirit of the Soviet patriotism and socialist internationalism, to impart love to work, to raise an educational level and cultures of the people, to overcome past vestiges in consciousness and behaviour of people, resolutely to struggle against anticommunism and all forms of bourgeois ideology». [117]

Besides, propaganda carried out the important sociological function: she allowed the power to trace public opinion and accurately to fix the basic tendencies of its change. This function always was successfully realised thanks to mass work of propagandists. Communicating with voters, they acted some kind of intermediaries between the population and the state. Elections as a whole and propaganda spent during them gave parties «an objective material of sights, moods, and, hence, and interests of various classes of a society». [118 [119]

C 1993 the "modern" stage of formation of an electoral system originates. Elections in Federal assembly of the Russian Federation were rather alternative on December, 12th, 1993. Such estimation to them was given accredited at the Central electoral commission of the Russian Federation of 1100 foreign observers representing parliaments and the governments of the foreign states, by the international parliamentary, public, remedial and research organisations. However followed then elections and the accepted acts, called to settle pre-election campaign questions, have bared a lot of negative and have generated such phenomena as «dirty technologies», «black PR», a political manipulation, deception and the positive fraud of voters. At the same time effective measures of legal responsibility for similar infringements have not been accurately legislatively issued.

Pre-election campaign in Russia acted as the institute derivative of the dominating political mode. In the conditions of a totalitarian state mode pre-election campaign is absent in general or represents the tool of ideological influence on the population with which help the existing mode exclusively cultivates values favourable to it and supervises a society, providing with that the constant stay at the power. At a democratic political mode it is the main lawful means of political strike during elections, provides their competitiveness and publicity, allows voters to receive the information necessary for voting on candidates and political parties. Necessary conditions of functioning of originally free and democratic pre-election campaign is obligatory presence in the state demokraticheski the selected authorities, really guaranteed civil rights and freedom (a freedom of speech and the mass information, the right to meetings, meetings, processions and demonstrations etc.), alternative elections and the developed legal base (accurate fastening of an order of its carrying out).

The operating Federal act from June, 12th, 2002 «About the basic guarantees...», [120] which periodically is exposed to completions, other federal acts, laws of subjects of Federation act as result of perfection of the elective legislation, and taking into account the collected experience, urged to meet lacks of legal regulation of selective process and pre-election campaign in particular.

In end of the given part of dissertational research it is possible to formulate following conclusions:

1. The concept of pre-election campaign has found the standard registration only in 20 century with development of representations about the right, it does not mean, that that phenomenon at all was absent earlier.

2. The first rudiments of the phenomenon similar to modern pre-election campaign in Russia can be found out from the beginning of formation of statehood. On veche which was a representative body, the question on election of princes was solved. It was preceded by the political strike accepting the most various forms.

3. Up to 19 centuries propaganda was spent, basically, in the oral form; the propaganda role on paper carriers was minimum.

4. The important stage of development of pre-election campaign represents elections of the State Dumas of 1st - 4th convocations. It carried sotsialnoklassovyj character, has been resolved only at level of meetings of voters under categories (or to estates). Opposition of social interests during pre-election campaign was categorically forbidden.

5. In the Soviet period of development of the selective legislation it is possible to designate three stages: since 1917 on 1936 - when the concept "pre-election campaign" had no legal registration; since 1936 on 1977 - when in the Soviet suffrage for the first time there were the special provisions establishing an order of carrying out of pre-election campaign; with 1977 on 1993 - it is characterised by that «the propaganda right» for the first time in history our state has been fixed at the constitutional level.

6. The selective legislation of the Soviet period reflected features public and a political system of that time, it was shown and concerning pre-election campaign. In conditions komandnoadministrativnoj systems elections, as a matter of fact, were uncontested, and propaganda was, more likely, a part of ideological work, propagation for voting.

7. The Russian legislation regulating an order

The organisations and elections to the Russian Federation today is on the next

Stage of the development, it proves to be true that the changes are quite often made to it, called to improve controlling instrument of selective relations.

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A source: Chudov Paul Sergeevich. Konstitutsionno-legal regulation of pre-election campaign in the subjects of the Russian Federation who are in limits Southern federal district. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the master of laws. Stavropol - 2005. 2005

More on topic 2. Formation of standard regulation of pre-election campaign in Russia.:

  1. 3. International legal aspects of standard regulation of pre-election campaign in the modern democratic states.
  2. 1. The Teoretiko-legal characteristic of pre-election campaign and its value in election campaign.
  3. § 2. Kinds of infringements of the legislation on intellectual property in pre-election campaign
  4. § 2. Pre-election campaign as a guarantee of realisation of suffrages of citizens in the Russian Federation
  5. 2. Features of the legislation of subjects of the Russian Federation which is in limits of Southern federal district, about pre-election campaign and practice of its realisation.
  6. § 1. Features of separate elements of structure of infringement Legislations on intellectual property in pre-election campaign
  7. Chudov Paul Sergeevich. Konstitutsionno-legal regulation of pre-election campaign in the subjects of the Russian Federation who are in limits Southern federal district. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the master of laws. Stavropol - 2005, 2005
  8. Chapter 2. A konstitutsionno-legal liability of infringement of the legislation on the intellectual Properties in pre-election campaign
  9. § 4. Restriction of the constitutional freedom of speech during pre-election campaign. The role of a network the Internet in realisation of a freedom of speech during this period
  10. § 3. Konstitutsionno-legal responsibility of candidates for Infringements of an order of carrying out of pre-election campaign as a guarantee of the rights of citizens on reception of the information on elections
  11. the Chapter II. The maintenance legal podinstituta - pre-election campaign and practice of realisation of its norms in the subjects of the Russian Federation who are in limits of Southern federal district